Jesus the Game Changer | Episode 3 | TBN

Jesus the Game Changer | Episode 3

Watch Jesus the Game Changer | Episode 3
September 18, 2018
26:36

Jesus the Game Changer: Equality

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Jesus the Game Changer | Episode 3

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  • is made in the image of God - that's an idea that we all tend to take for granted.
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  • is made in the image of God - that'It didn't exist inall tend the ancient world.d.
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  • It didn't exist in the ancient world.
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  • In other creation myths in the ancient Mesopotamian world
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  • the idea was: the king might have been made in the image
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  • of the primary God, but the poor, the slaves,
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  • were either not made in the image of any God,
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  • or in the image of a much inferior god.
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  • So this notion that every human being - male and female - is made in the image
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  • of the God, the creator of all things,
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  • has quite explosive implications that took a long time to work out.
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  • And it's really Jesus who brought that
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  • notion of the dignity and worth of every human being
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  • from little Israel, to the much larger world.
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  • [ inspirational music ]
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  • [ inspirational music ]
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  • - In Western Nations, where we have large-scale farming,
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  • most people kind of have an image of how sheep are dealt with as it were.
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  • Large flocks of hundreds,
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  • if not thousands of sheep.
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  • Jesus talks about shepherds in his day, but it was completely different.
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  • They had smaller flocks of sheep.
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  • The shepherd knew every one of the sheep individually. And the sheep knew the shepherd.
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  • The shepherd didn't run around after the back of the sheep pushing them forward.
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  • He walked in front and the sheep followed him.
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  • And in that context, Jesus tells a really interesting story.
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  • Which, in a way doesn't make any economic sense.
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  • There's a shepherd with a hundred sheep and he's lost one.
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  • And he leaves the ninety-nine alone,
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  • and goes after the one.
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  • And he searches until he finds the one lost sheep.
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  • And then he picks it up and carries it back and
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  • rejoices in what was lost has now been found.
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  • Jesus making the point that everybody matters.
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  • Every individual matters.
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  • [ soft music ]
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  • - The equality of all people, and equality of where -
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  • man or woman, young or old, you know, slave or free,
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  • able or disabled - that wasn't really
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  • an idea that say the great philosophers had, was it?
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  • - No, no. Not at all.
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  • There was certainly no quality of equality.
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  • You know, Plato in his writings had a very elitist sort of politics.
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  • You know, some today would regard
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  • him almost as facist.
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  • Aristotle, you know, notoriously believed in natural slaves,
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  • Aristotle, you know, notoriously belieand things like that.,
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  • and things like that.
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  • So, no, the idea of - that everyone is equal,
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  • I mean that's a very modern idea.
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  • [ soft music ]
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  • - Slaves were, strictly speaking, chattel; material property.
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  • The whole way that the Greeks
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  • thought what made possible Greek tragedy,
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  • Greek philosophy, the birth of psychology and biology
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  • would say, is the fact
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  • in Athens in the 5th Century, many scholars would say, is the fact
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  • that there was an enormous system of slavery
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  • making possible the leisure, time
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  • for the philosophers in the Agoura.
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  • [ soft music ]
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  • - I think this idea that we're all
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  • made in the image of God - you know, I don't find
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  • another ideology, another religion, that comes along
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  • as effectively as Christianity to say,
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  • "we need to treat human beings with dignity,
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  • "we and dignity also meansings withequality."
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  • and dignity also means equality."
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  • - I think it's the Galatian Scripture. And for me, because it also pertains to slaves.
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  • It's therefore now neither Jew nor Gentile, slave or free, male or female.
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  • Jesus just levels the playing field for all of humanity.
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  • I don't know any other religion that actually does that.
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  • That dignifies every person:
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  • male and female, rich and poor, broken, marginalized,
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  • and everyone in between like Christianity does. It's beautiful.
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  • [ inspirational music ]
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  • [ trolley sound ]
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  • - What were the sort of things that Jesus said
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  • even outside, or including children, that shifted
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  • the world's view on the smaller people,
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  • the needier people?
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  • - You know, one of the interesting dimensions of Jesus' ministry is what we would talk about in
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  • our day is "the other." So you have Jesus saying things like
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  • "Whatever you have done for the least of these."
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  • And the beginnings of
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  • hospitals, of orphanages,
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  • of a community that
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  • would care for people that they were not even related to.
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  • In the early centuries of the church,
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  • there were a couple of epidemics that would wipe out
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  • up to a third or a quarter of
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  • the population of whole cities.
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  • And there were folks that would write about in general in those cities,
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  • people would just leave people for dead.
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  • But then you had this community that remembers. They followed a guy who said
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  • "whatever you do for the least of these."
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  • And so they would risk their own lives to take in
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  • those who were ill, those who were diseased,
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  • care for lepers.
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  • There are speeches that were given in the early centuries of the Church
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  • raising money for the care of lepers that are extremely moving.
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  • And there just simply was nothing like that going on in the ancient world.
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  • [ soft guitar music ]
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  • - The idea that all human beings are equal
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  • is not part of Indian tradition.
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  • The whole society is built on the idea that god created us unequal.
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  • And that people are born
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  • unequal because of their actions
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  • in previous lives. It's called "karma."
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  • Your action in previous life, your karma,
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  • impacts the status in which you are born.
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  • [ somber music ]
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  • - Those two factors that god created
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  • different castes differently, and then each individual
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  • is born, some are born male,
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  • and some female, some are born healthy,
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  • and some are born are sick.
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  • And that has to do with their actions in previous lives.
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  • [ soft piano music ]
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  • - Today in countries, Western countries, the kind of
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  • sanctity of life, I would guess, and the importance
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  • of each individual is just a part almost the air that we breathe.
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  • - Right
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  • - It's intriguing to think there was a time where that wasn't the case.
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  • - Yes, but then look around the world.
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  • It isn't true in many other nations.
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  • It isn't true in many parts of Asia.
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  • That people feel these kinds of
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  • responsibilities to one another.
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  • Or if they do, it isn't part of the religion.
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  • [ keyboard clicking ]
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  • - In your life, and in your family,
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  • Christian faith is foundational.
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  • Is that the only reason you have a different view on the caste system?
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  • - Correct, because there is
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  • no other basis for affirming human equality.
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  • If evolution is a fact,
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  • then evolution is assuming inequality.
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  • That everybody has evolved unequal.
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  • It's an explanation of why people
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  • have evolved unequal. So on the basis of
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  • evolution, you cannot build a case for human equality.
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  • The case for human equality rests on
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  • the idea that God created all men in His image, male and female.
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  • That all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God.
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  • So a Brahmin, an upper class Hindu,
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  • is not closer to God because of his birth,
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  • he is as far away from god as an untouchable person.
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  • [ Hindi Music ]
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  • [ Drums beating ]
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  • - We went to the snake charmer's village.
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  • Now, they are actually almost below the caste system.
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  • - Ya
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  • - What status do they have?
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  • - The caste system is incredibly complex.
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  • You have four high castes.
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  • Below that, there is untouchables.
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  • But then the untouchables are broken down to 3.200 subcastes.
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  • BAnd then there are actuallye banimals that have00 subcastes.
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  • And then there are actually animals that have
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  • more status than people.
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  • I mean like cows, elephants, monkeys, snakes, rats:
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  • they have more dignity value worth than people.
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  • And those people that
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  • you referred to are outcast.
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  • And so they are outside even the untouchable caste.
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  • So they are not supposed to be
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  • even human beings.
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  • You know, some of those animals have better dignity
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  • respect than those people.
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  • [ soft piano music ]
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  • - Once I was arrested
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  • because in our area,
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  • there was a young man, he was the first untouchable
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  • young man who had become a medical doctor.
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  • And he was posted in a large
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  • village, small town medical hospital.
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  • This was a public hospital.
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  • And he was posted as the only, at that time, the only physician.
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  • So the chief of those villages around there,
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  • they objected that we cannot have
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  • an untouchable man as the physician here.
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  • So when the member of parliament, who was an upper caste lady,
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  • she went to visit that town.
  • 00:10:13.160 --> 00:10:16.170
  • The town elders met with her and told her
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  • "Mommy, next time we are not going to war to for you."
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  • Why? Because your government has appointed
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  • this fellow as the house doctor here.
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  • So she had him beaten up, thrown in jail,
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  • on completely false charges of rape.
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  • And no one will stand up for the doctor.
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  • I came under a lot of pressure from people that
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  • you are the only fool who could do something for him.
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  • And as I thought and prayed about it, I realized that
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  • we were running thirteen schools,
  • 00:10:52.210 --> 00:10:55.040
  • but he was a much bigger force for education.
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  • Because thousands of young people
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  • belonging to the lower caste, they looked upon him,
  • 00:11:01.260 --> 00:11:04.270
  • they were inspired that "if we study,
  • 00:11:04.270 --> 00:11:07.070
  • we could become like this."
  • 00:11:07.070 --> 00:11:08.170
  • - So the philosophical position actually puts some people at the top, and others at the bottom.
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  • And everyone is supposed to be okay with that system?
  • 00:11:14.010 --> 00:11:17.190
  • - Absolutely.
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  • And it is for your good to accept that position.
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  • Not accepting your plight in present situation, is rebellion.
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  • For somebody to want a better life,
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  • or dreaming of better situation for them
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  • is actually not good, because that means you are not accepting
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  • of the karma that god has put on your life.
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  • So, people live
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  • seemingly happy with their terrible plight.
  • 00:11:44.060 --> 00:11:48.160
  • - So, I was thrown in jail,
  • 00:11:55.000 --> 00:11:58.260
  • in calling for justice to him.
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  • I was thrown in jail, kept there for a week.
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  • And this gives you an idea -
  • 00:12:04.290 --> 00:12:08.000
  • now the very simple reason reason which
  • 00:12:08.000 --> 00:12:10.140
  • even I didn't understand at first:
  • 00:12:10.140 --> 00:12:12.220
  • why would a member of parliament not take pride
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  • that the policies of her party
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  • have actually helped this untouchable young man to become a medical doctor?
  • 00:12:19.210 --> 00:12:24.110
  • And the simple fact
  • 00:12:24.120 --> 00:12:26.170
  • which dawned on me much later, when people explained to me was,
  • 00:12:26.180 --> 00:12:30.060
  • that until that point
  • 00:12:30.060 --> 00:12:32.050
  • the upper caste had been practically raping
  • 00:12:32.050 --> 00:12:35.060
  • lower caste women at will.
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  • Now this untouchable young man had acquired the right to
  • 00:12:37.170 --> 00:12:41.040
  • Nask a woman to take off heran hclothes in front of him.
  • 00:12:41.040 --> 00:12:41.050
  • ask a woman to take off her clothes in front of him.
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  • This was totally unacceptable in the village.
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  • So you can't give that kind of power to him.
  • 00:12:47.080 --> 00:12:50.090
  • - Doing good from a Western perspective
  • 00:12:52.250 --> 00:12:55.220
  • comes from the Western values system.
  • 00:12:55.220 --> 00:12:58.070
  • You know, all words and concepts come from the root value system.
  • 00:12:58.070 --> 00:13:03.110
  • So, in the West doing good means
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  • helping the poor, and the needy,
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  • and somebody suffering and struggling - they are all good things.
  • 00:13:08.150 --> 00:13:11.050
  • But here, doing good means:
  • 00:13:11.050 --> 00:13:13.120
  • fulfilling your religious duties that is prescribed to you
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  • within the laws of the books.
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  • So if I'm doing all that I am supposed to do within my caste,
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  • and doing it faithfully, then I'm doing good.
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  • But helping somebody is not necessarily doing good.
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  • In fact, I'm actually interfering in the law of Karma.
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  • Because, they are supposed to be within that situation.
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  • [ soft piano music ]
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  • - Most modern societies
  • 00:13:48.230 --> 00:13:51.230
  • around the world, modern democracies, actually hold that all people
  • 00:13:51.230 --> 00:13:54.240
  • are equal. In fact, say if you take the American
  • 00:13:54.240 --> 00:13:57.240
  • Declaration of Independence, which says:
  • 00:13:57.240 --> 00:14:00.270
  • "We hold these truths to be self-evident,
  • 00:14:00.270 --> 00:14:03.130
  • that all [people] are created equal."
  • 00:14:03.130 --> 00:14:05.200
  • Which is not actually self-evident. It's not evident in a whole bunch of cultures around the world.
  • 00:14:05.200 --> 00:14:10.000
  • And you get back to say the Greco-Roman times, when Jesus
  • 00:14:10.000 --> 00:14:13.010
  • came to earth, it wasn't an equal society.
  • 00:14:13.020 --> 00:14:16.030
  • People weren't equal. If you were a woman, a child, if you were disabled,
  • 00:14:16.030 --> 00:14:19.030
  • if you were a widow, if you had no wealth and no power,
  • 00:14:19.030 --> 00:14:22.210
  • you weren't treated equally at all.
  • 00:14:22.210 --> 00:14:25.030
  • In fact it wasn't until the teaching of Jesus, and then Paul
  • 00:14:25.030 --> 00:14:28.040
  • that followed, and then Saint Augustine in the early church.
  • 00:14:28.040 --> 00:14:31.040
  • He actually created this idea that people were equal
  • 00:14:31.040 --> 00:14:34.060
  • and they should be treated equally.
  • 00:14:34.060 --> 00:14:36.100
  • Now, we are here at this church, this is Holy Trinity, at Clapham in London.
  • 00:14:36.100 --> 00:14:40.190
  • Now this is the church that William Wilberforce
  • 00:14:40.190 --> 00:14:43.100
  • and the Clapham Sect attended.
  • 00:14:43.100 --> 00:14:45.190
  • Now, these guys held to the teaching of Jesus and it shifted
  • 00:14:45.190 --> 00:14:49.110
  • Wilberforce's whole way of thinking, his politics,
  • 00:14:49.120 --> 00:14:52.130
  • and it shifted because John Thornton and the Clapham Sect
  • 00:14:52.130 --> 00:14:55.130
  • who attended this church believed all people were equal.
  • 00:14:55.130 --> 00:14:58.140
  • Now, if all people are equal,
  • 00:14:58.140 --> 00:15:00.290
  • then slavery is just anathema.
  • 00:15:00.290 --> 00:15:03.240
  • It can't exist. And they stood against slavery.
  • 00:15:03.240 --> 00:15:06.210
  • Not just because they were humanists who thought it was a good thing.
  • 00:15:06.210 --> 00:15:10.060
  • Because they believed that God created people equally.
  • 00:15:10.060 --> 00:15:12.230
  • It changed their world, it changed their lives,
  • 00:15:12.230 --> 00:15:14.290
  • and it changed the world that they lived in.
  • 00:15:14.290 --> 00:15:18.000
  • - This church is actually fairly famous. Why is it famous?
  • 00:15:18.210 --> 00:15:22.040
  • - it's famous because this is where William Wilberforce, and the Clapham Sect
  • 00:15:22.040 --> 00:15:25.280
  • worshiped many years ago.
  • 00:15:26.010 --> 00:15:28.210
  • So it was built in 1776, and soon after that,
  • 00:15:28.210 --> 00:15:31.170
  • around 1800, a group of people, William Wilberforce, and a number of others came here.
  • 00:15:31.170 --> 00:15:35.040
  • And it was a group of people meeting
  • 00:15:35.040 --> 00:15:37.220
  • together here and worshiping here that actually
  • 00:15:37.220 --> 00:15:40.230
  • were saying, the slave trade is something that shouldn't happen.
  • 00:15:40.230 --> 00:15:43.240
  • - It's called the Clapham Sect, but it wasn't actually an organized group was it?
  • 00:15:43.240 --> 00:15:46.240
  • - No, it wasn't. It was a group of friends basically.
  • 00:15:46.240 --> 00:15:49.000
  • A group of friends, a group of Christian brothers and sisters who met together,
  • 00:15:49.000 --> 00:15:52.250
  • A group of friends, a group had meals together, went to each other's houses,ther,
  • 00:15:52.250 --> 00:15:52.260
  • had meals together, went to each other's houses,
  • 00:15:53.270 --> 00:15:55.280
  • prayed together, just like any other normal regular people.
  • 00:15:55.280 --> 00:15:58.280
  • But they were supporting each other, and they were saying:
  • 00:15:58.280 --> 00:16:01.070
  • actually, we can make a huge difference for Jesus.
  • 00:16:01.070 --> 00:16:03.230
  • [ piano music ]
  • 00:16:08.010 --> 00:16:11.020
  • - What was the change in England beyond just the abolition of slavery?
  • 00:16:16.140 --> 00:16:20.040
  • - There's simply no doubt that the
  • 00:16:20.200 --> 00:16:23.050
  • spiritual climate of England was dark.
  • 00:16:23.050 --> 00:16:28.050
  • It was not at all Christian. The poor were left
  • 00:16:28.160 --> 00:16:32.050
  • to suffer. There was no -
  • 00:16:32.050 --> 00:16:34.220
  • people didn't have a heart for the poor. The wealthy thought "I'm wealthy
  • 00:16:35.080 --> 00:16:38.030
  • because I deserve to be wealthy." And it was almost like an Eastern idea
  • 00:16:38.030 --> 00:16:41.020
  • that they're suffering because they're working out their karma.
  • 00:16:41.020 --> 00:16:44.030
  • Now, we don't want to mess that up,
  • 00:16:44.030 --> 00:16:46.190
  • so we won't help them, we'll let them suffer.
  • 00:16:46.190 --> 00:16:49.250
  • This was the mindset of the wealthy.
  • 00:16:49.280 --> 00:16:51.270
  • So the wealthy spent all of their wealth on themselves
  • 00:16:51.270 --> 00:16:54.130
  • and they didn't even have an idea that they should have an obligation to help the poor,
  • 00:16:54.130 --> 00:16:58.100
  • to change the child labor laws. So what Wilberforce did with this group,
  • 00:16:58.100 --> 00:17:03.040
  • at Clapham, was he began to create
  • 00:17:03.040 --> 00:17:05.170
  • a community and a way of thinking in elite circles
  • 00:17:05.170 --> 00:17:08.180
  • that was outspokenly Christian,
  • 00:17:08.180 --> 00:17:11.060
  • but even for those who were not evangelical Christians
  • 00:17:11.060 --> 00:17:15.130
  • or Weslyan Methodists, there still became this cultural
  • 00:17:15.160 --> 00:17:20.130
  • idea that we're supposed to help the poor.
  • 00:17:20.130 --> 00:17:23.030
  • We're supposed to help those in prison.
  • 00:17:23.040 --> 00:17:26.050
  • We're supposed to, somehow we're supposed to do these things and
  • 00:17:26.130 --> 00:17:29.100
  • it became culturally fashionable to be good.
  • 00:17:29.190 --> 00:17:32.210
  • To do good.
  • 00:17:32.220 --> 00:17:34.270
  • [ soft music ]
  • 00:17:35.230 --> 00:17:38.240
  • [ guitar playing ]
  • 00:17:38.240 --> 00:17:41.250
  • - I just want to explore Wilberforce's life with you a little.
  • 00:17:43.190 --> 00:17:46.170
  • So as a child, was church faith belief
  • 00:17:46.170 --> 00:17:50.110
  • a key part of his life?
  • 00:17:50.110 --> 00:17:51.190
  • - No, not really. So he was born in 1759, or something like that. And he had a happy upbringing.
  • 00:17:52.050 --> 00:17:57.080
  • A caring upbringing. He was quite a small, sickly child.
  • 00:17:57.190 --> 00:17:59.280
  • But his dad died
  • 00:17:59.290 --> 00:18:03.030
  • when he was nine.
  • 00:18:03.030 --> 00:18:05.210
  • And then sort of growing up, actually, he more and more
  • 00:18:05.210 --> 00:18:09.030
  • he was very sociable, he liked talking to people,
  • 00:18:09.050 --> 00:18:11.010
  • and actually he was a party animal by the time he - he went to Cambridge University.
  • 00:18:11.010 --> 00:18:14.210
  • And he was there, he was focused far more on the social side of things,
  • 00:18:14.210 --> 00:18:18.050
  • than his studies. He was out late night drinking,
  • 00:18:18.070 --> 00:18:21.070
  • gambling, playing cards, that was his life.
  • 00:18:21.070 --> 00:18:24.080
  • He was focused on having fun.
  • 00:18:24.080 --> 00:18:26.060
  • - What kind of motivated him to act against slavery in the way that he did?
  • 00:18:26.060 --> 00:18:30.040
  • - Well, there's no doubt
  • 00:18:30.190 --> 00:18:33.000
  • that it was his Christian faith that motivated him. But you have to be very clear.
  • 00:18:33.000 --> 00:18:36.290
  • England at the time was
  • 00:18:36.290 --> 00:18:38.290
  • ostensibly, officially a Christian nation.
  • 00:18:38.290 --> 00:18:42.000
  • But in reality, they were not Christian.
  • 00:18:42.050 --> 00:18:44.170
  • In other words, French enlightenment rationalism
  • 00:18:44.170 --> 00:18:48.080
  • had kind of crept in, so you weren't really hearing the pure Gospel.
  • 00:18:48.080 --> 00:18:51.140
  • Most of the elites, Wilberforce among them,
  • 00:18:51.150 --> 00:18:54.170
  • were not only not Christians, but they were anti-Christian.
  • 00:18:54.170 --> 00:18:57.180
  • They were very sneering in their attitude toward
  • 00:18:57.180 --> 00:19:00.200
  • anybody enthusiastic about their faith.
  • 00:19:00.200 --> 00:19:03.020
  • - So they went to Europe. And he went with his mom,
  • 00:19:03.020 --> 00:19:06.210
  • his sister, and a friend of his, Isaac Miller, who was a little bit older than him.
  • 00:19:06.210 --> 00:19:10.040
  • And basically, it was in conversation as they were
  • 00:19:10.040 --> 00:19:12.150
  • heading around Europe on some sort of grand tour.
  • 00:19:12.150 --> 00:19:14.270
  • And they were talking about the big questions of life. And also they read a book together.
  • 00:19:14.280 --> 00:19:18.210
  • I think it was called "The Rise and Fall of Religion in the Soul."
  • 00:19:18.290 --> 00:19:21.230
  • And as they were reading this book, and discussing
  • 00:19:21.240 --> 00:19:24.240
  • things as they went round, Wilberforce began to realize
  • 00:19:24.240 --> 00:19:27.260
  • the truth of Jesus Christ.
  • 00:19:27.260 --> 00:19:30.260
  • - He was already a very powerful
  • 00:19:30.260 --> 00:19:33.110
  • member of Parliament. He was already to some extent
  • 00:19:33.110 --> 00:19:36.120
  • bothered by the slave trade.
  • 00:19:36.130 --> 00:19:38.210
  • But he felt by 1787 that God had
  • 00:19:38.290 --> 00:19:42.130
  • called him specifically to use
  • 00:19:42.130 --> 00:19:45.120
  • his power and his gifts to abolish
  • 00:19:45.120 --> 00:19:48.080
  • the slave trade.
  • 00:19:48.080 --> 00:19:50.180
  • - He was suddenly going, hang on, am I wasting my life being a member of Parliament?
  • 00:19:50.180 --> 00:19:54.100
  • Should I be a vicar, is that what all Christians should do?
  • 00:19:54.110 --> 00:19:56.150
  • But actually the key moment was when he went to see John Newton. So John Newton,
  • 00:19:56.150 --> 00:19:59.160
  • who used to be a slave trader then became a Christian, famously wrote
  • 00:19:59.160 --> 00:20:03.170
  • the hymn "Amazing Grace." And he went to see John Newton.
  • 00:20:03.170 --> 00:20:06.170
  • And John Newton said actually you have exactly the right giftings
  • 00:20:06.170 --> 00:20:10.080
  • and passion
  • 00:20:10.090 --> 00:20:13.100
  • that God can use you greatly
  • 00:20:13.100 --> 00:20:16.110
  • in Parliament.
  • 00:20:16.110 --> 00:20:17.280
  • And I think Newton said something along the lines of, this is your opportunity
  • 00:20:18.000 --> 00:20:22.250
  • and Wilberforce is like, suddenly I have a second chance.
  • 00:20:22.250 --> 00:20:24.240
  • I'm not wasting my life by being in Parliament. Actually, I can make a difference
  • 00:20:24.240 --> 00:20:28.100
  • for Jesus where I am, I don't need to go and be a vicar.
  • 00:20:28.110 --> 00:20:30.290
  • - Now Wilberforce knew that the people promoting the slave trade were wrong.
  • 00:20:30.290 --> 00:20:34.050
  • He couldn't say, oh who am I to judge?
  • 00:20:34.070 --> 00:20:36.250
  • Of course he judged. Because he cared about the suffering Africans.
  • 00:20:36.250 --> 00:20:39.260
  • But he said if I come across only as a pious moralist, and pretend
  • 00:20:40.000 --> 00:20:43.130
  • that I'm not culpable, I have benefited from this economy -
  • 00:20:43.140 --> 00:20:46.140
  • I have benefited. So I have to have a humility
  • 00:20:46.140 --> 00:20:49.160
  • and that humility changes everything.
  • 00:20:49.160 --> 00:20:52.170
  • So Wilberforce really did love his enemies, and people commented on that.
  • 00:20:52.170 --> 00:20:56.130
  • He could have slayed them with his tongue.
  • 00:20:56.130 --> 00:20:58.110
  • He was very witty, and he used to do that. But when he became a Christian,
  • 00:20:58.110 --> 00:21:01.100
  • that changed, and I have to say that,
  • 00:21:01.100 --> 00:21:04.110
  • it's such a radical idea, but where does it come from? It comes from Jesus.
  • 00:21:04.220 --> 00:21:07.230
  • - When you read his journal, one of the most famous quotes he says is,
  • 00:21:07.230 --> 00:21:10.240
  • "God has put before me two main aims:
  • 00:21:10.240 --> 00:21:13.250
  • The abolition of the slave trade,
  • 00:21:13.250 --> 00:21:16.250
  • and the reformation of manners."
  • 00:21:16.250 --> 00:21:19.010
  • And he very much saw that God had called him to
  • 00:21:19.010 --> 00:21:21.280
  • those two things.
  • 00:21:22.060 --> 00:21:24.040
  • - Wilberforce needed strength. And it was his friends and colleagues at Clapham
  • 00:21:24.060 --> 00:21:28.090
  • and there were so many, and each of them was different.
  • 00:21:28.100 --> 00:21:31.080
  • You had literary figures, artistic figures, and poets.
  • 00:21:31.080 --> 00:21:34.080
  • But all of them had very serious faith. Which was very rare
  • 00:21:34.130 --> 00:21:37.260
  • in elite circles in England at the time.
  • 00:21:37.270 --> 00:21:40.110
  • - Tell me about Hannah More and her role. So who was Hannah More?
  • 00:21:40.110 --> 00:21:43.280
  • - Hannah More is one of my favorite people in history.
  • 00:21:43.280 --> 00:21:46.110
  • She was a novelist and a poet.
  • 00:21:46.120 --> 00:21:49.120
  • Her novels outsold Jane Austin's in the latter part of
  • 00:21:49.120 --> 00:21:52.090
  • 18th Century by 10 to 1.
  • 00:21:52.090 --> 00:21:55.010
  • - So what did she do? Like, how does a poet make much difference?
  • 00:21:55.010 --> 00:22:00.120
  • - She wrote a poem
  • 00:22:00.120 --> 00:22:02.050
  • about slavery. And part of
  • 00:22:02.060 --> 00:22:05.070
  • what she did was she humanized the Africans
  • 00:22:05.070 --> 00:22:08.070
  • and showed what would it be like for a family to be ripped apart
  • 00:22:08.070 --> 00:22:11.080
  • - a mother to lose her child -
  • 00:22:11.080 --> 00:22:13.240
  • by humanizing the Africans in the eyes
  • 00:22:13.240 --> 00:22:17.090
  • of the English people. She made them understand
  • 00:22:17.100 --> 00:22:20.090
  • that slavery is not some abstraction.
  • 00:22:20.090 --> 00:22:22.240
  • That this concerns human beings. And if you call yourself Christians, and most of them
  • 00:22:22.240 --> 00:22:26.070
  • would have, then you are obligated
  • 00:22:26.080 --> 00:22:29.100
  • to do something about this.
  • 00:22:29.100 --> 00:22:31.100
  • - What are the characteristics of say Wilberforce and Hannah More that you look to,
  • 00:22:31.100 --> 00:22:35.100
  • that you find inspirational?
  • 00:22:35.110 --> 00:22:37.090
  • - I think that their resilience and their absolute tenacity, because that's actually
  • 00:22:37.090 --> 00:22:41.160
  • what it takes with both of them.
  • 00:22:41.160 --> 00:22:43.260
  • Many of the people that were close to them, kind of abandoned them.
  • 00:22:43.260 --> 00:22:46.260
  • When it got really, when the stakes
  • 00:22:46.270 --> 00:22:50.140
  • really were high. When the heat
  • 00:22:50.150 --> 00:22:53.030
  • was really turned up. And I think in both of their cases,
  • 00:22:53.030 --> 00:22:56.150
  • too, their families thought they were crazy
  • 00:22:56.160 --> 00:22:59.170
  • their peers - I think Wilberforce in particular, like everybody,
  • 00:22:59.170 --> 00:23:02.200
  • in Parliament was like what are you doing? You're throwing away a great career,
  • 00:23:02.200 --> 00:23:05.200
  • this is not the hill to die on.
  • 00:23:05.200 --> 00:23:08.210
  • And I think with both of them, it was like,
  • 00:23:08.210 --> 00:23:11.040
  • Yes, this is a hill that's worth dying on.
  • 00:23:11.040 --> 00:23:14.110
  • - What was it like towards the end of his life?
  • 00:23:17.290 --> 00:23:19.170
  • Because there were two levels of passing sort of the abolition of slavery. What were the two levels?
  • 00:23:20.010 --> 00:23:24.000
  • - Yes, eventually after about
  • 00:23:24.010 --> 00:23:26.070
  • I think 19 years of campaigning, in 1807,
  • 00:23:26.080 --> 00:23:29.080
  • the Abolition of the Slave Trade was passed.
  • 00:23:30.000 --> 00:23:33.020
  • So that was saying, actually from this moment on, people are not allowed
  • 00:23:33.020 --> 00:23:36.040
  • to trade slaves. They're not allowed to ship them around
  • 00:23:36.040 --> 00:23:39.040
  • and trade them and buy and sell slaves.
  • 00:23:39.040 --> 00:23:41.260
  • But, slavery still existed.
  • 00:23:41.260 --> 00:23:44.260
  • But it wasn't actually until three days before Wilberforce died
  • 00:23:45.050 --> 00:23:48.060
  • in 1833, that the Slavery Abolition Act was actually passed.
  • 00:23:48.060 --> 00:23:52.170
  • When it was saying, "slavery per se, is illegal."
  • 00:23:52.170 --> 00:23:56.170
  • [ light piano music ]
  • 00:23:58.000 --> 00:24:03.190
  • - In the end, as you've said, for Wilberforce,
  • 00:24:08.140 --> 00:24:12.150
  • it was all about what God was calling him to do.
  • 00:24:12.150 --> 00:24:16.020
  • It wasn't so much just that he was a humanitarian.
  • 00:24:16.020 --> 00:24:18.230
  • His motivation was his faith in Jesus.
  • 00:24:18.240 --> 00:24:21.150
  • - He was motivated by his faith in Jesus which meant he sees every single human being
  • 00:24:21.150 --> 00:24:25.250
  • as made in the image of God. And then for all human beings equal.
  • 00:24:25.250 --> 00:24:28.250
  • So there was so many different things that he said, this is the cause, this is what needs to happen.
  • 00:24:28.250 --> 00:24:32.260
  • And all of it, as you say, stemmed from his belief in Jesus.
  • 00:24:32.270 --> 00:24:37.140
  • And him going, "who has God made me to be?"
  • 00:24:37.150 --> 00:24:40.290
  • And "how can I best be serving Him?" And him recognizing - he talks a lot in his journal
  • 00:24:40.290 --> 00:24:45.010
  • about the future and after his death when he'll meet face to face with God.
  • 00:24:45.010 --> 00:24:49.170
  • And he says, "how am I going to live now so
  • 00:24:49.180 --> 00:24:53.180
  • when I look at God in the eye, face to face,
  • 00:24:53.180 --> 00:24:57.030
  • He's going to say 'well done good and faithful servant.'"
  • 00:24:57.030 --> 00:25:01.050
  • [ Christian rock song playing ]
  • 00:25:09.230 --> 00:25:13.230

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