Episode 9 | Education | TBN

Episode 9 | Education

Watch Episode 9 | Education
October 30, 2018
26:35

Jesus the Game Changer

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Episode 9 | Education

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  • - There was nobody in the ancient world saying
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  • we gotta teach everybody how to read and write.
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  • That really was an outflow of the Jesus movement.
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  • (upbeat gospel music)
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  • - People have always loved to learn.
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  • It's just part of the human condition,
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  • we want to know, we want to discover.
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  • So that's always been a part of us.
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  • But the idea that everybody ought to be educated,
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  • again that's an idea that immersed from someplace.
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  • In the ancient world, formal education
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  • was basically restricted to male children
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  • of wealthy families.
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  • Some exceptions, but that was kind of the general rule.
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  • And then there's this little community
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  • and they remembered that they followed a guy
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  • who the last thing he said was go
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  • and teach everybody and make disciples.
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  • And Jesus himself would teach rich and poor,
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  • male and female, slave and free.
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  • And so they began to do that.
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  • And then over time the power of Jesus' words
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  • and his teachings and the idea of making them available
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  • to all people created communities
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  • that prized universal learning.
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  • (upbeat instrumental music)
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  • - Schooling and education's now a basic right
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  • for children in most western nations.
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  • In fact it's against the law not to educate your children.
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  • It's easy to forget, but this is actually
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  • a fairly recent development in human history.
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  • In nations like the United Kingdom
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  • it wasn't until the middle of the 18th Century
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  • that children from a poor background
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  • were given an education.
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  • It was people like Robert Raikes
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  • who started the Sunday school movement
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  • that gave those children the opportunity to learn.
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  • Now this wasn't primarily about religious education.
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  • It was giving children the chance
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  • to learn to read and to write.
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  • The followers of Jesus actually started universities
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  • as well, in places like Bologna,
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  • and Paris, and Oxford and Cambridge.
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  • The gathering of people together to learn.
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  • Education is an outcome of the followers
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  • of Jesus, looking to give the young
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  • and the inquisitive the opportunity to learn.
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  • (soft piano music)
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  • - Tell us about the people that first started Sunday schools
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  • in the Victorian Era. - Sure.
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  • Yes, yeah we think of Sunday school
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  • as being something about,
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  • perhaps learning about the Bible on a Sunday.
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  • But what's unusual about it in terms
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  • of the Sunday school movement,
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  • is that it actually began as a form of educating
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  • the poorest sections of society and helping them to read.
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  • So essentially it was a literacy project.
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  • And they were started by a man called Robert Raikes.
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  • He wasn't the very first person
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  • to teach children on a Sunday,
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  • but he popularized what became the Sunday school movement.
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  • And essentially, he was motivated by seeing lots
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  • and lots of poor people on the streets on a Sunday.
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  • This was a time then when about 50%
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  • of the population would have been under 18.
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  • And so essentially, he and a clergyman got together
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  • and they decided to try to do something about this.
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  • Get them doing something useful and helpful on a Sunday
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  • which was essentially providing them with a basic education.
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  • So they initially employed four teachers
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  • to basically teach the young people how to read.
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  • - In Britain, public school, school's for everybody.
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  • The Church invented that, it was the raggedy schools
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  • where churches used to open on a Sunday morning
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  • and welcome kids in and teach 'em how to read and write.
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  • And that's how our education system came about,
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  • so throughout the centuries,
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  • Christianity's been like a seed in a culture
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  • and it's often brought the best out of it.
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  • And many other things that we value most
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  • in our society they have a Christian origin.
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  • - [Karl] These kids are basically working six days a week.
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  • And this is their only opportunity
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  • for any sort of education to develop them as people.
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  • How large did it get?
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  • - Well this is, again, what Robert Raikes
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  • was very important in doing so
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  • after three years after he launched
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  • the Sunday school movement, so in 1783,
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  • he published an article in the Gloucester Journal,
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  • which was his own newspaper,
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  • essentially saying how successful
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  • his little project had been and that was his term
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  • for running the Sunday schools.
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  • And essentially because of that
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  • it captured a lot of attention
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  • from other people around the UK
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  • and by the end of the decade there
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  • were Sunday schools operating in most cities in the UK.
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  • By the 1830s about 20% of the population were educated
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  • in Sunday schools and they were actually
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  • one of the main ways in which
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  • the working class children were educated.
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  • Not the only way, but one of the crucial ways
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  • that a lot of them were and also Sunday
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  • became known as the day that you went to Sunday school.
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  • So if you were a child it was sort of expected
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  • that you went to Sunday school.
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  • - Any idea of what number children would have been
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  • in this period of time. - Yeah, so
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  • by the end of the 19th Century we're talking
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  • about 16 million children at that time.
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  • And that's globally so quite a lot of that
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  • was in North America as well as the UK.
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  • - Around the issue of education,
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  • I was surprised to read that an African American slave
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  • been given any sort of education in a period of time
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  • was illegal and would be punished.
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  • - Absolutely, it was sure death.
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  • It was not only sure death for that slave,
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  • because slaves of course were inferior.
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  • I mean that was part of the way
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  • that the master was able outside of pure brutality
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  • to continue to subjugate them was to keep them unlearned.
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  • Without the slave master knowing
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  • that they were learned individuals
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  • who could read the stars anyway.
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  • So what he tried, they tried to deny them,
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  • really didn't work to the full extent.
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  • So I think pure brutality coupled
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  • with what they knew would happen,
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  • not only to them but to the white women
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  • oftentimes were the ones who would teach them.
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  • - Now, education did become a part
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  • of their lives in certain areas.
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  • How did that happen and who did it?
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  • - Absolutely, there were those,
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  • just as we talked about,
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  • those who either picked up the education
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  • of the master or listened to someone reading,
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  • we were people of ingenious mind
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  • who continued to know and understand
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  • and memorize things, there were still
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  • white people who dared to risk their lives
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  • to teach a few to read and those few
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  • that learned to read taught others to read,
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  • taught others to sound out things,
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  • taught others how to use agriculture
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  • and other things to know how to understand.
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  • - Some of the leaders of that movement
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  • were actually Christian and church leaders.
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  • - Definitely, the Richard Allens'
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  • and the others of their day were those
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  • who pushed the fact that we had
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  • the right to be educated people.
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  • But we were educated people whose education
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  • as we knew it from our mother land
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  • was being stripped and there were those
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  • who struggled because they didn't
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  • want us to be educated in a white man's understanding.
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  • The same thing happened to First Nations people,
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  • to Native Americans.
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  • There were those who feared that
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  • the education that we were going to get,
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  • was simply going to dumb us down
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  • and make us the step stool of white people.
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  • So we needed the Richard Allens',
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  • we needed the pastors, not only
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  • to be able to be great preachers
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  • but great teachers of education as well.
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  • (slow piano music)
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  • - What's your understanding about
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  • econ monasteries, monastic movements
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  • and their influence on building
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  • what we now know as universities.
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  • - Well those are huge amount of religious influence
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  • on the modern university which began in the Middle Ages.
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  • And it was kind of a complex way of coming about.
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  • They had their origins, to some extent,
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  • in the Cathedral Schools.
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  • So Cathedral Schools were, how can I explain it,
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  • they were schools in cathedrals,
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  • which were, the first ones were founded
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  • sort of in the early middle ages
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  • around about the time where Charlemagne
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  • 8th, 9th Century, it's that sort of time.
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  • And they provided people with a basic education.
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  • In fact, Charlemagne, the great western emperor,
  • 00:09:04.200 --> 00:09:09.010
  • he was crowned western emperor
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  • in the 80, 800 on Christmas Day
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  • a very easy to remember date.
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  • It was very thoughtful of him.
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  • He actually legislated for free universal education
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  • in these cathedral schools and so everyone
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  • got at least some education in them.
  • 00:09:23.030 --> 00:09:25.200
  • One of the reasons why the Church
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  • was so involved in the early universities,
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  • not directly, they were independent for church control,
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  • but the religious orders, the Franciscans, the Dominicans,
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  • later on Jesuits and people like that,
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  • were closely involved in the universities.
  • 00:09:40.280 --> 00:09:43.070
  • One of the reasons for that was
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  • because those people valued learning.
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  • And one of the reasons for that ultimately
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  • is that Christianity originally really
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  • was a religion of rationality.
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  • - The Benedictines in what we call the Dark Ages,
  • 00:09:55.160 --> 00:09:59.230
  • after the fall of Rome, the Benedictines kept
  • 00:09:59.230 --> 00:10:02.260
  • the libraries alive, they kept learning alive,
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  • they kept the books of Plato and Aristotle
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  • and the other greats and brought them forward.
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  • And then later in the Middle Ages,
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  • they were the ones that started
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  • the first universities outside the monastery.
  • 00:10:16.220 --> 00:10:19.030
  • - Why did they start universities?
  • 00:10:19.030 --> 00:10:20.090
  • - It was an expression of their faith.
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  • We often think of Christians or those
  • 00:10:23.120 --> 00:10:26.110
  • who are religious as rather closed minded,
  • 00:10:26.110 --> 00:10:29.040
  • but they were of the belief pretty strongly
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  • that all truth is God's truth, that we need
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  • to study the whole of creation.
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  • And keeping learning alive even the ideas of the Pagans
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  • was something that was really important to them.
  • 00:10:43.060 --> 00:10:45.070
  • - And what happens in the later on in the Middle Ages,
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  • in the 11th Century, the 12th Century,
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  • is that basically they got a lot better.
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  • Scholars with society was more stable by this stage.
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  • Agriculture had improved, they weren't quite so many wars,
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  • the Vikings have kind of calmed down a little bit.
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  • And scholarship got better, new texts
  • 00:11:07.200 --> 00:11:10.240
  • were gradually being discovered
  • 00:11:10.240 --> 00:11:12.210
  • from the Muslim world and from antiquity.
  • 00:11:12.210 --> 00:11:16.100
  • And so we find scholars, sort of church scholars,
  • 00:11:16.100 --> 00:11:19.270
  • setting themselves up as independent teachers.
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  • - [Karl] People wouldn't think about the monastic orders,
  • 00:11:44.270 --> 00:11:46.280
  • down in universities. - No.
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  • No, no, no they wouldn't.
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  • And they weren't conscious of founding universities either.
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  • They were founding places where
  • 00:11:52.170 --> 00:11:54.260
  • there monks could worship God and learn about God.
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  • And at the time they were independent institutions.
  • 00:11:58.120 --> 00:12:01.160
  • They weren't self consciously part of
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  • a single enterprise called the university.
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  • It was only as the century slipped past
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  • that it became obvious that they became sort of known
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  • throughout the world as centers of learning.
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  • Oh you wanna go learn about this,
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  • go to Oxford where there are people who do that.
  • 00:12:16.180 --> 00:12:18.220
  • And so the idea that it was all,
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  • they were all part, to be integrated
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  • into a single system of learning and scholarship.
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  • Only really arose relatively late.
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  • They didn't really see themselves
  • 00:12:32.260 --> 00:12:34.030
  • as part of a single university as it were.
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  • - Now they were started in Europe before here wasn't it?
  • 00:12:36.150 --> 00:12:39.100
  • Where were the first places before?
  • 00:12:39.100 --> 00:12:40.260
  • - That's right, the first places I suppose
  • 00:12:40.260 --> 00:12:43.140
  • were Bologna, Salamanca in Spain,
  • 00:12:43.140 --> 00:12:48.140
  • and the Sorbonne, most importantly as well, the Sorbonne
  • 00:12:50.020 --> 00:12:52.080
  • in Paris on the left bank of the river Seine in Paris.
  • 00:12:52.080 --> 00:12:56.120
  • And that's really where most, the sort of medieval model
  • 00:12:56.120 --> 00:13:00.140
  • of the university is first really developed.
  • 00:13:00.140 --> 00:13:03.130
  • - Well the first university was in Bologna in Italy.
  • 00:13:07.120 --> 00:13:10.290
  • In the 5th Century Emperor Justin who had become a Christian
  • 00:13:13.070 --> 00:13:17.000
  • he had commanded that all of
  • 00:13:17.000 --> 00:13:19.190
  • the Roman law should be written down.
  • 00:13:19.190 --> 00:13:21.070
  • So Justinian Code was created,
  • 00:13:21.070 --> 00:13:23.090
  • but then Rome collapsed, it was sacked.
  • 00:13:23.090 --> 00:13:26.060
  • Nobody even remembered that there was a Justinian Code.
  • 00:13:26.060 --> 00:13:29.240
  • 500 years later, a manuscript was found
  • 00:13:29.240 --> 00:13:33.240
  • and two monks started studying it.
  • 00:13:33.240 --> 00:13:36.140
  • By that time the Church had become
  • 00:13:36.140 --> 00:13:38.170
  • a tremendous temporal power, the bishops were the judges.
  • 00:13:38.170 --> 00:13:43.110
  • But nobody knew which law to use, what was the law?
  • 00:13:43.110 --> 00:13:47.270
  • Expertise in law, monks and priests needed it
  • 00:13:47.270 --> 00:13:52.140
  • to make sure that what the bishop's rulings
  • 00:13:52.140 --> 00:13:55.250
  • are just ruling according to the law
  • 00:13:55.250 --> 00:13:58.080
  • and according to the scriptures.
  • 00:13:58.080 --> 00:14:00.080
  • So that's where the first law university
  • 00:14:00.080 --> 00:14:03.070
  • was born, in Bologna.
  • 00:14:03.070 --> 00:14:04.160
  • - [Karl] So theology was holding
  • 00:14:08.050 --> 00:14:09.190
  • the medieval model together.
  • 00:14:09.190 --> 00:14:11.020
  • - That's right, it was known as Regina Scientiarum,
  • 00:14:11.020 --> 00:14:13.220
  • the Queen of the Sciences.
  • 00:14:13.220 --> 00:14:15.200
  • At sciences in the sense of,
  • 00:14:15.200 --> 00:14:17.260
  • the old Latin sense of, wisdom or knowledge.
  • 00:14:17.260 --> 00:14:21.080
  • So if you wanted to do mathematics,
  • 00:14:21.080 --> 00:14:22.270
  • that was a scientia that was a body of knowledge,
  • 00:14:22.270 --> 00:14:26.180
  • a body in a discipline of knowledge.
  • 00:14:26.180 --> 00:14:28.180
  • Just as theology was, the study of Latin and Greek was,
  • 00:14:28.180 --> 00:14:31.260
  • geometry, rhetoric, music.
  • 00:14:31.260 --> 00:14:34.130
  • Theology was thought to be the queen of the sciences
  • 00:14:34.130 --> 00:14:37.030
  • and philosophy her handmaiden,
  • 00:14:37.030 --> 00:14:39.010
  • as it were, the ankyooluh tayuhlowkey ai.
  • 00:14:39.010 --> 00:14:41.240
  • Because of the original monastic DNA of these institutions,
  • 00:14:43.050 --> 00:14:47.150
  • the idea was that learning and scholarship
  • 00:14:47.150 --> 00:14:50.030
  • was a spiritual exercise, a spiritual practice.
  • 00:14:50.030 --> 00:14:53.080
  • - So that the motivation for the university idea
  • 00:14:53.080 --> 00:14:57.150
  • was actually from a monastic idea of
  • 00:14:57.150 --> 00:14:59.110
  • growing, learning. - That's right.
  • 00:14:59.110 --> 00:15:00.200
  • Exactly, but it was an accidental outcome.
  • 00:15:00.200 --> 00:15:03.060
  • - Right. - Of the
  • 00:15:03.060 --> 00:15:04.200
  • primary purpose which was to worship and serve and love God.
  • 00:15:04.200 --> 00:15:08.080
  • - We know when we turn to people in places like Oxford
  • 00:15:12.160 --> 00:15:15.120
  • and even while we didn't talk to people in Paris
  • 00:15:15.120 --> 00:15:17.280
  • and Bologna that's the start of universities across Europe.
  • 00:15:17.280 --> 00:15:22.220
  • How many of universities in America
  • 00:15:22.220 --> 00:15:24.080
  • were started in that same way?
  • 00:15:24.080 --> 00:15:25.260
  • - Except for the land-grant universities which we call,
  • 00:15:27.100 --> 00:15:30.130
  • such as, University of Missouri or Minnesota and Illinois
  • 00:15:30.130 --> 00:15:34.100
  • the big universities, virtually every other university
  • 00:15:34.100 --> 00:15:37.260
  • in the United States was founded by Christians.
  • 00:15:37.260 --> 00:15:40.070
  • And starting with Harvard, moving down to Yale
  • 00:15:40.070 --> 00:15:43.150
  • and on to Princeton, going across the Midwest,
  • 00:15:43.150 --> 00:15:46.280
  • and in many respects the story of higher education
  • 00:15:46.280 --> 00:15:49.200
  • in America is the secularization of Christian universities.
  • 00:15:49.200 --> 00:15:53.230
  • - The great impulse to start schools
  • 00:15:53.230 --> 00:15:56.240
  • from the original universities.
  • 00:15:56.240 --> 00:15:58.280
  • Paris, Oxford, the model of Oxford University
  • 00:15:58.280 --> 00:16:02.130
  • continues to be the Lord is my light.
  • 00:16:02.130 --> 00:16:05.000
  • Cambridge in America, Harvard, Yale,
  • 00:16:05.000 --> 00:16:08.260
  • well over 90% of all the colleges and universities
  • 00:16:08.260 --> 00:16:12.110
  • that were founded before the Civil War in our country
  • 00:16:12.110 --> 00:16:17.110
  • were begun by followers of Jesus,
  • 00:16:18.140 --> 00:16:20.020
  • who did it as part of their mission to educate everybody
  • 00:16:20.020 --> 00:16:23.260
  • because that would glorify God.
  • 00:16:23.260 --> 00:16:25.210
  • - So Dale you're a lecturer at Saint Anselm University,
  • 00:16:27.050 --> 00:16:29.190
  • what's the background of that university?
  • 00:16:29.190 --> 00:16:32.050
  • - The university was founded in 1884 by Benedictine monks
  • 00:16:32.050 --> 00:16:36.260
  • who came up from New Jersey to start a university
  • 00:16:36.260 --> 00:16:40.010
  • in Manchester, New Hampshire which
  • 00:16:40.010 --> 00:16:42.120
  • was a new working class community.
  • 00:16:42.120 --> 00:16:45.100
  • They brought a lot of Catholics up from Boston,
  • 00:16:45.100 --> 00:16:47.210
  • Catholics down from Quebec to work in the factories.
  • 00:16:47.210 --> 00:16:50.220
  • And the university was founded to educate their children.
  • 00:16:50.220 --> 00:16:54.110
  • - Is it still run by monks?
  • 00:16:54.110 --> 00:16:55.280
  • - It is, it's owned and operated
  • 00:16:55.280 --> 00:16:58.050
  • by the Benedictine community like
  • 00:16:58.050 --> 00:16:59.230
  • so many Benedictine universities.
  • 00:16:59.230 --> 00:17:02.180
  • The Benedictines wanna have a balanced life
  • 00:17:02.180 --> 00:17:05.120
  • of work and prayer and study,
  • 00:17:05.120 --> 00:17:08.060
  • and so some Benedictine monasteries brew beer.
  • 00:17:08.060 --> 00:17:12.140
  • So if you go through Europe you're gonna find
  • 00:17:12.140 --> 00:17:14.080
  • some of the best brewers, especially in Northern Europe,
  • 00:17:14.080 --> 00:17:16.260
  • come out of monasteries.
  • 00:17:16.260 --> 00:17:18.120
  • The work of Saint Anselm as a university.
  • 00:17:18.120 --> 00:17:21.140
  • - Said earlier, there are over
  • 00:17:21.140 --> 00:17:22.280
  • 100 historically black colleges and universities.
  • 00:17:22.280 --> 00:17:26.130
  • Many of them were founded by individuals
  • 00:17:26.130 --> 00:17:29.230
  • who were Quakers, like Cheyney State,
  • 00:17:29.230 --> 00:17:33.120
  • Cheyney University which is in Pennsylvania
  • 00:17:33.120 --> 00:17:36.150
  • is the oldest historically black college
  • 00:17:36.150 --> 00:17:38.170
  • in the United States of America
  • 00:17:38.170 --> 00:17:40.060
  • that was founded by a Quaker.
  • 00:17:40.060 --> 00:17:43.040
  • Someone who bequeathed a tenth of all of his land,
  • 00:17:43.040 --> 00:17:46.210
  • to be able to educate freed slaves
  • 00:17:46.210 --> 00:17:50.210
  • because he saw, as people left from the South,
  • 00:17:50.210 --> 00:17:53.010
  • and moved up to Philadelphia and other areas,
  • 00:17:53.010 --> 00:17:56.110
  • that they struggled to be able to get jobs
  • 00:17:56.110 --> 00:17:59.110
  • because we also had such a large influx
  • 00:17:59.110 --> 00:18:02.050
  • of European immigrants as well.
  • 00:18:02.050 --> 00:18:04.240
  • And so people would hire Italians
  • 00:18:04.240 --> 00:18:07.110
  • or Irish over African Americans
  • 00:18:07.110 --> 00:18:10.050
  • and so he started Cheyney Institute
  • 00:18:10.050 --> 00:18:13.200
  • to be able to educate African Americans.
  • 00:18:13.200 --> 00:18:16.110
  • - In 1536 in Belgium, William Tyndale
  • 00:18:16.110 --> 00:18:19.170
  • was sentenced to death.
  • 00:18:19.170 --> 00:18:21.100
  • He died from strangulation and then his body was burned.
  • 00:18:21.100 --> 00:18:25.060
  • So what terrible crime did William Tyndale do
  • 00:18:25.060 --> 00:18:28.030
  • that deserved to die like that?
  • 00:18:28.030 --> 00:18:30.070
  • He translated the Bible from Latin into English.
  • 00:18:30.070 --> 00:18:34.150
  • It's fairly typical of what Christians
  • 00:18:34.150 --> 00:18:36.080
  • have done all through the centuries.
  • 00:18:36.080 --> 00:18:38.150
  • They've always been committed to people
  • 00:18:38.150 --> 00:18:40.080
  • being able to read the Bible in their own language.
  • 00:18:40.080 --> 00:18:43.170
  • It's lead to people being taught English,
  • 00:18:43.170 --> 00:18:45.200
  • it's lead to the Bible being translated,
  • 00:18:45.200 --> 00:18:47.180
  • it's lead to education.
  • 00:18:47.180 --> 00:18:49.260
  • Christian's commitment to make sure people are literate
  • 00:18:49.260 --> 00:18:54.000
  • and can read the Bible and words of Jesus for themselves
  • 00:18:54.000 --> 00:18:57.280
  • have actually been a game changer in human history.
  • 00:18:57.280 --> 00:19:01.110
  • - [Karl] Why was it Tyndale was so interested
  • 00:19:05.280 --> 00:19:07.270
  • in translating the Bible?
  • 00:19:07.270 --> 00:19:09.090
  • And secondly why was that a problem?
  • 00:19:09.090 --> 00:19:12.070
  • - Well, if we look back in history we know
  • 00:19:12.070 --> 00:19:14.070
  • that the Bible had been in Latin since the 4th Century.
  • 00:19:14.070 --> 00:19:16.290
  • And though most of the people in England
  • 00:19:16.290 --> 00:19:18.170
  • no longer spoke Latin, it was the language of priests,
  • 00:19:18.170 --> 00:19:20.240
  • it was the language of academic people
  • 00:19:20.240 --> 00:19:22.090
  • but the common people, the merchants,
  • 00:19:22.090 --> 00:19:23.250
  • the business people, they used English.
  • 00:19:23.250 --> 00:19:26.000
  • And so everything that they knew about God
  • 00:19:26.000 --> 00:19:28.020
  • had been handed down to them through the officials.
  • 00:19:28.020 --> 00:19:31.060
  • Sort of the official formal church.
  • 00:19:31.060 --> 00:19:33.120
  • Well they could never check it.
  • 00:19:33.120 --> 00:19:34.280
  • They could never say well, let me hear God speak for myself.
  • 00:19:34.280 --> 00:19:37.200
  • And Tyndale was really gifted with language
  • 00:19:37.200 --> 00:19:39.250
  • but also burdened for his countryman.
  • 00:19:39.250 --> 00:19:42.000
  • His parents were business people, merchants,
  • 00:19:42.000 --> 00:19:43.160
  • his brothers were merchants and so here he has
  • 00:19:43.160 --> 00:19:46.130
  • the gift of being able to see the Bible
  • 00:19:46.130 --> 00:19:47.280
  • for himself but they can't see it.
  • 00:19:47.280 --> 00:19:50.040
  • And so he's burdened going, I have this gift
  • 00:19:50.040 --> 00:19:52.090
  • that I could give to my nation
  • 00:19:52.090 --> 00:19:53.220
  • and it's never been given before.
  • 00:19:53.220 --> 00:19:55.120
  • My grandparents, my parents, my great grandparents,
  • 00:19:55.120 --> 00:19:57.260
  • they've had no access to the Bible for themselves.
  • 00:19:57.260 --> 00:20:00.210
  • And he all of a sudden is gripped with,
  • 00:20:00.210 --> 00:20:02.190
  • maybe I could do something about that.
  • 00:20:02.190 --> 00:20:04.080
  • (slow instrumental music)
  • 00:20:04.080 --> 00:20:07.220
  • - So Luther was the one who wrote
  • 00:20:16.120 --> 00:20:18.090
  • a long letter, 30, 40 page, addressed to
  • 00:20:18.090 --> 00:20:22.230
  • the nobility and the merchants in Germany,
  • 00:20:22.230 --> 00:20:26.100
  • that everyone needs to study, everyone needs to know God.
  • 00:20:26.100 --> 00:20:31.060
  • Therefore, education must be offered to everyone.
  • 00:20:31.060 --> 00:20:35.140
  • Church does not have the resources to educate everyone.
  • 00:20:35.140 --> 00:20:38.210
  • Therefore, the merchants and the rulers must pay for it,
  • 00:20:38.210 --> 00:20:43.210
  • the Church will actually educate.
  • 00:20:44.260 --> 00:20:46.080
  • So education was a department of the Church.
  • 00:20:46.080 --> 00:20:48.030
  • - How did a more universal set
  • 00:20:48.030 --> 00:20:50.020
  • of education become part of Indian society?
  • 00:20:50.020 --> 00:20:53.090
  • - Well, that's a great contribution
  • 00:20:53.090 --> 00:20:56.180
  • that Jesus and the gospel made to India,
  • 00:20:56.180 --> 00:21:00.220
  • to bring in the concept of universal education.
  • 00:21:00.220 --> 00:21:04.290
  • Because in history, we never had a situation
  • 00:21:04.290 --> 00:21:09.200
  • where a carpenter would actually know how to read and write,
  • 00:21:09.200 --> 00:21:14.080
  • a bread maker would know how to read and write,
  • 00:21:14.080 --> 00:21:16.200
  • or a fisherman, or a milk cartman, or a tent maker,
  • 00:21:16.200 --> 00:21:21.170
  • like Paul was, that they would know how
  • 00:21:22.230 --> 00:21:25.130
  • to read and write or become learned scholars.
  • 00:21:25.130 --> 00:21:28.240
  • This was not even part of European culture,
  • 00:21:28.240 --> 00:21:32.080
  • Greeks and Romans didn't have this.
  • 00:21:32.080 --> 00:21:34.180
  • Christian Europe, during the Middle Ages,
  • 00:21:35.210 --> 00:21:38.110
  • didn't have universal education.
  • 00:21:38.110 --> 00:21:40.120
  • (upbeat piano music)
  • 00:21:40.120 --> 00:21:43.150
  • - It was William Carey and his group,
  • 00:21:52.090 --> 00:21:55.160
  • particularly Hannah Marshman,
  • 00:21:55.160 --> 00:21:58.170
  • she was the one who began building
  • 00:21:58.170 --> 00:22:00.200
  • the primary schools education around Serampore.
  • 00:22:00.200 --> 00:22:04.280
  • And then lot of missionaries came
  • 00:22:04.280 --> 00:22:06.290
  • and educational movement began in India.
  • 00:22:06.290 --> 00:22:09.260
  • And when they first began educating particularly girls,
  • 00:22:09.260 --> 00:22:13.120
  • including girls from lower class,
  • 00:22:13.120 --> 00:22:15.010
  • the upper class people here mocked the missionaries.
  • 00:22:17.110 --> 00:22:21.060
  • They said, well you might as well try
  • 00:22:21.060 --> 00:22:22.250
  • and educate cows and buffalo's,
  • 00:22:22.250 --> 00:22:25.030
  • than trying to educate girls.
  • 00:22:25.030 --> 00:22:26.210
  • This was our attitude.
  • 00:22:26.210 --> 00:22:28.020
  • (speaking in foreign language)
  • 00:22:28.020 --> 00:22:31.290
  • - [Vishal] That's what Jesus is saying
  • 00:22:35.090 --> 00:22:36.270
  • in order to bless all the nations,
  • 00:22:36.270 --> 00:22:38.270
  • you must teach them all that I have taught you.
  • 00:22:38.270 --> 00:22:42.160
  • Education is a ministry of the church.
  • 00:22:42.160 --> 00:22:45.100
  • That's what it means to disciple nations.
  • 00:22:45.100 --> 00:22:48.110
  • Knowing truth sets people free.
  • 00:22:48.110 --> 00:22:52.000
  • And this is a ministry of the Church
  • 00:22:52.000 --> 00:22:54.190
  • that came to India because in India
  • 00:22:54.190 --> 00:22:57.030
  • on religious grounds, knowledge was denied to our people.
  • 00:22:57.030 --> 00:23:01.120
  • It was denied to all the women
  • 00:23:01.120 --> 00:23:03.020
  • and it was denied to all the lower class.
  • 00:23:03.020 --> 00:23:06.010
  • But on religious grounds, for religious reasons,
  • 00:23:06.010 --> 00:23:10.020
  • the gospel brought education to India.
  • 00:23:10.020 --> 00:23:12.190
  • But my point is, that the idea of universal education,
  • 00:23:14.020 --> 00:23:19.020
  • it really took off in Scotland.
  • 00:23:20.040 --> 00:23:23.050
  • It was the reformers who had taken over
  • 00:23:23.050 --> 00:23:26.010
  • both the church and the government.
  • 00:23:26.010 --> 00:23:27.290
  • Under Knox and Andrew Melville
  • 00:23:28.280 --> 00:23:31.000
  • particularly the educationists.
  • 00:23:31.000 --> 00:23:33.000
  • In Scotland, once they abolished the monasteries,
  • 00:23:34.120 --> 00:23:38.270
  • took that money, they put half of
  • 00:23:39.250 --> 00:23:41.150
  • that money into universal education in Scotland.
  • 00:23:41.150 --> 00:23:44.150
  • That's where the Scottish reformation took off
  • 00:23:44.150 --> 00:23:48.130
  • and Scotland became the most educated
  • 00:23:48.130 --> 00:23:52.040
  • and most innovative nation in the whole world,
  • 00:23:52.040 --> 00:23:55.110
  • as a result of the universalization of education.
  • 00:23:56.190 --> 00:24:00.150
  • (soft piano music)
  • 00:24:00.150 --> 00:24:03.130
  • - Picking up the idea of educating the poor,
  • 00:24:17.150 --> 00:24:20.100
  • I mean it was Christians who insisted
  • 00:24:20.100 --> 00:24:22.000
  • to the Scottish Parliament as early as 1695.
  • 00:24:22.000 --> 00:24:24.240
  • That all children should have an education.
  • 00:24:24.240 --> 00:24:27.180
  • It was Christians who set up the schools that
  • 00:24:27.180 --> 00:24:29.160
  • the states eventually, governments eventually took over.
  • 00:24:29.160 --> 00:24:33.080
  • So that's history, but the really important point here is
  • 00:24:33.080 --> 00:24:36.000
  • we stand on the shoulders of giants,
  • 00:24:36.000 --> 00:24:39.100
  • we got to the point that, we don't even know
  • 00:24:39.100 --> 00:24:41.120
  • who the giants were let alone what they struggled with
  • 00:24:41.120 --> 00:24:45.010
  • what they struggled against, what they fought for,
  • 00:24:45.010 --> 00:24:47.180
  • how they succeeded and how it made the world a better place.
  • 00:24:47.180 --> 00:24:50.280
  • We put ourselves in a very dangerous position
  • 00:24:50.280 --> 00:24:54.020
  • by not understanding our history
  • 00:24:54.020 --> 00:24:57.100
  • because the old adage is true,
  • 00:24:57.100 --> 00:24:59.110
  • those who forget the lessons of history
  • 00:24:59.110 --> 00:25:01.050
  • are destined to repeat 'em.
  • 00:25:01.050 --> 00:25:03.200
  • (upbeat worship music)
  • 00:25:03.200 --> 00:25:06.280