Part 3: Glory, Gold and God | TBN

Part 3: Glory, Gold and God

Watch Part 3: Glory, Gold and God
January 28, 2021
58:44

Uncover the unknown stories from Latin America of God’s grace amidst horrific oppression, annihilation and death in the “New World” of Columbus and the Conquistadors.

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Part 3: Glory, Gold and God

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  • [LIGHTNING & THUNDER]
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  • [LIGHTNING & THUNDER][RAIN]
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  • [RAIN][MUSIC]
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  • [MUSIC][MUSIC]
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  • - DENNIS: THE 16TH
  • 00:01:21.147 --> 00:01:22.749
  • - DENNIS: THE 16THCENTURY, EUROPE WAS IN A
  • 00:01:22.749 --> 00:01:23.683
  • CENTURY, EUROPE WAS IN ASTATE OF CHAOS.
  • 00:01:23.683 --> 00:01:25.418
  • STATE OF CHAOS.THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
  • 00:01:25.418 --> 00:01:27.387
  • THE PROTESTANT REFORMATIONTHREATENED TO SPLIT THE
  • 00:01:27.387 --> 00:01:28.421
  • THREATENED TO SPLIT THECHURCH, BUT AT THE SAME
  • 00:01:28.421 --> 00:01:29.355
  • CHURCH, BUT AT THE SAMETIME, LUTHER WAS BATTLING
  • 00:01:29.355 --> 00:01:30.757
  • TIME, LUTHER WAS BATTLINGTHE CHURCH.
  • 00:01:30.757 --> 00:01:31.825
  • THE CHURCH.THE FIRST CONQUISTADORS
  • 00:01:31.825 --> 00:01:32.959
  • THE FIRST CONQUISTADORSWERE BATTLING THE GREAT
  • 00:01:32.959 --> 00:01:34.794
  • WERE BATTLING THE GREATEMPIRES OF THE NEW WORLD.
  • 00:01:34.794 --> 00:01:35.929
  • EMPIRES OF THE NEW WORLD.THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
  • 00:01:35.929 --> 00:01:37.230
  • THE CATHOLIC CHURCHCOUNTERED THE PROTESTANT
  • 00:01:37.230 --> 00:01:38.264
  • COUNTERED THE PROTESTANTREFORMATION WITH A
  • 00:01:38.264 --> 00:01:40.834
  • REFORMATION WITH ACAMPAIGN OF ITS OWN, ONE
  • 00:01:40.834 --> 00:01:42.168
  • CAMPAIGN OF ITS OWN, ONETHAT WOULD EXTEND THE
  • 00:01:42.168 --> 00:01:43.036
  • THAT WOULD EXTEND THECRUSADES BEYOND EUROPE.
  • 00:01:43.036 --> 00:01:44.671
  • CRUSADES BEYOND EUROPE.AND BECAUSE OF THE
  • 00:01:44.671 --> 00:01:45.572
  • AND BECAUSE OF THEHISTORIC VOYAGE OF
  • 00:01:45.572 --> 00:01:46.439
  • HISTORIC VOYAGE OFCHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN
  • 00:01:46.439 --> 00:01:47.974
  • CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN1492, AN ENTIRELY NEW
  • 00:01:47.974 --> 00:01:49.609
  • 1492, AN ENTIRELY NEWWORLD LAY OPEN BEFORE BOTH
  • 00:01:49.609 --> 00:01:53.947
  • WORLD LAY OPEN BEFORE BOTHCRUSADER AND CLERGY.
  • 00:01:53.947 --> 00:01:54.614
  • CRUSADER AND CLERGY.EACH WOULD CHOOSE TO
  • 00:01:54.614 --> 00:01:56.616
  • EACH WOULD CHOOSE TOBECOME SINNER OR SAINT.
  • 00:01:56.616 --> 00:01:59.185
  • BECOME SINNER OR SAINT.THE COLONIZATION OF LATIN
  • 00:01:59.185 --> 00:02:00.587
  • THE COLONIZATION OF LATINAMERICA IN THE 16TH
  • 00:02:00.587 --> 00:02:01.421
  • AMERICA IN THE 16THCENTURY WOULD DO MORE THAN
  • 00:02:01.421 --> 00:02:03.857
  • CENTURY WOULD DO MORE THANCONQUER THE LAND.
  • 00:02:03.857 --> 00:02:04.657
  • CONQUER THE LAND.IT WOULD MAKE
  • 00:02:04.657 --> 00:02:06.392
  • IT WOULD MAKECOUNTER-REFORMATION
  • 00:02:06.392 --> 00:02:07.026
  • COUNTER-REFORMATIONCATHOLICISM THE FIRST
  • 00:02:07.026 --> 00:02:09.195
  • CATHOLICISM THE FIRSTWORLDWIDE RELIGION BUT AT
  • 00:02:09.195 --> 00:02:10.497
  • WORLDWIDE RELIGION BUT ATA TERRIBLE COST.
  • 00:02:10.497 --> 00:02:11.297
  • A TERRIBLE COST.BERNAL DIAZ del CASTILLO:
  • 00:02:11.297 --> 00:02:12.665
  • BERNAL DIAZ del CASTILLO:WE CAME HERE TO SERVE GOD
  • 00:02:12.665 --> 00:02:17.904
  • [MUSIC]
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  • [MUSIC][MUSIC]
  • 00:02:44.197 --> 00:02:53.606
  • - JUSTO GONZALEZ: FIRST
  • 00:02:55.575 --> 00:02:56.276
  • - JUSTO GONZALEZ: FIRSTOF ALL, LET ME DESTROY THE
  • 00:02:56.276 --> 00:02:57.076
  • OF ALL, LET ME DESTROY THEMYTH THAT COLUMBUS WAS THE
  • 00:02:57.076 --> 00:02:57.744
  • MYTH THAT COLUMBUS WAS THEONE WHO SAID THAT THE
  • 00:02:57.744 --> 00:02:59.045
  • ONE WHO SAID THAT THEWORLD WAS ROUND.
  • 00:02:59.045 --> 00:02:59.612
  • WORLD WAS ROUND.PEOPLE KNEW THE WORLD WAS
  • 00:02:59.612 --> 00:03:01.781
  • PEOPLE KNEW THE WORLD WASROUND LONG BEFORE CHRIST.
  • 00:03:01.781 --> 00:03:02.849
  • ROUND LONG BEFORE CHRIST.THEY HAD MEASURED IT WITH
  • 00:03:02.849 --> 00:03:04.450
  • THEY HAD MEASURED IT WITHJUST A FEW KILOMETERS
  • 00:03:04.450 --> 00:03:06.653
  • JUST A FEW KILOMETERSERROR.
  • 00:03:06.653 --> 00:03:08.221
  • ERROR.COLUMBUS' MISTAKE WAS THAT
  • 00:03:08.221 --> 00:03:09.289
  • COLUMBUS' MISTAKE WAS THATHE KNEW IT WAS ROUND, BUT
  • 00:03:09.289 --> 00:03:10.857
  • HE KNEW IT WAS ROUND, BUTHE DIDN'T KNOW HOW BIG IT
  • 00:03:10.857 --> 00:03:11.991
  • HE DIDN'T KNOW HOW BIG ITWAS, AND SO HE WAS
  • 00:03:11.991 --> 00:03:15.328
  • WAS, AND SO HE WASCONVINCED THAT ALL HE HAD
  • 00:03:15.328 --> 00:03:16.262
  • CONVINCED THAT ALL HE HADTO DO WAS JUST GO WEST,
  • 00:03:16.262 --> 00:03:16.829
  • TO DO WAS JUST GO WEST,AND HE WILL ARRIVE AT THE
  • 00:03:16.829 --> 00:03:17.797
  • AND HE WILL ARRIVE AT THEINDIES, WHICH WAS, YOU
  • 00:03:17.797 --> 00:03:19.532
  • INDIES, WHICH WAS, YOUKNOW, THE FAR EAST.
  • 00:03:19.532 --> 00:03:21.301
  • KNOW, THE FAR EAST.HE GOES TO TALK TO THE
  • 00:03:21.301 --> 00:03:23.303
  • HE GOES TO TALK TO THEQUEEN AND TO GET SUPPORT
  • 00:03:23.303 --> 00:03:26.472
  • QUEEN AND TO GET SUPPORTFOR HIS ENTERPRISE.
  • 00:03:26.472 --> 00:03:27.607
  • FOR HIS ENTERPRISE.THE QUEEN SUPPORTS HIM,
  • 00:03:27.607 --> 00:03:30.043
  • THE QUEEN SUPPORTS HIM,AND PART OF HIS CHARTER IS
  • 00:03:30.043 --> 00:03:32.378
  • AND PART OF HIS CHARTER ISTO BRING THE GOSPEL TO ANY
  • 00:03:32.378 --> 00:03:36.649
  • TO BRING THE GOSPEL TO ANYLANDS THAT HE MEETS.
  • 00:03:36.649 --> 00:03:37.283
  • LANDS THAT HE MEETS.- CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS:
  • 00:03:37.283 --> 00:03:41.154
  • - CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS:ON AUGUST 3RD, 1492, I SET
  • 00:03:41.154 --> 00:03:42.188
  • ON AUGUST 3RD, 1492, I SETSAIL FROM SPAIN TO FIND AN
  • 00:03:42.188 --> 00:03:43.856
  • SAIL FROM SPAIN TO FIND ANOCEAN ROUTE TO ASIA.
  • 00:03:43.856 --> 00:03:47.627
  • OCEAN ROUTE TO ASIA.WE HOPED TO FIND TREASURES
  • 00:03:47.627 --> 00:03:51.998
  • WE HOPED TO FIND TREASURESMORE PRECIOUS THAN GOLD.
  • 00:03:51.998 --> 00:03:52.665
  • MORE PRECIOUS THAN GOLD.- JUSTO: AND THAT WAS
  • 00:03:52.665 --> 00:03:53.233
  • - JUSTO: AND THAT WASBASICALLY PART OF THE
  • 00:03:53.233 --> 00:03:54.634
  • BASICALLY PART OF THEENTERPRISE.
  • 00:03:54.634 --> 00:03:55.735
  • ENTERPRISE.- COLUMBUS: AFTER MORE
  • 00:03:55.735 --> 00:03:58.404
  • - COLUMBUS: AFTER MORETHAN TWO MONTHS AT SEA,
  • 00:03:58.404 --> 00:04:00.607
  • THAN TWO MONTHS AT SEA,WHAT I FOUND WAS A MUCH
  • 00:04:00.607 --> 00:04:02.308
  • WHAT I FOUND WAS A MUCHSHORTER ROUTE TO THE FAR
  • 00:04:02.308 --> 00:04:06.646
  • SHORTER ROUTE TO THE FAREAST, OR SO I THOUGHT.
  • 00:04:06.646 --> 00:04:07.380
  • EAST, OR SO I THOUGHT.- JUSTO: HE GOT LOST.
  • 00:04:07.380 --> 00:04:07.947
  • - JUSTO: HE GOT LOST.HE HAD NO IDEA WHERE HE
  • 00:04:07.947 --> 00:04:09.249
  • HE HAD NO IDEA WHERE HEWAS UNTIL THE INDIANS
  • 00:04:09.249 --> 00:04:11.718
  • WAS UNTIL THE INDIANSDISCOVERED HIM.
  • 00:04:11.718 --> 00:04:12.585
  • DISCOVERED HIM.- COLUMBUS: THEY ARE
  • 00:04:12.585 --> 00:04:14.554
  • - COLUMBUS: THEY ARECONVINCED THAT I, WITH
  • 00:04:14.554 --> 00:04:17.090
  • CONVINCED THAT I, WITHTHESE LARGE SHIPS AND MEN,
  • 00:04:17.090 --> 00:04:19.192
  • THESE LARGE SHIPS AND MEN,CAME FROM HEAVENS.
  • 00:04:19.192 --> 00:04:21.127
  • CAME FROM HEAVENS.AND THAT BELIEF-- THEY
  • 00:04:21.127 --> 00:04:22.295
  • AND THAT BELIEF-- THEYRECEIVE ME EVERYWHERE
  • 00:04:22.295 --> 00:04:23.463
  • RECEIVE ME EVERYWHEREAFTER THEY OVERCAME
  • 00:04:23.463 --> 00:04:26.366
  • AFTER THEY OVERCAMETHEIR FEAR.
  • 00:04:26.366 --> 00:04:27.533
  • THEIR FEAR.- JUSTO: HIS GOAL WAS A
  • 00:04:27.533 --> 00:04:28.501
  • - JUSTO: HIS GOAL WAS AA MATTER OF COMMERCE--
  • 00:04:28.501 --> 00:04:31.137
  • A MATTER OF COMMERCE--SPICES.
  • 00:04:31.137 --> 00:04:32.905
  • SPICES.MOST SPICES WERE--
  • 00:04:32.905 --> 00:04:34.507
  • MOST SPICES WERE--AND SOME OF THEM STILL ARE--
  • 00:04:34.507 --> 00:04:35.541
  • AND SOME OF THEM STILL ARE--WORTH MORE THAN GOLD
  • 00:04:35.541 --> 00:04:37.610
  • WORTH MORE THAN GOLDBY WEIGHT.
  • 00:04:37.610 --> 00:04:39.245
  • BY WEIGHT.- COLUMBUS: WHEN I SPOKE
  • 00:04:39.245 --> 00:04:41.347
  • - COLUMBUS: WHEN I SPOKETO THE QUEEN, WHO WAS VERY
  • 00:04:41.347 --> 00:04:42.148
  • TO THE QUEEN, WHO WAS VERYRELIGIOUS, I SAID, "I
  • 00:04:42.148 --> 00:04:44.817
  • RELIGIOUS, I SAID, "IBRING MANY PEOPLE INTO THE
  • 00:04:44.817 --> 00:04:46.953
  • BRING MANY PEOPLE INTO THEFAITH, AND WE'RE GOING TO
  • 00:04:46.953 --> 00:04:48.821
  • FAITH, AND WE'RE GOING TOGET VERY WEALTHY, SO
  • 00:04:48.821 --> 00:04:50.623
  • GET VERY WEALTHY, SOWEALTHY THAT WE WILL BE
  • 00:04:50.623 --> 00:04:52.558
  • WEALTHY THAT WE WILL BEABLE TO RECONQUER
  • 00:04:52.558 --> 00:04:53.226
  • ABLE TO RECONQUERJERUSALEM FOR
  • 00:04:53.226 --> 00:04:56.029
  • JERUSALEM FORCHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:04:56.029 --> 00:04:57.297
  • CHRISTIANITY.- TODD HARTCH: WELL, I
  • 00:04:57.297 --> 00:04:57.797
  • - TODD HARTCH: WELL, ITHINK IT'S REALLY
  • 00:04:57.797 --> 00:04:58.931
  • THINK IT'S REALLYIMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND
  • 00:04:58.931 --> 00:05:01.467
  • IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTANDTHE HISTORY OF IBERIA
  • 00:05:01.467 --> 00:05:03.236
  • THE HISTORY OF IBERIABEFORE THE CONQUEST OF
  • 00:05:03.236 --> 00:05:06.606
  • BEFORE THE CONQUEST OFLATIN AMERICA, AND IBERIA
  • 00:05:06.606 --> 00:05:09.108
  • LATIN AMERICA, AND IBERIAWAS INVADED AND 711, AND
  • 00:05:09.108 --> 00:05:10.677
  • WAS INVADED AND 711, ANDFOR THE NEXT 700 YEARS,
  • 00:05:10.677 --> 00:05:11.744
  • FOR THE NEXT 700 YEARS,THERE WAS CONTINUOUS
  • 00:05:11.744 --> 00:05:13.313
  • THERE WAS CONTINUOUSWARFARE AS THE VARIOUS
  • 00:05:13.313 --> 00:05:15.548
  • WARFARE AS THE VARIOUSCATHOLIC KINGDOMS TRIED TO
  • 00:05:15.548 --> 00:05:19.485
  • CATHOLIC KINGDOMS TRIED TOTAKE BACK, PIECE BY PIECE,
  • 00:05:19.485 --> 00:05:21.421
  • TAKE BACK, PIECE BY PIECE,THE IBERIAN PENINSULA, AND
  • 00:05:21.421 --> 00:05:23.690
  • THE IBERIAN PENINSULA, ANDTHAT'S THE CULTURE THAT
  • 00:05:23.690 --> 00:05:25.458
  • THAT'S THE CULTURE THATCAME TO LATIN AMERICA, SO
  • 00:05:25.458 --> 00:05:28.227
  • CAME TO LATIN AMERICA, SOTHEIR UNDERSTANDING OF
  • 00:05:28.227 --> 00:05:29.462
  • THEIR UNDERSTANDING OFWHAT IT MEANT TO BE A
  • 00:05:29.462 --> 00:05:30.596
  • WHAT IT MEANT TO BE ACATHOLIC WAS VERY MUCH
  • 00:05:30.596 --> 00:05:32.832
  • CATHOLIC WAS VERY MUCHSHAPED BY THIS IDEA OF NOT
  • 00:05:32.832 --> 00:05:34.667
  • SHAPED BY THIS IDEA OF NOTJUST WAR, BUT A HOLY WAR
  • 00:05:34.667 --> 00:05:38.471
  • JUST WAR, BUT A HOLY WARAGAINST ISLAM IN THE
  • 00:05:38.471 --> 00:05:39.205
  • AGAINST ISLAM IN THEIBERIAN PENINSULA, SO THEY
  • 00:05:39.205 --> 00:05:40.640
  • IBERIAN PENINSULA, SO THEYBASICALLY TRANSFERRED THAT
  • 00:05:40.640 --> 00:05:42.308
  • BASICALLY TRANSFERRED THATMENTALITY TO A NEW AREA OF
  • 00:05:42.308 --> 00:05:44.210
  • MENTALITY TO A NEW AREA OFTHE WORLD.
  • 00:05:44.210 --> 00:05:45.812
  • THE WORLD.IF YOU LOOK AT THE
  • 00:05:45.812 --> 00:05:47.814
  • IF YOU LOOK AT THECONQUISTADORES THEMSELVES,
  • 00:05:47.814 --> 00:05:49.248
  • CONQUISTADORES THEMSELVES,YOU'LL FIND SOME OF THEM
  • 00:05:49.248 --> 00:05:51.317
  • YOU'LL FIND SOME OF THEMWHO WERE DEVOUT, WHO WERE
  • 00:05:51.317 --> 00:05:53.920
  • WHO WERE DEVOUT, WHO WEREPIOUS, BUT STILL BELIEVED
  • 00:05:53.920 --> 00:05:55.888
  • PIOUS, BUT STILL BELIEVEDIN THIS VERY WARLIKE
  • 00:05:55.888 --> 00:05:57.156
  • IN THIS VERY WARLIKEVERSION OF CHRISTIANITY,
  • 00:05:57.156 --> 00:05:59.192
  • VERSION OF CHRISTIANITY,AND YOU'LL FIND MANY WHO
  • 00:05:59.192 --> 00:06:00.993
  • AND YOU'LL FIND MANY WHOWERE REAL VILLAINS, WHO
  • 00:06:00.993 --> 00:06:01.894
  • WERE REAL VILLAINS, WHOWERE-- DIDN'T EVEN PRETEND
  • 00:06:01.894 --> 00:06:03.663
  • WERE-- DIDN'T EVEN PRETENDTO BE GOOD CATHOLICS.
  • 00:06:03.663 --> 00:06:05.098
  • TO BE GOOD CATHOLICS.BUT THE INTERESTING GROUP,
  • 00:06:05.098 --> 00:06:06.699
  • BUT THE INTERESTING GROUP,FOR ME, IS THAT FIRST
  • 00:06:06.699 --> 00:06:07.400
  • FOR ME, IS THAT FIRSTGROUP, THE ONES WHO WERE
  • 00:06:07.400 --> 00:06:10.103
  • GROUP, THE ONES WHO WEREWARLIKE, BUT STILL WENT TO
  • 00:06:10.103 --> 00:06:11.938
  • WARLIKE, BUT STILL WENT TOMASS, STILL CONFESSED
  • 00:06:11.938 --> 00:06:14.140
  • - ROLENA ADORNO: AND IN
  • 00:06:15.842 --> 00:06:16.809
  • - ROLENA ADORNO: AND INTHE SOUTHERN AND WESTERN
  • 00:06:16.809 --> 00:06:18.644
  • THE SOUTHERN AND WESTERNPART OF SPAIN, WHERE THERE
  • 00:06:18.644 --> 00:06:20.279
  • PART OF SPAIN, WHERE THEREWAS A LOT OF POVERTY, IT
  • 00:06:20.279 --> 00:06:20.880
  • WAS A LOT OF POVERTY, ITSEEMED JUST A GREAT THING
  • 00:06:20.880 --> 00:06:22.081
  • SEEMED JUST A GREAT THINGFOR PEOPLE WITHOUT ANY
  • 00:06:22.081 --> 00:06:23.783
  • WITHOUT ANY NOBILITY, TO
  • 00:06:25.251 --> 00:06:27.153
  • WITHOUT ANY NOBILITY, TOFORM PART OF THOSE
  • 00:06:27.153 --> 00:06:29.088
  • FORM PART OF THOSEPRIVATELY FINANCED
  • 00:06:29.088 --> 00:06:30.056
  • PRIVATELY FINANCEDEXPEDITIONS THAT WENT TO
  • 00:06:30.056 --> 00:06:31.591
  • EXPEDITIONS THAT WENT TOTHE NEW WORLD TO CONQUER.
  • 00:06:31.591 --> 00:06:33.292
  • THE NEW WORLD TO CONQUER.SO IT WAS THE LAND OF
  • 00:06:33.292 --> 00:06:34.494
  • SO IT WAS THE LAND OFOPPORTUNITY, YOU COULD
  • 00:06:34.494 --> 00:06:35.728
  • OPPORTUNITY, YOU COULDSAY, FOR THOSE PEOPLE WHO
  • 00:06:35.728 --> 00:06:37.730
  • SAY, FOR THOSE PEOPLE WHOHAD NO-- NOTHING TO FALL
  • 00:06:37.730 --> 00:06:39.198
  • HAD NO-- NOTHING TO FALLBACK ON IN THEIR NATIVE
  • 00:06:39.198 --> 00:06:40.133
  • BACK ON IN THEIR NATIVESPAIN.
  • 00:06:40.133 --> 00:06:41.300
  • SPAIN.THEY WERE LOOKING FOR
  • 00:06:41.300 --> 00:06:42.335
  • THEY WERE LOOKING FORWEALTH, THEY WERE LOOKING
  • 00:06:42.335 --> 00:06:43.703
  • WEALTH, THEY WERE LOOKINGFOR PEOPLE TO WORK FOR
  • 00:06:43.703 --> 00:06:44.704
  • FOR PEOPLE TO WORK FORTHEM, AND, OF COURSE, THEY
  • 00:06:44.704 --> 00:06:47.473
  • THEM, AND, OF COURSE, THEYWERE LOOKING FOR GOLD.
  • 00:06:47.473 --> 00:06:48.674
  • WERE LOOKING FOR GOLD.- JUSTO: THERE'S A FAMOUS
  • 00:06:48.674 --> 00:06:50.042
  • - JUSTO: THERE'S A FAMOUSOLD LINE THAT SAYS THAT
  • 00:06:50.042 --> 00:06:52.445
  • OLD LINE THAT SAYS THATGOD WRITES STRAIGHT
  • 00:06:52.445 --> 00:06:53.513
  • GOD WRITES STRAIGHTPARAGRAPHS WITH TWISTED
  • 00:06:53.513 --> 00:06:54.280
  • PARAGRAPHS WITH TWISTEDHUMAN LINES, AND THAT'S
  • 00:06:54.280 --> 00:06:56.749
  • HUMAN LINES, AND THAT'STRUE THROUGHOUT ALL OF
  • 00:06:56.749 --> 00:06:58.518
  • TRUE THROUGHOUT ALL OFHISTORY.
  • 00:06:58.518 --> 00:06:59.051
  • HISTORY.IT'S NOT JUST A PARTICULAR
  • 00:06:59.051 --> 00:07:00.887
  • IT'S NOT JUST A PARTICULARCASE.
  • 00:07:00.887 --> 00:07:01.487
  • CASE.- HATUEY: WHEN I FLED
  • 00:07:01.487 --> 00:07:03.489
  • - HATUEY: WHEN I FLEDFROM HISPANIOLA TO CUBA, I
  • 00:07:03.489 --> 00:07:06.893
  • FROM HISPANIOLA TO CUBA, IWARNED MY PEOPLE, SAYING,
  • 00:07:06.893 --> 00:07:08.161
  • WARNED MY PEOPLE, SAYING,"THESE INVADERS ARE, BY
  • 00:07:08.161 --> 00:07:09.095
  • "THESE INVADERS ARE, BYTHEIR VERY NATURE, CRUEL
  • 00:07:09.095 --> 00:07:12.432
  • THEIR VERY NATURE, CRUELAND EVIL."
  • 00:07:12.432 --> 00:07:13.332
  • AND EVIL."- JUSTO: OBVIOUSLY, THE
  • 00:07:13.332 --> 00:07:14.634
  • - JUSTO: OBVIOUSLY, THEFIRST PREACHING OF
  • 00:07:14.634 --> 00:07:15.535
  • FIRST PREACHING OFCHRISTIANITY IN THE
  • 00:07:15.535 --> 00:07:16.536
  • CHRISTIANITY IN THEWESTERN HEMISPHERE CAME
  • 00:07:16.536 --> 00:07:19.338
  • WESTERN HEMISPHERE CAMEWITH THE PEOPLE WHO
  • 00:07:19.338 --> 00:07:20.740
  • WITH THE PEOPLE WHOFOLLOWED COLUMBUS.
  • 00:07:20.740 --> 00:07:23.142
  • FOLLOWED COLUMBUS.SO IT'S CLEAR THAT GOD WAS
  • 00:07:23.142 --> 00:07:24.544
  • SO IT'S CLEAR THAT GOD WASWORKING THERE, BUT THE
  • 00:07:24.544 --> 00:07:25.845
  • WORKING THERE, BUT THETWISTED LINES WERE VERY,
  • 00:07:25.845 --> 00:07:26.846
  • TWISTED LINES WERE VERY,VERY TWISTED.
  • 00:07:26.846 --> 00:07:28.080
  • VERY TWISTED.- HATUEY: ROBBERY,
  • 00:07:28.080 --> 00:07:31.050
  • - HATUEY: ROBBERY,MURDER, RAPE.
  • 00:07:31.050 --> 00:07:33.252
  • MURDER, RAPE.WE WOULD COMMIT MASS
  • 00:07:33.252 --> 00:07:33.886
  • WE WOULD COMMIT MASSSUICIDE RATHER THAN SUBMIT
  • 00:07:33.886 --> 00:07:35.688
  • SUICIDE RATHER THAN SUBMITTO THE RULE OF THESE
  • 00:07:35.688 --> 00:07:39.859
  • TO THE RULE OF THESESPANISH DEVILS.
  • 00:07:39.859 --> 00:07:41.194
  • SPANISH DEVILS.AND HERE, THIS IS THE GOD
  • 00:07:41.194 --> 00:07:44.831
  • AND HERE, THIS IS THE GODOF THE CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:07:44.831 --> 00:07:48.367
  • OF THE CHRISTIANS.[FOOTSTEPS]
  • 00:07:48.367 --> 00:07:48.935
  • [FOOTSTEPS]- HATUEY: (SPEAKING NATIVE
  • 00:07:48.935 --> 00:07:52.004
  • - HATUEY: (SPEAKING NATIVELANGUAGE)
  • 00:07:52.004 --> 00:07:53.172
  • LANGUAGE)- JUSTO: WHEN COLUMBUS
  • 00:07:53.172 --> 00:07:54.207
  • - JUSTO: WHEN COLUMBUSRETURNED, THE PERSON WHO
  • 00:07:54.207 --> 00:07:55.274
  • RETURNED, THE PERSON WHOWAS THE POPE AT THAT POINT
  • 00:07:55.274 --> 00:07:55.842
  • WAS THE POPE AT THAT POINTWAS PROBABLY WORST POPE
  • 00:07:55.842 --> 00:07:57.844
  • WAS PROBABLY WORST POPETHERE'S EVER BEEN,
  • 00:07:57.844 --> 00:08:00.046
  • THERE'S EVER BEEN,ALEXANDER VI.
  • 00:08:00.046 --> 00:08:00.613
  • ALEXANDER VI.HE DIDN'T WANNA MESS WITH
  • 00:08:00.613 --> 00:08:01.547
  • HE DIDN'T WANNA MESS WITHALL THOSE NEW LINES
  • 00:08:01.547 --> 00:08:02.648
  • ALL THOSE NEW LINESWHERE YOU HAVE TO SEND
  • 00:08:02.648 --> 00:08:03.182
  • WHERE YOU HAVE TO SENDMISSIONARIES AND "HOW MUCH
  • 00:08:03.182 --> 00:08:04.484
  • MISSIONARIES AND "HOW MUCHIS THAT GONNA COST?
  • 00:08:04.484 --> 00:08:06.118
  • IS THAT GONNA COST?I DON'T WANNA MESS WITH THAT."
  • 00:08:06.118 --> 00:08:07.019
  • I DON'T WANNA MESS WITH THAT."SO HE ISSUES A
  • 00:08:07.019 --> 00:08:07.587
  • SO HE ISSUES ASERIES OF BULLS THAT GIVES
  • 00:08:07.587 --> 00:08:08.521
  • SERIES OF BULLS THAT GIVESTHE CROWN OF SPAIN THE
  • 00:08:08.521 --> 00:08:10.957
  • THE CROWN OF SPAIN THEROYAL PATRONAGE OVER THE
  • 00:08:10.957 --> 00:08:12.959
  • ROYAL PATRONAGE OVER THECHURCH IN ALL LANDS WHERE
  • 00:08:12.959 --> 00:08:14.126
  • CHURCH IN ALL LANDS WHERETHERE ARE NO CHURCHES
  • 00:08:14.126 --> 00:08:18.464
  • THERE ARE NO CHURCHESALREADY IN EXISTENCE.
  • 00:08:18.464 --> 00:08:19.065
  • ALREADY IN EXISTENCE.- RAFAEL TARRAGO: THE
  • 00:08:19.065 --> 00:08:19.932
  • - RAFAEL TARRAGO: THEDOCUMENT, I HAVE READ IT.
  • 00:08:19.932 --> 00:08:20.633
  • DOCUMENT, I HAVE READ IT.I KEEP READING IT, AND
  • 00:08:20.633 --> 00:08:21.434
  • I KEEP READING IT, ANDSOMETIMES IT SOUNDS LIKE,
  • 00:08:21.434 --> 00:08:22.068
  • SOMETIMES IT SOUNDS LIKE,"THIS IS A DONATION FOR
  • 00:08:22.068 --> 00:08:22.969
  • "THIS IS A DONATION FORYOU TO OWN THIS LAND,"
  • 00:08:22.969 --> 00:08:24.804
  • YOU TO OWN THIS LAND,"THAT SOMETIMES IT SOUNDS,
  • 00:08:24.804 --> 00:08:26.739
  • THAT SOMETIMES IT SOUNDS,"YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO
  • 00:08:26.739 --> 00:08:27.807
  • "YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TOBRING CHRISTIANITY," BUT,
  • 00:08:27.807 --> 00:08:29.041
  • BRING CHRISTIANITY," BUT,OF COURSE, YOU KNOW, TO
  • 00:08:29.041 --> 00:08:31.377
  • OF COURSE, YOU KNOW, TOBRING CHRISTIANITY, YOU
  • 00:08:31.377 --> 00:08:31.878
  • BRING CHRISTIANITY, YOUHAD TO GET THERE, RIGHT?
  • 00:08:31.878 --> 00:08:33.913
  • HAD TO GET THERE, RIGHT?SO WHAT YOU DO THERE, I AM
  • 00:08:33.913 --> 00:08:35.882
  • SO WHAT YOU DO THERE, I AMBASICALLY-- DON'T KNOW.
  • 00:08:35.882 --> 00:08:37.049
  • BASICALLY-- DON'T KNOW.- JUSTO: THE HIERARCHY OF
  • 00:08:37.049 --> 00:08:37.550
  • - JUSTO: THE HIERARCHY OFTHE CHURCH ARE MOSTLY
  • 00:08:37.550 --> 00:08:39.018
  • THE CHURCH ARE MOSTLYPEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN
  • 00:08:39.018 --> 00:08:40.052
  • PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEENAPPOINTED BECAUSE THEY
  • 00:08:40.052 --> 00:08:40.586
  • APPOINTED BECAUSE THEYHAVE CONNECTIONS IN SPAIN,
  • 00:08:40.586 --> 00:08:42.922
  • HAVE CONNECTIONS IN SPAIN,AND THE LOYALTY IS MORE TO
  • 00:08:42.922 --> 00:08:44.123
  • AND THE LOYALTY IS MORE TOTHE CROWN THAN TO
  • 00:08:44.123 --> 00:08:47.026
  • THE CROWN THAN TOANYBODY ELSE.
  • 00:08:47.026 --> 00:08:49.195
  • ANYBODY ELSE.NOW, IN THE CATHOLIC
  • 00:08:49.195 --> 00:08:50.329
  • NOW, IN THE CATHOLICCHURCH, AS YOU KNOW, THERE
  • 00:08:50.329 --> 00:08:51.163
  • CHURCH, AS YOU KNOW, THEREARE TWO DIFFERENT
  • 00:08:51.163 --> 00:08:51.964
  • ARE TWO DIFFERENTTYPES OF CLERGY.
  • 00:08:51.964 --> 00:08:52.965
  • TYPES OF CLERGY.THERE ARE THE ONES THAT
  • 00:08:52.965 --> 00:08:54.100
  • THERE ARE THE ONES THATYOU CALL THE DIOCESAN OR
  • 00:08:54.100 --> 00:08:54.634
  • YOU CALL THE DIOCESAN ORSECULAR CLERGY AND THE
  • 00:08:54.634 --> 00:08:55.735
  • SECULAR CLERGY AND THEONES THAT YOU CALLED THE
  • 00:08:55.735 --> 00:08:57.403
  • ONES THAT YOU CALLED THEREGULARS FOR RELIGIOUS.
  • 00:08:57.403 --> 00:08:58.371
  • REGULARS FOR RELIGIOUS.THE WORD "RELIGIOUS" AND
  • 00:08:58.371 --> 00:08:59.438
  • THE WORD "RELIGIOUS" AND"SECULAR" MEANS SOMETHING
  • 00:08:59.438 --> 00:09:00.306
  • "SECULAR" MEANS SOMETHINGELSE FOR US, BUT WHAT THEY
  • 00:09:00.306 --> 00:09:01.073
  • ELSE FOR US, BUT WHAT THEYMEAN IS THE DIOCESAN
  • 00:09:01.073 --> 00:09:02.108
  • MEAN IS THE DIOCESANCLERGY HAVE VOWS OF
  • 00:09:02.108 --> 00:09:05.278
  • CLERGY HAVE VOWS OFCHASTITY AND OBEDIENCE,
  • 00:09:05.278 --> 00:09:07.079
  • CHASTITY AND OBEDIENCE,BUT NOT OF POVERTY, AND
  • 00:09:07.079 --> 00:09:08.447
  • BUT NOT OF POVERTY, ANDTHEY ARE UNDER THE
  • 00:09:08.447 --> 00:09:09.582
  • THEY ARE UNDER THEDIRECTION OR JURISDICTION
  • 00:09:09.582 --> 00:09:11.350
  • DIRECTION OR JURISDICTIONOF BISHOP, AND THEY'RE
  • 00:09:11.350 --> 00:09:12.385
  • OF BISHOP, AND THEY'REUSUALLY SUPPOSED TO BE
  • 00:09:12.385 --> 00:09:13.920
  • USUALLY SUPPOSED TO BEMOSTLY THE PARISH PRIESTS.
  • 00:09:13.920 --> 00:09:17.590
  • MOSTLY THE PARISH PRIESTS.THE RELIGIOUS OR REGULAR
  • 00:09:17.590 --> 00:09:19.392
  • THE RELIGIOUS OR REGULARARE THE ONES WHO ARE
  • 00:09:19.392 --> 00:09:19.926
  • ARE THE ONES WHO AREUNDER RULE.
  • 00:09:19.926 --> 00:09:21.327
  • UNDER RULE.THAT'S WHY THEY'RE CALLED
  • 00:09:21.327 --> 00:09:22.628
  • THAT'S WHY THEY'RE CALLED"REGULAR," NOT THE
  • 00:09:22.628 --> 00:09:23.162
  • "REGULAR," NOT THEFRANCISCANS, DOMINICANS,
  • 00:09:23.162 --> 00:09:24.797
  • FRANCISCANS, DOMINICANS,JESUITS, AND SO ON.
  • 00:09:24.797 --> 00:09:27.733
  • JESUITS, AND SO ON.THEY HAVE THE VOWS OF
  • 00:09:27.733 --> 00:09:31.504
  • THEY HAVE THE VOWS OFPOVERTY, AND EVERYTHING
  • 00:09:31.504 --> 00:09:32.805
  • POVERTY, AND EVERYTHINGTHEY HAVE BELONGS TO
  • 00:09:32.805 --> 00:09:33.573
  • THEY HAVE BELONGS TOTHE ORDER,
  • 00:09:33.573 --> 00:09:36.742
  • THE ORDER,NOT TO THEM.
  • 00:09:36.742 --> 00:09:41.347
  • NOT TO THEM.SO YOU BEGIN THE CONQUEST,
  • 00:09:41.347 --> 00:09:41.914
  • SO YOU BEGIN THE CONQUEST,AND YOU APPOINT THE BISHOP
  • 00:09:41.914 --> 00:09:42.648
  • AND YOU APPOINT THE BISHOPOF A CITY.
  • 00:09:42.648 --> 00:09:43.115
  • OF A CITY.THAT BISHOP IS NOW
  • 00:09:43.115 --> 00:09:44.317
  • THAT BISHOP IS NOWCONNECTED WITH SPAIN.
  • 00:09:44.317 --> 00:09:45.318
  • CONNECTED WITH SPAIN.HE'S SUPPOSED TO SUPERVISE
  • 00:09:45.318 --> 00:09:47.286
  • HE'S SUPPOSED TO SUPERVISEPARISH PRIESTS.
  • 00:09:47.286 --> 00:09:48.854
  • PARISH PRIESTS.SO WHAT HAPPENS VERY SOON
  • 00:09:48.854 --> 00:09:50.056
  • SO WHAT HAPPENS VERY SOONIS THAT YOU BEGIN GETTING
  • 00:09:50.056 --> 00:09:52.525
  • IS THAT YOU BEGIN GETTINGA CLERGY WHERE SOME OF
  • 00:09:52.525 --> 00:09:55.027
  • A CLERGY WHERE SOME OFTHEM ONLY SEE THE NATIVE
  • 00:09:55.027 --> 00:09:56.329
  • THEM ONLY SEE THE NATIVEAMERICANS AFTER THEY HAVE
  • 00:09:56.329 --> 00:09:58.097
  • AMERICANS AFTER THEY HAVEBEEN SUBJECTED,
  • 00:09:58.097 --> 00:10:00.366
  • BEEN SUBJECTED,HUMILIATED, FORCED TO
  • 00:10:00.366 --> 00:10:03.135
  • HUMILIATED, FORCED TOWORK, AND WORE POORLY THE
  • 00:10:03.135 --> 00:10:04.070
  • WORK, AND WORE POORLY THECLOTHES THAT THE EUROPEANS
  • 00:10:04.070 --> 00:10:04.837
  • CLOTHES THAT THE EUROPEANSWEAR.
  • 00:10:04.837 --> 00:10:05.805
  • WEAR.THOSE ARE THE NATIVES THAT
  • 00:10:05.805 --> 00:10:08.908
  • THOSE ARE THE NATIVES THATTHE PARISH PRIESTS SEE
  • 00:10:08.908 --> 00:10:10.109
  • THE PARISH PRIESTS SEESOMEPLACE, SEES IN CAPITAL
  • 00:10:10.109 --> 00:10:11.043
  • SOMEPLACE, SEES IN CAPITALCITY OR THE BISHOPS
  • 00:10:11.043 --> 00:10:11.811
  • CITY OR THE BISHOPSIN THE CITY.
  • 00:10:11.811 --> 00:10:13.279
  • IN THE CITY.THE OTHERS THINK, "THEY'RE
  • 00:10:13.279 --> 00:10:14.113
  • THE OTHERS THINK, "THEY'REDOING YOU GREAT FAVOR.
  • 00:10:14.113 --> 00:10:14.614
  • DOING YOU GREAT FAVOR.LOOK AT THIS.
  • 00:10:14.614 --> 00:10:16.582
  • LOOK AT THIS.THERE ARE ALL THE SAVAGES.
  • 00:10:16.582 --> 00:10:17.717
  • THERE ARE ALL THE SAVAGES.NOW THEY'RE WEARING
  • 00:10:17.717 --> 00:10:18.684
  • NOW THEY'RE WEARINGDECENT CLOTHES.
  • 00:10:18.684 --> 00:10:19.418
  • DECENT CLOTHES.LOOK AT ALL THESE SAVAGES.
  • 00:10:19.418 --> 00:10:20.686
  • LOOK AT ALL THESE SAVAGES.THEY ALL LIVE OUT THERE IN
  • 00:10:20.686 --> 00:10:21.854
  • THEY ALL LIVE OUT THERE INSOME PLACE, AND NOW
  • 00:10:21.854 --> 00:10:22.989
  • SOME PLACE, AND NOWTHEY'RE IN THE CITY, AND
  • 00:10:22.989 --> 00:10:25.057
  • THEY'RE IN THE CITY, ANDTHEY HAVE ALL THE BENEFITS
  • 00:10:25.057 --> 00:10:27.793
  • THEY HAVE ALL THE BENEFITSOF SPANISH CIVILIZATION,
  • 00:10:27.793 --> 00:10:29.695
  • OF SPANISH CIVILIZATION,AND SO WE ARE CIVILIZING
  • 00:10:29.695 --> 00:10:30.863
  • AND SO WE ARE CIVILIZINGTHEM.
  • 00:10:30.863 --> 00:10:33.633
  • THEM.SO IT'S A GREAT THING."
  • 00:10:33.633 --> 00:10:34.166
  • SO IT'S A GREAT THING."WHEREAS THE OTHERS SAY,
  • 00:10:34.166 --> 00:10:34.700
  • WHEREAS THE OTHERS SAY,"NO, NO, THERE ARE SOME
  • 00:10:34.700 --> 00:10:35.568
  • "NO, NO, THERE ARE SOMEOTHER PROBLEMS."
  • 00:10:35.568 --> 00:10:37.036
  • OTHER PROBLEMS."- DENNIS: WHO SAW THE
  • 00:10:37.036 --> 00:10:37.703
  • - DENNIS: WHO SAW THEREALITY OF HOW THE
  • 00:10:37.703 --> 00:10:38.771
  • REALITY OF HOW THEINDIGENOUS PEOPLE LIVE
  • 00:10:38.771 --> 00:10:39.972
  • INDIGENOUS PEOPLE LIVETHEIR LIVES?
  • 00:10:39.972 --> 00:10:41.040
  • THEIR LIVES?WHO UNDERSTOOD THEIR
  • 00:10:41.040 --> 00:10:42.975
  • WHO UNDERSTOOD THEIRSOCIAL STRUCTURE?
  • 00:10:42.975 --> 00:10:44.010
  • SOCIAL STRUCTURE?IT WAS THE REGULARS,
  • 00:10:44.010 --> 00:10:45.077
  • IT WAS THE REGULARS,THE FRANCISCANS, THE
  • 00:10:45.077 --> 00:10:47.813
  • THE FRANCISCANS, THEDOMINICANS, THE JESUITS,
  • 00:10:47.813 --> 00:10:50.549
  • DOMINICANS, THE JESUITS,THOSE WHO HAD TAKEN A VOW
  • 00:10:50.549 --> 00:10:52.585
  • THOSE WHO HAD TAKEN A VOWOF POVERTY, AND BECAUSE
  • 00:10:52.585 --> 00:10:54.754
  • OF POVERTY, AND BECAUSETHE REGULARS LIVE MORE
  • 00:10:54.754 --> 00:10:55.788
  • THE REGULARS LIVE MORECLOSELY WITH THE NATIVE
  • 00:10:55.788 --> 00:10:57.490
  • CLOSELY WITH THE NATIVEPEOPLE THAN THE SECULAR
  • 00:10:57.490 --> 00:10:58.424
  • PEOPLE THAN THE SECULARCLERGY, THEY WERE THE ONES
  • 00:10:58.424 --> 00:10:59.792
  • CLERGY, THEY WERE THE ONESWHO PROTESTED AGAINST ANY
  • 00:10:59.792 --> 00:11:00.660
  • WHO PROTESTED AGAINST ANYMISTREATMENT OF THEM,
  • 00:11:00.660 --> 00:11:02.128
  • MISTREATMENT OF THEM,AGAINST ANYTHING THAT MADE
  • 00:11:02.128 --> 00:11:03.829
  • AGAINST ANYTHING THAT MADETHEM FEEL LESS THAN HUMAN.
  • 00:11:03.829 --> 00:11:06.565
  • THEM FEEL LESS THAN HUMAN.THIS CONFLICT BETWEEN THE
  • 00:11:06.565 --> 00:11:08.067
  • THIS CONFLICT BETWEEN THESECULAR AND RELIGIOUS
  • 00:11:08.067 --> 00:11:09.835
  • SECULAR AND RELIGIOUSCLERGY REPRESENTED THE TWO
  • 00:11:09.835 --> 00:11:14.540
  • CLERGY REPRESENTED THE TWOFACES OF THE CHURCH.
  • 00:11:14.540 --> 00:11:15.241
  • FACES OF THE CHURCH.- BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS:
  • 00:11:15.241 --> 00:11:15.808
  • - BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS:MY NAME IS BARTOLOME DE
  • 00:11:15.808 --> 00:11:19.612
  • MY NAME IS BARTOLOME DELAS CASAS.
  • 00:11:19.612 --> 00:11:20.179
  • LAS CASAS.I WAS AT DOMINICAN FRIAR,
  • 00:11:20.179 --> 00:11:22.048
  • I WAS AT DOMINICAN FRIAR,ONE OF THE
  • 00:11:22.048 --> 00:11:22.915
  • ONE OF THEREGULARS--LATER, THE
  • 00:11:22.915 --> 00:11:28.688
  • REGULARS--LATER, THEBISHOP OF CHIAPAS.
  • 00:11:28.688 --> 00:11:29.288
  • BISHOP OF CHIAPAS.SOME HAVE ALSO CALLED ME
  • 00:11:29.288 --> 00:11:30.456
  • SOME HAVE ALSO CALLED METHE PROTECTOR OF THE
  • 00:11:30.456 --> 00:11:34.060
  • THE PROTECTOR OF THEINDIANS, BUT BEFORE ALL
  • 00:11:34.060 --> 00:11:34.560
  • INDIANS, BUT BEFORE ALLTHAT, I WAS A COLONIAL
  • 00:11:34.560 --> 00:11:35.728
  • THAT, I WAS A COLONIALSETTLER WITH AN
  • 00:11:35.728 --> 00:11:39.532
  • SETTLER WITH ANENCOMIENDA.
  • 00:11:39.532 --> 00:11:41.801
  • ENCOMIENDA.[MUSIC]
  • 00:11:41.801 --> 00:11:42.535
  • [MUSIC]- BARTOLOME:
  • 00:11:42.535 --> 00:11:43.602
  • - BARTOLOME:[SPEAKING IN FOREIGN
  • 00:11:43.602 --> 00:11:50.776
  • [SPEAKING IN FOREIGNLANGUAGE]
  • 00:11:50.776 --> 00:11:51.510
  • LANGUAGE][MUSIC]
  • 00:11:51.510 --> 00:11:52.044
  • [MUSIC]- BARTOLOME: WHAT IS AN
  • 00:11:52.044 --> 00:11:53.112
  • - BARTOLOME: WHAT IS ANENCOMIENDA?
  • 00:11:53.112 --> 00:11:53.813
  • ENCOMIENDA?SOMETHIN' THAT I'M MOST
  • 00:11:53.813 --> 00:11:57.683
  • SOMETHIN' THAT I'M MOSTASHAMED OF NOW.
  • 00:11:57.683 --> 00:11:58.217
  • ASHAMED OF NOW.THIS TOOK PLACE BEFORE MY
  • 00:11:58.217 --> 00:12:00.352
  • THIS TOOK PLACE BEFORE MYHEART WAS CHANGED.
  • 00:12:00.352 --> 00:12:01.220
  • HEART WAS CHANGED.- JUSTO: A SPANIARD WILL
  • 00:12:01.220 --> 00:12:03.556
  • - JUSTO: A SPANIARD WILLRECEIVE ENTRUSTEESHIP,
  • 00:12:03.556 --> 00:12:04.290
  • RECEIVE ENTRUSTEESHIP,IN TRUST, A NUMBER OF
  • 00:12:04.290 --> 00:12:06.592
  • IN TRUST, A NUMBER OFINDIANS TO CHRISTIANIZE
  • 00:12:06.592 --> 00:12:09.261
  • INDIANS TO CHRISTIANIZEAND EDUCATE THEM,
  • 00:12:09.261 --> 00:12:11.030
  • AND EDUCATE THEM,IN EXCHANGE OF WHICH
  • 00:12:11.030 --> 00:12:12.898
  • IN EXCHANGE OF WHICHTHE INDIAN WILL WORK FOR THEM.
  • 00:12:12.898 --> 00:12:13.699
  • THE INDIAN WILL WORK FOR THEM.- BARTOLOME:
  • 00:12:13.699 --> 00:12:14.500
  • - BARTOLOME:[SPEAKING IN FOREIGN
  • 00:12:14.500 --> 00:12:16.302
  • [SPEAKING IN FOREIGNLANGUAGE]
  • 00:12:16.302 --> 00:12:18.304
  • LANGUAGE]- JUSTO: NOW, OBVIOUSLY,
  • 00:12:18.304 --> 00:12:19.572
  • - JUSTO: NOW, OBVIOUSLY,ALL OF THEM MADE SURE THE
  • 00:12:19.572 --> 00:12:20.806
  • ALL OF THEM MADE SURE THESECOND PART WAS FULFILLED,
  • 00:12:20.806 --> 00:12:23.609
  • SECOND PART WAS FULFILLED,BUT THE FIRST PART WAS
  • 00:12:23.609 --> 00:12:24.677
  • BUT THE FIRST PART WASUSUALLY FORGOTTEN.
  • 00:12:24.677 --> 00:12:25.244
  • USUALLY FORGOTTEN.- RAFAEL: ENCOMIENDA WAS
  • 00:12:25.244 --> 00:12:26.245
  • - RAFAEL: ENCOMIENDA WASBASICALLY AN ATTEMPT TO
  • 00:12:26.245 --> 00:12:30.483
  • BASICALLY AN ATTEMPT TORECREATE IN THE AMERICAS,
  • 00:12:30.483 --> 00:12:33.619
  • RECREATE IN THE AMERICAS,A EUROPEAN SERFDOM WITH
  • 00:12:33.619 --> 00:12:35.254
  • A EUROPEAN SERFDOM WITHTHE LORD HAVING ACCESS TO
  • 00:12:35.254 --> 00:12:36.822
  • THE LORD HAVING ACCESS TOTHE LABOR OF THE
  • 00:12:36.822 --> 00:12:40.760
  • THE LABOR OF THECOMMANDED, AND THEN THESE
  • 00:12:40.760 --> 00:12:42.061
  • COMMANDED, AND THEN THESEPEOPLE ARE GOING TO BE
  • 00:12:42.061 --> 00:12:42.895
  • PEOPLE ARE GOING TO BEPROTECTED BY THE LORD
  • 00:12:42.895 --> 00:12:44.296
  • PROTECTED BY THE LORDFROM-- WHOM?
  • 00:12:44.296 --> 00:12:44.997
  • FROM-- WHOM?WELL, THAT WAS A GOOD
  • 00:12:44.997 --> 00:12:46.165
  • WELL, THAT WAS A GOODQUESTION.
  • 00:12:46.165 --> 00:12:48.200
  • QUESTION.FROM EACH OTHER, PERHAPS.
  • 00:12:48.200 --> 00:12:48.834
  • FROM EACH OTHER, PERHAPS.- ROLENA: THERE IS NO
  • 00:12:48.834 --> 00:12:49.869
  • - ROLENA: THERE IS NOINSTITUTION THAT ENSLAVES
  • 00:12:49.869 --> 00:12:51.771
  • INSTITUTION THAT ENSLAVESPEOPLE MORE THAN AN
  • 00:12:51.771 --> 00:12:53.005
  • PEOPLE MORE THAN ANINSTITUTION WHERE YOU HAVE
  • 00:12:53.005 --> 00:12:55.007
  • INSTITUTION WHERE YOU HAVENO RECOURSE, YOU HAVE NO,
  • 00:12:55.007 --> 00:12:59.211
  • NO RECOURSE, YOU HAVE NO,SHALL I SAY, COURT OF A
  • 00:12:59.211 --> 00:13:00.312
  • SHALL I SAY, COURT OF AHIGHER ORDER TO WHICH YOU
  • 00:13:00.312 --> 00:13:02.348
  • HIGHER ORDER TO WHICH YOUCAN APPEAL.
  • 00:13:02.348 --> 00:13:04.316
  • CAN APPEAL.- JUSTO: AND IT BECAME A
  • 00:13:04.316 --> 00:13:04.884
  • - JUSTO: AND IT BECAME AFORM OF SLAVERY, ALTHOUGH
  • 00:13:04.884 --> 00:13:06.585
  • FORM OF SLAVERY, ALTHOUGHSLAVERY WAS FORBIDDEN.
  • 00:13:06.585 --> 00:13:08.287
  • SLAVERY WAS FORBIDDEN.IN SOME WAYS, IT WAS WORSE
  • 00:13:08.287 --> 00:13:10.089
  • IN SOME WAYS, IT WAS WORSETHAN SLAVERY BECAUSE THE
  • 00:13:10.089 --> 00:13:11.891
  • THAN SLAVERY BECAUSE THEENCOMIENDERO, THE OWNER,
  • 00:13:11.891 --> 00:13:14.226
  • ENCOMIENDERO, THE OWNER,HAD NO INVESTMENT.
  • 00:13:14.226 --> 00:13:14.794
  • HAD NO INVESTMENT.SO IF HE MISTREATED THESE
  • 00:13:14.794 --> 00:13:16.562
  • SO IF HE MISTREATED THESEPEOPLE, AND THEY DIED, HE
  • 00:13:16.562 --> 00:13:18.597
  • PEOPLE, AND THEY DIED, HECOULD GET MORE, AND THAT'S
  • 00:13:18.597 --> 00:13:19.832
  • COULD GET MORE, AND THAT'SWHY IN MANY PLACES THE
  • 00:13:19.832 --> 00:13:21.066
  • WHY IN MANY PLACES THEINDIAN POPULATION VERY,
  • 00:13:21.066 --> 00:13:28.841
  • INDIAN POPULATION VERY,VERY QUICKLY DECLINED.
  • 00:13:28.841 --> 00:13:29.375
  • VERY QUICKLY DECLINED.- BARTOLOMé: YES, I WAS
  • 00:13:29.375 --> 00:13:31.811
  • - BARTOLOMé: YES, I WASAN ENCOMIENDERO.
  • 00:13:31.811 --> 00:13:33.445
  • AN ENCOMIENDERO.I HAD INDIANS, AND I WENT
  • 00:13:33.445 --> 00:13:34.814
  • I HAD INDIANS, AND I WENTTO CHURCH AS EVERYONE DID.
  • 00:13:34.814 --> 00:13:37.082
  • TO CHURCH AS EVERYONE DID.ONE SUNDAY, A PARTICULAR
  • 00:13:37.082 --> 00:13:37.917
  • ONE SUNDAY, A PARTICULARDOMINICAN STOOD UP
  • 00:13:37.917 --> 00:13:40.386
  • DOMINICAN STOOD UPBEFORE US.
  • 00:13:40.386 --> 00:13:41.620
  • BEFORE US.- ANTONIO DE MONTESINOS:
  • 00:13:41.620 --> 00:13:42.288
  • - ANTONIO DE MONTESINOS:TELL ME BY RIGHT OF
  • 00:13:42.288 --> 00:13:43.989
  • TELL ME BY RIGHT OFJUSTICE DO YOU HOLD THESE
  • 00:13:43.989 --> 00:13:46.826
  • JUSTICE DO YOU HOLD THESEINDIANS IN SUCH CRUEL AND
  • 00:13:46.826 --> 00:13:50.596
  • INDIANS IN SUCH CRUEL ANDHORRIBLE SERVITUDE?
  • 00:13:50.596 --> 00:13:52.598
  • HORRIBLE SERVITUDE?ON WHAT AUTHORITY HAVE YOU
  • 00:13:52.598 --> 00:13:54.733
  • ON WHAT AUTHORITY HAVE YOUWAGED SUCH DETESTABLE WARS
  • 00:13:54.733 --> 00:13:57.203
  • WAGED SUCH DETESTABLE WARSAGAINST THESE PEOPLE,
  • 00:13:57.203 --> 00:13:57.803
  • AGAINST THESE PEOPLE,PEOPLE WHO HAVE DEALT
  • 00:13:57.803 --> 00:13:59.338
  • PEOPLE WHO HAVE DEALTQUIETLY AND PEACEFULLY ON
  • 00:13:59.338 --> 00:14:02.408
  • QUIETLY AND PEACEFULLY ONTHEIR OWN LANDS?
  • 00:14:02.408 --> 00:14:04.410
  • THEIR OWN LANDS?WARS IN WHICH YOU HAVE
  • 00:14:04.410 --> 00:14:06.745
  • WARS IN WHICH YOU HAVEDESTROYED INFINITE NUMBERS
  • 00:14:06.745 --> 00:14:08.848
  • DESTROYED INFINITE NUMBERSOF THEM BY CRUEL
  • 00:14:08.848 --> 00:14:09.615
  • OF THEM BY CRUELSLAUGHTERS NEVER HEARD
  • 00:14:09.615 --> 00:14:12.852
  • SLAUGHTERS NEVER HEARDOF BEFORE.
  • 00:14:12.852 --> 00:14:13.519
  • OF BEFORE.WHY DO YOU KEEP THEM SO
  • 00:14:13.519 --> 00:14:15.154
  • WHY DO YOU KEEP THEM SOOPPRESSED, NOT GIVING THEM
  • 00:14:15.154 --> 00:14:18.023
  • OPPRESSED, NOT GIVING THEMENOUGH TO EAT?
  • 00:14:18.023 --> 00:14:20.759
  • ENOUGH TO EAT?YOU WON'T CURE THEM OF THE
  • 00:14:20.759 --> 00:14:23.095
  • YOU WON'T CURE THEM OF THEILLNESSES THEY INCUR BY
  • 00:14:23.095 --> 00:14:25.030
  • ILLNESSES THEY INCUR BYTHE EXCESSIVE LABOR YOU
  • 00:14:25.030 --> 00:14:28.500
  • THE EXCESSIVE LABOR YOUFORCE UPON THEM, AND SO
  • 00:14:28.500 --> 00:14:33.939
  • FORCE UPON THEM, AND SOTHEY DIE, OR, RATHER, YOU
  • 00:14:33.939 --> 00:14:39.011
  • THEY DIE, OR, RATHER, YOUKILLED THEM.
  • 00:14:39.011 --> 00:14:39.578
  • KILLED THEM.I HAVE COME TO TELL YOU
  • 00:14:39.578 --> 00:14:42.481
  • I HAVE COME TO TELL YOUTHAT YOU HAVE NO RIGHT TO
  • 00:14:42.481 --> 00:14:45.217
  • THAT YOU HAVE NO RIGHT TOTREAT THESE PEOPLE THE
  • 00:14:45.217 --> 00:14:47.319
  • TREAT THESE PEOPLE THEWAY YOU DO.
  • 00:14:47.319 --> 00:14:48.020
  • WAY YOU DO.IF YOU DO NOT CHANGE YOUR
  • 00:14:48.020 --> 00:14:51.657
  • IF YOU DO NOT CHANGE YOURWAYS, YOU HAVE THE SAME
  • 00:14:51.657 --> 00:14:53.192
  • WAYS, YOU HAVE THE SAMECHANCE OF GETTING INTO
  • 00:14:53.192 --> 00:14:58.530
  • CHANCE OF GETTING INTOHEAVEN AS A MOOR.
  • 00:14:58.530 --> 00:15:00.232
  • HEAVEN AS A MOOR.[MUSIC]
  • 00:15:00.232 --> 00:15:00.532
  • [MUSIC][COMMOTION]
  • 00:15:00.532 --> 00:15:01.066
  • [COMMOTION]- BARTOLOM: YOU REALIZE
  • 00:15:01.066 --> 00:15:03.802
  • - BARTOLOM: YOU REALIZETHAT FOR A PROUD SPANIARD AND
  • 00:15:03.802 --> 00:15:04.837
  • THAT FOR A PROUD SPANIARD ANDCATHOLIC, TO BE CALLED A
  • 00:15:04.837 --> 00:15:06.705
  • CATHOLIC, TO BE CALLED AMOOR WAS QUITE AN INSULT.
  • 00:15:06.705 --> 00:15:07.273
  • MOOR WAS QUITE AN INSULT.- JUSTO: AND, OBVIOUSLY,
  • 00:15:07.273 --> 00:15:07.806
  • - JUSTO: AND, OBVIOUSLY,IMMEDIATELY THERE WAS A
  • 00:15:07.806 --> 00:15:08.674
  • IMMEDIATELY THERE WAS APROTEST.
  • 00:15:08.674 --> 00:15:09.208
  • PROTEST.LETTERS WENT TO SPAIN,
  • 00:15:09.208 --> 00:15:11.176
  • LETTERS WENT TO SPAIN,TRYING TO GET HIM DEMOTED.
  • 00:15:11.176 --> 00:15:16.215
  • TRYING TO GET HIM DEMOTED.[COMMOTION]
  • 00:15:16.215 --> 00:15:17.483
  • [COMMOTION]- ROLENA: AS THE DECADES
  • 00:15:17.483 --> 00:15:18.651
  • - ROLENA: AS THE DECADESROLL ALONG, THERE IS A
  • 00:15:18.651 --> 00:15:19.818
  • ROLL ALONG, THERE IS ACONFLICT BETWEEN THE
  • 00:15:19.818 --> 00:15:21.954
  • CONFLICT BETWEEN THEMISSIONARY CHURCH AND THE
  • 00:15:21.954 --> 00:15:23.622
  • MISSIONARY CHURCH AND THEINTERESTS OF THE STATE.
  • 00:15:23.622 --> 00:15:24.723
  • INTERESTS OF THE STATE.THE INTERESTS OF THE STATE
  • 00:15:24.723 --> 00:15:25.724
  • THE INTERESTS OF THE STATEARE ECONOMIC.
  • 00:15:25.724 --> 00:15:26.892
  • ARE ECONOMIC.THE INTERESTS OF THE
  • 00:15:26.892 --> 00:15:28.294
  • THE INTERESTS OF THEMISSIONARY CHURCH ARE, OF
  • 00:15:28.294 --> 00:15:30.062
  • MISSIONARY CHURCH ARE, OFCOURSE, THOSE OF RELIGION
  • 00:15:30.062 --> 00:15:31.330
  • COURSE, THOSE OF RELIGIONAND FAITH.
  • 00:15:31.330 --> 00:15:32.131
  • AND FAITH.- TODD: HISTORIANS AND
  • 00:15:32.131 --> 00:15:34.266
  • - TODD: HISTORIANS ANDOTHER SCHOLARS TEND TO
  • 00:15:34.266 --> 00:15:36.802
  • OTHER SCHOLARS TEND TOLOOK AT CATHOLICISM AS
  • 00:15:36.802 --> 00:15:39.772
  • LOOK AT CATHOLICISM ASEITHER JUST A CLOAK FOR
  • 00:15:39.772 --> 00:15:42.174
  • EITHER JUST A CLOAK FOROTHER MOTIVES OR AS PURE
  • 00:15:42.174 --> 00:15:45.778
  • OTHER MOTIVES OR AS PUREHYPOCRISY, BUT I, JUST, I
  • 00:15:45.778 --> 00:15:47.012
  • HYPOCRISY, BUT I, JUST, ITHINK IT'S MORE
  • 00:15:47.012 --> 00:15:47.880
  • THINK IT'S MORECOMPLICATED THAN THAT.
  • 00:15:47.880 --> 00:15:49.281
  • COMPLICATED THAN THAT.I THINK THAT YOU SEE
  • 00:15:49.281 --> 00:15:50.849
  • I THINK THAT YOU SEEDEGREES OF FAITH, DEGREES
  • 00:15:50.849 --> 00:15:53.218
  • DEGREES OF FAITH, DEGREESOF SINCERITY, AND YOU ALSO
  • 00:15:53.218 --> 00:15:56.021
  • OF SINCERITY, AND YOU ALSOSEE CHANGES, RIGHT?
  • 00:15:56.021 --> 00:15:57.923
  • SEE CHANGES, RIGHT?YOU SEE ACTUAL REPENTANCE,
  • 00:15:57.923 --> 00:15:58.691
  • YOU SEE ACTUAL REPENTANCE,LIKE LAS CASAS IS THE
  • 00:15:58.691 --> 00:15:59.458
  • LIKE LAS CASAS IS THEPERFECT EXAMPLE.
  • 00:15:59.458 --> 00:16:00.559
  • PERFECT EXAMPLE.IF YOU HAD LOOKED AT HIS
  • 00:16:00.559 --> 00:16:04.463
  • IF YOU HAD LOOKED AT HISLIFE IN HIS FIRST FEW
  • 00:16:04.463 --> 00:16:05.597
  • LIFE IN HIS FIRST FEWYEARS IN THE NEW WORLD,
  • 00:16:05.597 --> 00:16:06.398
  • YEARS IN THE NEW WORLD,YOU'D HAVE SAID, "YEAH,
  • 00:16:06.398 --> 00:16:08.133
  • YOU'D HAVE SAID, "YEAH,THIS GUY, HE'S A CHRISTIAN
  • 00:16:08.133 --> 00:16:10.602
  • THIS GUY, HE'S A CHRISTIANIN NAME ONLY," BUT IF YOU
  • 00:16:10.602 --> 00:16:14.473
  • IN NAME ONLY," BUT IF YOULOOKED AT HIS LIFE AFTER
  • 00:16:14.473 --> 00:16:16.709
  • LOOKED AT HIS LIFE AFTERHIS CONVERSION, YOU WOULD
  • 00:16:16.709 --> 00:16:17.276
  • HIS CONVERSION, YOU WOULDSAY, "THIS MAN IS TOTALLY
  • 00:16:17.276 --> 00:16:18.877
  • SAY, "THIS MAN IS TOTALLYCOMMITTED TO CHRIST."
  • 00:16:18.877 --> 00:16:21.080
  • COMMITTED TO CHRIST."SO I THINK FREEWILL IS
  • 00:16:21.080 --> 00:16:22.381
  • SO I THINK FREEWILL ISIMPORTANT, RIGHT?
  • 00:16:22.381 --> 00:16:23.782
  • IMPORTANT, RIGHT?THE POSSIBILITY OF CHANGE
  • 00:16:23.782 --> 00:16:26.485
  • THE POSSIBILITY OF CHANGETHAT SOME PEOPLE CHOOSE TO
  • 00:16:26.485 --> 00:16:28.454
  • THAT SOME PEOPLE CHOOSE TODO EVIL, AND SOME CHOOSE
  • 00:16:28.454 --> 00:16:30.055
  • DO EVIL, AND SOME CHOOSETO DO GOOD, BUT THERE'S
  • 00:16:30.055 --> 00:16:31.623
  • TO DO GOOD, BUT THERE'SALSO PEOPLE WHO CHOOSE TO
  • 00:16:31.623 --> 00:16:32.558
  • ALSO PEOPLE WHO CHOOSE TODO EVIL, AND THEN, FOR
  • 00:16:32.558 --> 00:16:33.759
  • DO EVIL, AND THEN, FORWHATEVER REASON, THROUGH
  • 00:16:33.759 --> 00:16:35.594
  • WHATEVER REASON, THROUGHTHE GRACE OF GOD,
  • 00:16:35.594 --> 00:16:37.396
  • THE GRACE OF GOD,THEY COME TO THEIR SENSES,
  • 00:16:37.396 --> 00:16:38.697
  • THEY COME TO THEIR SENSES,AND THEY SAY, "WOW, THIS WAS
  • 00:16:38.697 --> 00:16:40.866
  • AND THEY SAY, "WOW, THIS WASWRONG."
  • 00:16:40.866 --> 00:16:41.400
  • WRONG."NOW, THOSE PEOPLE
  • 00:16:41.400 --> 00:16:42.401
  • NOW, THOSE PEOPLEARE FEW AND FAR BETWEEN,
  • 00:16:42.401 --> 00:16:44.136
  • ARE FEW AND FAR BETWEEN,WHICH IS SAD, BUT THEY'RE
  • 00:16:44.136 --> 00:16:46.338
  • WHICH IS SAD, BUT THEY'RETHERE.
  • 00:16:46.338 --> 00:16:47.639
  • THERE.THEY'RE AT EVERY STAGE OF
  • 00:16:47.639 --> 00:16:49.808
  • THEY'RE AT EVERY STAGE OFTHE STORY.
  • 00:16:49.808 --> 00:16:51.744
  • THE STORY.[MUSIC]
  • 00:16:51.744 --> 00:16:55.748
  • [MUSIC][FOOTSTEPS]
  • 00:16:55.748 --> 00:17:01.487
  • [FOOTSTEPS][FOOTSTEPS]
  • 00:17:01.487 --> 00:17:03.956
  • [FOOTSTEPS]- BARTOLOME: IT WAS NOT
  • 00:17:03.956 --> 00:17:06.325
  • - BARTOLOME: IT WAS NOTJUST A POWERFUL SERMON OF
  • 00:17:06.325 --> 00:17:08.394
  • JUST A POWERFUL SERMON OFANTONIO DE MONTESINOS THAT
  • 00:17:08.394 --> 00:17:09.962
  • ANTONIO DE MONTESINOS THATMOVED ME.
  • 00:17:09.962 --> 00:17:12.464
  • MOVED ME.NO, GOD STILL HAD WORK TO DO.
  • 00:17:12.464 --> 00:17:15.434
  • NO, GOD STILL HAD WORK TO DO.IN A YEAR 1510, I WAS
  • 00:17:15.434 --> 00:17:17.002
  • IN A YEAR 1510, I WASORDAINED A PRIEST, THE
  • 00:17:17.002 --> 00:17:18.203
  • ORDAINED A PRIEST, THEFIRST TO BE ORDAINED IN
  • 00:17:18.203 --> 00:17:21.373
  • FIRST TO BE ORDAINED INTHE AMERICAS.
  • 00:17:21.373 --> 00:17:24.643
  • THE AMERICAS.SEVEN YEARS LATER, I WAS
  • 00:17:24.643 --> 00:17:26.945
  • SEVEN YEARS LATER, I WASSTUDYING THE PASSAGE OF A
  • 00:17:26.945 --> 00:17:31.150
  • STUDYING THE PASSAGE OF ASCRIPTURE FOR A SERMON.
  • 00:17:31.150 --> 00:17:34.019
  • SCRIPTURE FOR A SERMON."THE OFFERING OF HIM THAT
  • 00:17:34.019 --> 00:17:35.120
  • "THE OFFERING OF HIM THATSACRIFICES OF A THING
  • 00:17:35.120 --> 00:17:39.258
  • SACRIFICES OF A THINGWRONGFULLY GOTTEN, IS STAINED."
  • 00:17:39.258 --> 00:17:40.759
  • WRONGFULLY GOTTEN, IS STAINED."I HAD WITNESSED SO MANY
  • 00:17:40.759 --> 00:17:42.027
  • I HAD WITNESSED SO MANYATROCITIES AGAINST THE
  • 00:17:42.027 --> 00:17:45.064
  • ATROCITIES AGAINST THENATIVE PEOPLE, CRUELTY
  • 00:17:45.064 --> 00:17:46.532
  • NATIVE PEOPLE, CRUELTYON A SCALE THAT NO LIVING
  • 00:17:46.532 --> 00:17:48.867
  • ON A SCALE THAT NO LIVINGBEING HAS EVER SEEN OR
  • 00:17:48.867 --> 00:17:52.604
  • BEING HAS EVER SEEN OREXPECTS TO SEE.
  • 00:17:52.604 --> 00:17:53.338
  • EXPECTS TO SEE.- ROLENA: THEY HAD A
  • 00:17:53.338 --> 00:17:54.573
  • - ROLENA: THEY HAD ACONVERSION EXPERIENCE WHEN
  • 00:17:54.573 --> 00:17:57.609
  • CONVERSION EXPERIENCE WHENHE WITNESSED, IN 1514, THE
  • 00:17:57.609 --> 00:17:59.845
  • HE WITNESSED, IN 1514, THESLAUGHTER OF NATIVE PEOPLE
  • 00:17:59.845 --> 00:18:04.116
  • SLAUGHTER OF NATIVE PEOPLEOF TAINO ON THE ISLAND
  • 00:18:04.116 --> 00:18:06.485
  • OF TAINO ON THE ISLANDOF CUBA BY THE
  • 00:18:06.485 --> 00:18:07.119
  • OF CUBA BY THECONQUISTADOR CAPTAIN
  • 00:18:07.119 --> 00:18:09.822
  • CONQUISTADOR CAPTAINPANFILO DE NARVAEZ.
  • 00:18:09.822 --> 00:18:10.756
  • PANFILO DE NARVAEZ.- BARTOLOME: I PONDERED
  • 00:18:10.756 --> 00:18:12.658
  • - BARTOLOME: I PONDEREDTHIS, AND I WAS FINALLY
  • 00:18:12.658 --> 00:18:13.959
  • THIS, AND I WAS FINALLYCONVINCED THAT ALL THE
  • 00:18:13.959 --> 00:18:15.394
  • CONVINCED THAT ALL THEACTIONS OF THE SPANISH IN
  • 00:18:15.394 --> 00:18:16.428
  • ACTIONS OF THE SPANISH INTHE NEW WORLD HAVE BEEN
  • 00:18:16.428 --> 00:18:17.663
  • THE NEW WORLD HAVE BEENCRIMINAL, THAT THEY
  • 00:18:17.663 --> 00:18:19.698
  • CRIMINAL, THAT THEYCONSTITUTED A MOST
  • 00:18:19.698 --> 00:18:21.266
  • CONSTITUTED A MOSTPROFOUND INJUSTICE.
  • 00:18:21.266 --> 00:18:22.734
  • PROFOUND INJUSTICE.- ROLENA: TAINOS WERE THE
  • 00:18:22.734 --> 00:18:24.770
  • - ROLENA: TAINOS WERE THENATIVE PEOPLES OF THE
  • 00:18:24.770 --> 00:18:25.671
  • NATIVE PEOPLES OF THECIRCUM-CARIBBEAN REGION,
  • 00:18:25.671 --> 00:18:27.773
  • CIRCUM-CARIBBEAN REGION,AND THEY WERE ALL BUT
  • 00:18:27.773 --> 00:18:29.708
  • AND THEY WERE ALL BUTDECIMATED COMPLETELY, AND,
  • 00:18:29.708 --> 00:18:32.544
  • DECIMATED COMPLETELY, AND,IN FACT, WERE.
  • 00:18:32.544 --> 00:18:34.913
  • IN FACT, WERE.- TODD: SO FOR THE REST
  • 00:18:34.913 --> 00:18:36.949
  • - TODD: SO FOR THE RESTOF HIS LIFE, HE DEVOTED
  • 00:18:36.949 --> 00:18:38.884
  • OF HIS LIFE, HE DEVOTEDHIMSELF TO DEFENDING THE
  • 00:18:38.884 --> 00:18:39.985
  • HIMSELF TO DEFENDING THEINDIANS IN WHATEVER WAYS
  • 00:18:39.985 --> 00:18:42.621
  • INDIANS IN WHATEVER WAYSHE COULD.
  • 00:18:42.621 --> 00:18:48.427
  • HE COULD.[MUSIC]
  • 00:18:48.427 --> 00:18:49.361
  • [MUSIC]- TODD: HE WROTE BOOKS
  • 00:18:49.361 --> 00:18:50.462
  • - TODD: HE WROTE BOOKSABOUT WHAT WAS GOING ON IN
  • 00:18:50.462 --> 00:18:52.030
  • ABOUT WHAT WAS GOING ON INTHE INDIES, AND HE WENT
  • 00:18:52.030 --> 00:18:54.166
  • THE INDIES, AND HE WENTBACK TO SPAIN AND ARGUED
  • 00:18:54.166 --> 00:18:56.235
  • BACK TO SPAIN AND ARGUEDFOR INDIGENOUS RIGHTS AND
  • 00:18:56.235 --> 00:18:58.270
  • FOR INDIGENOUS RIGHTS ANDDENOUNCED THE TERRIBLE
  • 00:18:58.270 --> 00:18:59.505
  • DENOUNCED THE TERRIBLETHINGS THAT WERE GOING ON,
  • 00:18:59.505 --> 00:19:01.740
  • THINGS THAT WERE GOING ON,AND IN THAT WAY, HE REALLY
  • 00:19:01.740 --> 00:19:02.341
  • AND IN THAT WAY, HE REALLYCHANGED THE COURSE
  • 00:19:02.341 --> 00:19:03.475
  • CHANGED THE COURSEOF HISTORY.
  • 00:19:03.475 --> 00:19:04.676
  • OF HISTORY.- JUSTO: HE WROTE SEVERAL
  • 00:19:04.676 --> 00:19:06.311
  • - JUSTO: HE WROTE SEVERALWRITINGS WHERE HE REALLY
  • 00:19:06.311 --> 00:19:08.113
  • WRITINGS WHERE HE REALLYEXCORIATES THE WHOLE
  • 00:19:08.113 --> 00:19:08.647
  • EXCORIATES THE WHOLEENTERPRISE OF THE
  • 00:19:08.647 --> 00:19:10.883
  • ENTERPRISE OF THECONQUISTA.
  • 00:19:10.883 --> 00:19:11.550
  • CONQUISTA.- ROLENA: HE TRIED VERY
  • 00:19:11.550 --> 00:19:12.417
  • - ROLENA: HE TRIED VERYMUCH TO GET THE
  • 00:19:12.417 --> 00:19:13.752
  • MUCH TO GET THEENCOMIENDA-- TO GET IT
  • 00:19:13.752 --> 00:19:14.853
  • ENCOMIENDA-- TO GET ITABOLISHED THROUGH THE NEW
  • 00:19:14.853 --> 00:19:16.021
  • ABOLISHED THROUGH THE NEWLAWS, BUT THE VICEROYS IN
  • 00:19:16.021 --> 00:19:18.790
  • LAWS, BUT THE VICEROYS INBOTH MEXICO AND PERU THREW
  • 00:19:18.790 --> 00:19:21.160
  • BOTH MEXICO AND PERU THREWTHOSE OUT AND WOULDN'T PAY
  • 00:19:21.160 --> 00:19:23.228
  • THOSE OUT AND WOULDN'T PAYANY ATTENTION TO THEM--
  • 00:19:23.228 --> 00:19:23.662
  • ANY ATTENTION TO THEM--THAT THIS IS THE
  • 00:19:23.662 --> 00:19:25.397
  • THAT THIS IS THEDIFFERENCE BETWEEN
  • 00:19:25.397 --> 00:19:26.131
  • DIFFERENCE BETWEENLEGISLATION AND WHAT
  • 00:19:26.131 --> 00:19:26.665
  • LEGISLATION AND WHATREALLY HAPPENS ON THE
  • 00:19:26.665 --> 00:19:28.367
  • REALLY HAPPENS ON THEGROUND.
  • 00:19:28.367 --> 00:19:31.203
  • GROUND.[MUSIC]
  • 00:19:31.203 --> 00:19:32.104
  • [MUSIC]- ROLENA: WHEN I FOUND A
  • 00:19:32.104 --> 00:19:33.939
  • - ROLENA: WHEN I FOUND AWORK CALLED "THE NEW
  • 00:19:33.939 --> 00:19:35.807
  • WORK CALLED "THE NEWCHRONICLE AND GOOD
  • 00:19:35.807 --> 00:19:36.341
  • CHRONICLE AND GOODGOVERNMENT," WHICH WAS
  • 00:19:36.341 --> 00:19:38.810
  • GOVERNMENT," WHICH WASWRITTEN BY A NATIVE
  • 00:19:38.810 --> 00:19:40.445
  • WRITTEN BY A NATIVEANDEAN, I REALIZED THE
  • 00:19:40.445 --> 00:19:41.880
  • ANDEAN, I REALIZED THEGREAT LEGACY THAT
  • 00:19:41.880 --> 00:19:44.483
  • GREAT LEGACY THATLAS CASAS HAD.
  • 00:19:44.483 --> 00:19:45.918
  • LAS CASAS HAD.[MUSIC]
  • 00:19:45.918 --> 00:19:46.785
  • [MUSIC]- ROLENA: WHEN I
  • 00:19:46.785 --> 00:19:48.287
  • - ROLENA: WHEN IDISCOVERED THE QUOTATION,
  • 00:19:48.287 --> 00:19:50.189
  • DISCOVERED THE QUOTATION,WITHOUT NAMING HIM, OF ONE
  • 00:19:50.189 --> 00:19:52.558
  • WITHOUT NAMING HIM, OF ONEOF THE PRINCIPAL AND FINAL
  • 00:19:52.558 --> 00:19:54.526
  • OF THE PRINCIPAL AND FINALWORKS OF BARTOLOME DE LAS
  • 00:19:54.526 --> 00:19:56.995
  • WORKS OF BARTOLOME DE LASCASAS, THIS INDIVIDUAL WHO
  • 00:19:56.995 --> 00:19:59.831
  • CASAS, THIS INDIVIDUAL WHOWROTE THIS "NEW CHRONICLE
  • 00:19:59.831 --> 00:20:01.099
  • WROTE THIS "NEW CHRONICLEAND GOOD GOVERNMENT" WAS
  • 00:20:01.099 --> 00:20:01.867
  • AND GOOD GOVERNMENT" WASNAMED FELIPE GUAMAN POMA
  • 00:20:01.867 --> 00:20:03.569
  • NAMED FELIPE GUAMAN POMADE AYALA.
  • 00:20:03.569 --> 00:20:05.370
  • DE AYALA.SO GUAMAN POMA READING
  • 00:20:05.370 --> 00:20:08.307
  • SO GUAMAN POMA READINGLAS CASAS' WORK, LAS CASAS
  • 00:20:08.307 --> 00:20:09.908
  • LAS CASAS' WORK, LAS CASASTHERE RECOMMENDED THAT
  • 00:20:09.908 --> 00:20:11.843
  • THERE RECOMMENDED THATSPAIN ABANDON THE INDIES
  • 00:20:11.843 --> 00:20:13.345
  • SPAIN ABANDON THE INDIESALTOGETHER, AND PART OF
  • 00:20:13.345 --> 00:20:15.747
  • ALTOGETHER, AND PART OFHIS ARGUMENT WAS, WHEN A
  • 00:20:15.747 --> 00:20:17.983
  • HIS ARGUMENT WAS, WHEN ASPANIARD IS IN A FOREIGN
  • 00:20:17.983 --> 00:20:19.818
  • SPANIARD IS IN A FOREIGNCOUNTRY, HE OBEYS THE LAWS
  • 00:20:19.818 --> 00:20:25.591
  • COUNTRY, HE OBEYS THE LAWSOF THAT FOREIGN COUNTRY.
  • 00:20:25.591 --> 00:20:26.291
  • OF THAT FOREIGN COUNTRY.SO GUAMAN POMA MADE THE
  • 00:20:26.291 --> 00:20:29.461
  • SO GUAMAN POMA MADE THEARGUMENT, WHEN IN PERU,
  • 00:20:29.461 --> 00:20:31.363
  • ARGUMENT, WHEN IN PERU,IT'S THE LAWS OF NATIVE
  • 00:20:31.363 --> 00:20:32.998
  • IT'S THE LAWS OF NATIVEPERU THAT SHOULD BE
  • 00:20:32.998 --> 00:20:33.932
  • PERU THAT SHOULD BEHONORED, NOT THOSE OF
  • 00:20:33.932 --> 00:20:35.567
  • HONORED, NOT THOSE OFINVADING SPAIN.
  • 00:20:35.567 --> 00:20:36.034
  • INVADING SPAIN.GUAMAN POMA WROTE THE
  • 00:20:36.034 --> 00:20:37.302
  • GUAMAN POMA WROTE THEBOOK, AND HE ALSO
  • 00:20:37.302 --> 00:20:39.805
  • BOOK, AND HE ALSOILLUSTRATED IT.
  • 00:20:39.805 --> 00:20:42.007
  • ILLUSTRATED IT.IN FACT, THERE ARE 800
  • 00:20:42.007 --> 00:20:43.575
  • IN FACT, THERE ARE 800PAGES, MANUSCRIPT PAGES OF
  • 00:20:43.575 --> 00:20:44.910
  • PAGES, MANUSCRIPT PAGES OFPROSE, AND 400 PAGES
  • 00:20:44.910 --> 00:20:48.480
  • PROSE, AND 400 PAGESOF DRAWINGS.
  • 00:20:48.480 --> 00:20:50.315
  • OF DRAWINGS.GUAMAN POMA PRESENTED
  • 00:20:50.315 --> 00:20:51.483
  • GUAMAN POMA PRESENTEDHIMSELF THROUGHOUT HIS
  • 00:20:51.483 --> 00:20:52.884
  • HIMSELF THROUGHOUT HISBOOK AS A VERY, VERY
  • 00:20:52.884 --> 00:20:53.785
  • BOOK AS A VERY, VERYDEVOUT CHRISTIAN.
  • 00:20:53.785 --> 00:20:55.320
  • DEVOUT CHRISTIAN.IN MY VIEW-- AND THIS IS
  • 00:20:55.320 --> 00:20:57.689
  • IN MY VIEW-- AND THIS ISAN INTERPRETATION.
  • 00:20:57.689 --> 00:20:59.958
  • AN INTERPRETATION.YOU MAY CALL IT A
  • 00:20:59.958 --> 00:21:00.392
  • YOU MAY CALL IT ASPECULATION.
  • 00:21:00.392 --> 00:21:02.261
  • SPECULATION.THE WAY HE INTEGRATED AND
  • 00:21:02.261 --> 00:21:06.031
  • THE WAY HE INTEGRATED ANDARTICULATED THE
  • 00:21:06.031 --> 00:21:08.600
  • ARTICULATED THETRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL
  • 00:21:08.600 --> 00:21:11.136
  • TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURALCALENDAR OF PERU WITH THE
  • 00:21:11.136 --> 00:21:13.772
  • CALENDAR OF PERU WITH THESAINTS' DAYS ON THE
  • 00:21:13.772 --> 00:21:15.540
  • SAINTS' DAYS ON THECATHOLIC LITURGICAL
  • 00:21:15.540 --> 00:21:18.744
  • CATHOLIC LITURGICALCALENDAR, SUGGESTS TO ME
  • 00:21:18.744 --> 00:21:23.849
  • CALENDAR, SUGGESTS TO METHAT HE SAW SOCIAL ORDER
  • 00:21:23.849 --> 00:21:26.084
  • THAT HE SAW SOCIAL ORDERRELATED TO A HIGHER ORDER,
  • 00:21:26.084 --> 00:21:27.486
  • RELATED TO A HIGHER ORDER,AND THAT HIGHER ORDER WAS
  • 00:21:27.486 --> 00:21:28.320
  • AND THAT HIGHER ORDER WASOF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.
  • 00:21:28.320 --> 00:21:44.670
  • OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.[MUSIC]
  • 00:21:44.670 --> 00:21:45.237
  • [MUSIC]- HERNAN CORTES: I AND MY
  • 00:21:45.237 --> 00:21:46.305
  • - HERNAN CORTES: I AND MYCOMPANIONS SUFFER FROM A
  • 00:21:46.305 --> 00:21:47.773
  • COMPANIONS SUFFER FROM ADISEASE OF THE HEART WHICH
  • 00:21:47.773 --> 00:21:48.874
  • DISEASE OF THE HEART WHICHCAN BE CURED ONLY WITH
  • 00:21:48.874 --> 00:21:55.080
  • CAN BE CURED ONLY WITHGOLD.
  • 00:21:55.080 --> 00:22:00.652
  • GOLD.[MUSIC]
  • 00:22:00.652 --> 00:22:01.486
  • [MUSIC]- TODD: IT'S INTERESTING
  • 00:22:01.486 --> 00:22:04.956
  • - TODD: IT'S INTERESTINGTHAT THERE'S NO STATUE OF
  • 00:22:04.956 --> 00:22:06.591
  • THAT THERE'S NO STATUE OFCORTES IN MEXICO TODAY.
  • 00:22:06.591 --> 00:22:07.192
  • CORTES IN MEXICO TODAY.THERE'S NO CITY NAMED
  • 00:22:07.192 --> 00:22:10.962
  • THERE'S NO CITY NAMEDAFTER HIM.
  • 00:22:10.962 --> 00:22:11.496
  • AFTER HIM.THERE'S NO STREET NAMED
  • 00:22:11.496 --> 00:22:12.831
  • THERE'S NO STREET NAMEDAFTER HIM.
  • 00:22:12.831 --> 00:22:14.599
  • AFTER HIM.THERE'S NO UNIVERSITY,
  • 00:22:14.599 --> 00:22:18.370
  • THERE'S NO UNIVERSITY,WHEREAS THERE ARE TONS OF
  • 00:22:18.370 --> 00:22:19.304
  • WHEREAS THERE ARE TONS OFSTREETS, UNIVERSITIES, AND
  • 00:22:19.304 --> 00:22:21.206
  • STREETS, UNIVERSITIES, ANDWHATEVER, FROM THE HEROES
  • 00:22:21.206 --> 00:22:21.773
  • WHATEVER, FROM THE HEROESOF INDEPENDENCE AND THE
  • 00:22:21.773 --> 00:22:24.109
  • OF INDEPENDENCE AND THEMEXICAN REVOLUTION.
  • 00:22:24.109 --> 00:22:25.177
  • MEXICAN REVOLUTION.HE'S BEEN BASICALLY
  • 00:22:25.177 --> 00:22:28.580
  • HE'S BEEN BASICALLYWRITTEN OUT OF HISTORY,
  • 00:22:28.580 --> 00:22:29.181
  • WRITTEN OUT OF HISTORY,AND I THINK THAT TELLS YOU
  • 00:22:29.181 --> 00:22:30.182
  • AND I THINK THAT TELLS YOUA LOT ABOUT HOW HE'S
  • 00:22:30.182 --> 00:22:31.383
  • A LOT ABOUT HOW HE'SVIEWED TODAY.
  • 00:22:31.383 --> 00:22:33.485
  • VIEWED TODAY.I DON'T HAVE AS NEGATIVE A
  • 00:22:33.485 --> 00:22:34.419
  • I DON'T HAVE AS NEGATIVE AVIEW OF HIM, I THINK, AS
  • 00:22:34.419 --> 00:22:35.754
  • VIEW OF HIM, I THINK, ASMANY PEOPLE.
  • 00:22:35.754 --> 00:22:37.689
  • MANY PEOPLE.I MEAN, I THINK HE WAS AN
  • 00:22:37.689 --> 00:22:38.857
  • I MEAN, I THINK HE WAS ANADVENTURER, SOMEONE WHO
  • 00:22:38.857 --> 00:22:40.425
  • ADVENTURER, SOMEONE WHOWANTED PERSONAL GLORY-- A
  • 00:22:40.425 --> 00:22:41.827
  • WANTED PERSONAL GLORY-- ASHREWD MAN, BUT THERE'S
  • 00:22:41.827 --> 00:22:47.432
  • SHREWD MAN, BUT THERE'SSIGNS THAT, YOU KNOW, HE
  • 00:22:47.432 --> 00:22:48.934
  • SIGNS THAT, YOU KNOW, HEHAD A PERSONAL FAITH OF
  • 00:22:48.934 --> 00:22:52.537
  • HAD A PERSONAL FAITH OFSOME SORT, THAT HE TRIED
  • 00:22:52.537 --> 00:22:54.973
  • SOME SORT, THAT HE TRIEDTO TREAT HIS MEN AND HIS
  • 00:22:54.973 --> 00:22:56.641
  • TO TREAT HIS MEN AND HISENEMIES WITH SOME DEGREE
  • 00:22:56.641 --> 00:23:00.679
  • ENEMIES WITH SOME DEGREEOF RESPECT AND JUSTICE.
  • 00:23:00.679 --> 00:23:01.913
  • OF RESPECT AND JUSTICE.YOU KNOW, THE GREAT STORY
  • 00:23:01.913 --> 00:23:02.514
  • YOU KNOW, THE GREAT STORYABOUT HIM IS THAT, AFTER
  • 00:23:02.514 --> 00:23:05.150
  • ABOUT HIM IS THAT, AFTERHIS SMALL BAND OF MEN HAD
  • 00:23:05.150 --> 00:23:06.151
  • HIS SMALL BAND OF MEN HADLANDED IN MEXICO, HE
  • 00:23:06.151 --> 00:23:07.519
  • LANDED IN MEXICO, HEBURNED THE BOATS SO THAT
  • 00:23:07.519 --> 00:23:08.820
  • BURNED THE BOATS SO THATTHERE'D BE NO TURNING
  • 00:23:08.820 --> 00:23:10.889
  • THERE'D BE NO TURNINGBACK, AND I THINK THAT
  • 00:23:10.889 --> 00:23:12.791
  • BACK, AND I THINK THATSAYS A LOT ABOUT THE KIND
  • 00:23:12.791 --> 00:23:16.261
  • SAYS A LOT ABOUT THE KINDOF MAN THAT HE WAS.
  • 00:23:16.261 --> 00:23:17.129
  • OF MAN THAT HE WAS.YOU KNOW, HE WAS WILLING
  • 00:23:17.129 --> 00:23:18.029
  • YOU KNOW, HE WAS WILLINGTO PUT HIS LIFE AND THE
  • 00:23:18.029 --> 00:23:19.331
  • TO PUT HIS LIFE AND THELIVES OF ALL HIS MEN AT
  • 00:23:19.331 --> 00:23:21.032
  • LIVES OF ALL HIS MEN ATRISK TO WIN GLORY, AND I
  • 00:23:21.032 --> 00:23:22.067
  • RISK TO WIN GLORY, AND ITHINK THAT'S WHAT HE
  • 00:23:22.067 --> 00:23:23.335
  • THINK THAT'S WHAT HEREALLY WANTED.
  • 00:23:23.335 --> 00:23:24.770
  • REALLY WANTED.HE WANTED GLORY.
  • 00:23:24.770 --> 00:23:26.304
  • HE WANTED GLORY.[MUSIC]
  • 00:23:26.304 --> 00:23:28.106
  • [MUSIC]- BERNAL DIAZ DEL
  • 00:23:28.106 --> 00:23:29.207
  • - BERNAL DIAZ DELCASTILLO: ANY AND ALL
  • 00:23:29.207 --> 00:23:29.941
  • CASTILLO: ANY AND ALLPRAISE ARE MERRY, FOR
  • 00:23:29.941 --> 00:23:30.976
  • PRAISE ARE MERRY, FORTHE VICTORIES WE GAINED,
  • 00:23:30.976 --> 00:23:32.144
  • THE VICTORIES WE GAINED,FOR THE BATTLES WE FOUGHT,
  • 00:23:32.144 --> 00:23:33.378
  • FOR THE BATTLES WE FOUGHT,INDEED, THE TOTAL CONQUEST
  • 00:23:33.378 --> 00:23:34.613
  • INDEED, THE TOTAL CONQUESTOF NEW SPAIN ARE DUE TO
  • 00:23:34.613 --> 00:23:38.183
  • OF NEW SPAIN ARE DUE TOCORTES.
  • 00:23:38.183 --> 00:23:38.917
  • CORTES.- RAFAEL: I DEFINITELY
  • 00:23:38.917 --> 00:23:40.085
  • - RAFAEL: I DEFINITELYTHINK THAT CORTES HAD THIS
  • 00:23:40.085 --> 00:23:42.187
  • THINK THAT CORTES HAD THISNOTION THAT HE WAS LIKE AN
  • 00:23:42.187 --> 00:23:49.428
  • NOTION THAT HE WAS LIKE ANAGENT OF THE KING OR SOME
  • 00:23:49.428 --> 00:23:50.462
  • AGENT OF THE KING OR SOMESORT OF A FEUDAL LORD
  • 00:23:50.462 --> 00:23:53.331
  • SORT OF A FEUDAL LORDUNDER-- VASSAL OF THE KING
  • 00:23:53.331 --> 00:23:54.166
  • UNDER-- VASSAL OF THE KINGOF SPAIN, AND HE DEVELOPED
  • 00:23:54.166 --> 00:23:55.667
  • OF SPAIN, AND HE DEVELOPEDSOME ORDER.
  • 00:23:55.667 --> 00:23:56.835
  • SOME ORDER.HE TOOK SERIOUSLY-- I
  • 00:23:56.835 --> 00:23:58.804
  • HE TOOK SERIOUSLY-- IDON'T KNOW HOW SERIOUSLY
  • 00:23:58.804 --> 00:24:00.005
  • DON'T KNOW HOW SERIOUSLYAS A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE,
  • 00:24:00.005 --> 00:24:01.773
  • AS A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE,BUT AS AN OBLIGATION,
  • 00:24:01.773 --> 00:24:04.409
  • BUT AS AN OBLIGATION,TENETS OF THIS DONATION
  • 00:24:04.409 --> 00:24:07.813
  • TENETS OF THIS DONATIONFROM THE HOLY SEE OF THE
  • 00:24:07.813 --> 00:24:09.514
  • FROM THE HOLY SEE OF THESPREADING OF CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:24:09.514 --> 00:24:10.015
  • SPREADING OF CHRISTIANITY.- JUSTO: WHEN THE FIRST
  • 00:24:10.015 --> 00:24:11.583
  • - JUSTO: WHEN THE FIRSTFRANCISCAN MISSIONARIES
  • 00:24:11.583 --> 00:24:12.417
  • FRANCISCAN MISSIONARIESARRIVED IN MEXICO, CORTES
  • 00:24:12.417 --> 00:24:13.852
  • ARRIVED IN MEXICO, CORTESSTOPPED AND KISSED THE
  • 00:24:13.852 --> 00:24:15.420
  • STOPPED AND KISSED THEHEMS OF THEIR ROBES.
  • 00:24:15.420 --> 00:24:16.388
  • HEMS OF THEIR ROBES.- TODD: ANOTHER GOOD
  • 00:24:16.388 --> 00:24:17.689
  • - TODD: ANOTHER GOODSTORY ABOUT HIM, I THINK,
  • 00:24:17.689 --> 00:24:18.990
  • STORY ABOUT HIM, I THINK,IS HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH
  • 00:24:18.990 --> 00:24:20.826
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:24:23.595 --> 00:24:26.364
  • - TODD: SHE WAS A WOMAN
  • 00:24:27.766 --> 00:24:28.900
  • - TODD: SHE WAS A WOMANWHO WAS GIVEN TO HIM AS A
  • 00:24:28.900 --> 00:24:29.734
  • WHO WAS GIVEN TO HIM AS ASLAVE BY SOME OF HIS
  • 00:24:29.734 --> 00:24:32.737
  • SLAVE BY SOME OF HISINDIGENOUS ALLIES.
  • 00:24:32.737 --> 00:24:33.772
  • INDIGENOUS ALLIES.- ROLENA: SHE WAS TAKEN
  • 00:24:33.772 --> 00:24:35.841
  • - ROLENA: SHE WAS TAKENBY HERNAN CORTES AND
  • 00:24:35.841 --> 00:24:40.812
  • BY HERNAN CORTES ANDBAPTIZED WITH OTHER NATIVE
  • 00:24:40.812 --> 00:24:42.347
  • BAPTIZED WITH OTHER NATIVEWOMEN WHO WERE SURELY
  • 00:24:42.347 --> 00:24:46.117
  • WOMEN WHO WERE SURELYTAKEN FORCIBLY INTO
  • 00:24:46.117 --> 00:24:47.419
  • TAKEN FORCIBLY INTOCONCUBINAGE WITH THE
  • 00:24:47.419 --> 00:24:49.955
  • CONCUBINAGE WITH THESPANISH CONQUISTADORES.
  • 00:24:49.955 --> 00:24:51.122
  • SPANISH CONQUISTADORES.- LA MALINCHE: BEFORE I
  • 00:24:51.122 --> 00:24:51.590
  • - LA MALINCHE: BEFORE IWAS MALINCHE, I WAS
  • 00:24:51.590 --> 00:24:53.959
  • WAS MALINCHE, I WASMALINALLI.
  • 00:24:53.959 --> 00:24:54.960
  • MALINALLI.I WAS BORN IN THE TOWN OF
  • 00:24:54.960 --> 00:24:58.430
  • I WAS BORN IN THE TOWN OFPAINALLA, WHERE MY FATHER
  • 00:24:58.430 --> 00:24:59.564
  • PAINALLA, WHERE MY FATHERWAS A CHIEFTAN.
  • 00:24:59.564 --> 00:25:00.899
  • WAS A CHIEFTAN.BUT WHEN HE DIED, MY
  • 00:25:00.899 --> 00:25:03.969
  • BUT WHEN HE DIED, MYMOTHER REMARRIED THE LORD
  • 00:25:03.969 --> 00:25:05.403
  • MOTHER REMARRIED THE LORDFROM ANOTHER TOWN.
  • 00:25:05.403 --> 00:25:06.404
  • FROM ANOTHER TOWN.THEY HAVE A SON TOGETHER
  • 00:25:06.404 --> 00:25:08.073
  • THEY HAVE A SON TOGETHERAND TO PROTECT HER NEW
  • 00:25:08.073 --> 00:25:10.809
  • AND TO PROTECT HER NEWSON'S INHERITANCE.
  • 00:25:10.809 --> 00:25:12.711
  • SON'S INHERITANCE.MY MOTHER SOLD ME AS A
  • 00:25:12.711 --> 00:25:15.413
  • MY MOTHER SOLD ME AS ASLAVE TO ANOTHER TRIBE.
  • 00:25:15.413 --> 00:25:17.782
  • SLAVE TO ANOTHER TRIBE.SOMETIME LATER, I WAS
  • 00:25:17.782 --> 00:25:21.653
  • SOMETIME LATER, I WASGIVEN TO MY LORD, CORTES.
  • 00:25:21.653 --> 00:25:22.220
  • GIVEN TO MY LORD, CORTES.- TODD: AND SHE TURNED
  • 00:25:22.220 --> 00:25:23.355
  • - TODD: AND SHE TURNEDOUT TO BE A LINGUISTIC
  • 00:25:23.355 --> 00:25:25.123
  • OUT TO BE A LINGUISTICGENIUS.
  • 00:25:25.123 --> 00:25:26.758
  • GENIUS.SHE KNEW MAYA, SHE KNEW
  • 00:25:26.758 --> 00:25:29.528
  • SHE KNEW MAYA, SHE KNEWNAHUATL, AND SHE QUICKLY
  • 00:25:29.528 --> 00:25:31.963
  • NAHUATL, AND SHE QUICKLYLEARNED SPANISH, SO SHE
  • 00:25:31.963 --> 00:25:33.565
  • LEARNED SPANISH, SO SHEBECAME THE MAIN TRANSLATOR
  • 00:25:33.565 --> 00:25:38.036
  • BECAME THE MAIN TRANSLATORFOR CORTES AND HIS MEN.
  • 00:25:38.036 --> 00:25:38.670
  • FOR CORTES AND HIS MEN.- ROLENA: THAT WAS HER ROLE.
  • 00:25:38.670 --> 00:25:42.774
  • - ROLENA: THAT WAS HER ROLE.IT WAS HER LIFE.
  • 00:25:42.774 --> 00:25:43.575
  • IT WAS HER LIFE.IT WAS CERTAINLY NOT ONE
  • 00:25:43.575 --> 00:25:46.011
  • IT WAS CERTAINLY NOT ONETHAT SHE WOULD HAVE CHOSEN.
  • 00:25:46.011 --> 00:25:50.782
  • THAT SHE WOULD HAVE CHOSEN.IN THE END, SHE BORE
  • 00:25:50.782 --> 00:25:51.583
  • IN THE END, SHE BORECORTES TWO SONS, TWO SONS,
  • 00:25:51.583 --> 00:25:53.318
  • CORTES TWO SONS, TWO SONS,AND THEY'RE BOTH NAMED DON
  • 00:25:53.318 --> 00:25:56.588
  • - BERNAL: LA MALINCHE
  • 00:25:57.923 --> 00:25:58.890
  • - BERNAL: LA MALINCHEGREATLY PLEASED CORTES.
  • 00:25:58.890 --> 00:25:59.791
  • GREATLY PLEASED CORTES.SHE EVENTUALLY BECAME A
  • 00:25:59.791 --> 00:26:00.692
  • SHE EVENTUALLY BECAME ACONVERT TO CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:26:00.692 --> 00:26:01.226
  • CONVERT TO CHRISTIANITYAND WOULD BE NAMED
  • 00:26:01.226 --> 00:26:05.096
  • - LA MALINCHE: I NOT ONLY
  • 00:26:06.398 --> 00:26:07.632
  • - LA MALINCHE: I NOT ONLYUNDERSTOOD THE WORDS,
  • 00:26:07.632 --> 00:26:08.400
  • UNDERSTOOD THE WORDS,BUT WHAT PEOPLE MEANT
  • 00:26:08.400 --> 00:26:10.502
  • BUT WHAT PEOPLE MEANTBY THEM.
  • 00:26:10.502 --> 00:26:11.703
  • BY THEM.SOMETIMES I WAS ABLE TO
  • 00:26:11.703 --> 00:26:13.738
  • SOMETIMES I WAS ABLE TOTELL MY LORD WHEN I
  • 00:26:13.738 --> 00:26:14.306
  • TELL MY LORD WHEN ITHOUGHT OTHERS WERE LYING
  • 00:26:14.306 --> 00:26:17.309
  • THOUGHT OTHERS WERE LYINGTO HIM.
  • 00:26:17.309 --> 00:26:18.043
  • TO HIM.- TODD: AND HE GAVE HER A
  • 00:26:18.043 --> 00:26:19.044
  • - TODD: AND HE GAVE HER APLACE OF PROMINENCE 'CAUSE
  • 00:26:19.044 --> 00:26:21.179
  • PLACE OF PROMINENCE 'CAUSEHE SAW HER TALENTS, AND I
  • 00:26:21.179 --> 00:26:22.614
  • HE SAW HER TALENTS, AND ITHINK ONE OF THE MAIN
  • 00:26:22.614 --> 00:26:26.251
  • THINK ONE OF THE MAINREASONS THAT CORTES AND
  • 00:26:26.251 --> 00:26:29.120
  • REASONS THAT CORTES ANDHIS MEN WON AND DEFEATED
  • 00:26:29.120 --> 00:26:30.455
  • HIS MEN WON AND DEFEATEDAN EMPIRE MANY TIMES
  • 00:26:30.455 --> 00:26:31.256
  • AN EMPIRE MANY TIMESLARGER THAN THEY WERE WAS
  • 00:26:31.256 --> 00:26:32.991
  • LARGER THAN THEY WERE WASBECAUSE HE GATHERED
  • 00:26:32.991 --> 00:26:36.828
  • BECAUSE HE GATHEREDINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALINCHE.
  • 00:26:36.828 --> 00:26:37.896
  • INTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALINCHE.- ROLENA: THE CURIOUS
  • 00:26:37.896 --> 00:26:38.663
  • - ROLENA: THE CURIOUSTHING IS THAT MALINCHE WAS
  • 00:26:38.663 --> 00:26:42.467
  • THING IS THAT MALINCHE WASNOT WHAT SHE WAS CALLED, EVER.
  • 00:26:42.467 --> 00:26:45.637
  • NOT WHAT SHE WAS CALLED, EVER.THAT'S WHAT CORTES WAS
  • 00:26:45.637 --> 00:26:50.942
  • THAT'S WHAT CORTES WASCALLED: MALINCHE.
  • 00:26:50.942 --> 00:26:54.045
  • CALLED: MALINCHE.AND THAT MEANT WHAT IT MEANT.
  • 00:26:54.045 --> 00:26:56.448
  • AND THAT MEANT WHAT IT MEANT.YOU KNOW, IN OTHER WORDS,
  • 00:26:56.448 --> 00:26:57.315
  • YOU KNOW, IN OTHER WORDS,IT MEANT, "I'M TALKING TO
  • 00:26:57.315 --> 00:26:57.983
  • IT MEANT, "I'M TALKING TOYOU, BUT I'M SPEAKING TO
  • 00:26:57.983 --> 00:27:01.319
  • YOU, BUT I'M SPEAKING TOHER," VERY LIKELY.
  • 00:27:01.319 --> 00:27:01.987
  • HER," VERY LIKELY.- TODD: MEXICANS, OR A
  • 00:27:01.987 --> 00:27:02.654
  • - TODD: MEXICANS, OR ALOT OF MEXICANS TODAY HATE
  • 00:27:02.654 --> 00:27:04.356
  • LOT OF MEXICANS TODAY HATEHER.
  • 00:27:04.356 --> 00:27:05.624
  • HER.SHE'S SEEN AS A SYMBOL OF
  • 00:27:05.624 --> 00:27:07.158
  • SHE'S SEEN AS A SYMBOL OFBETRAYAL.
  • 00:27:07.158 --> 00:27:10.528
  • BETRAYAL.- ROLENA: "AS A WOMAN
  • 00:27:10.528 --> 00:27:12.964
  • - ROLENA: "AS A WOMANFORCIBLY DOING WHATEVER
  • 00:27:12.964 --> 00:27:14.966
  • FORCIBLY DOING WHATEVERI'M TOLD TO DO AND HAVE A
  • 00:27:14.966 --> 00:27:17.235
  • I'M TOLD TO DO AND HAVE ACOUPLE OF NATURAL SKILLS
  • 00:27:17.235 --> 00:27:18.370
  • COUPLE OF NATURAL SKILLSTHAT ARE ADVANTAGEOUS TO
  • 00:27:18.370 --> 00:27:22.240
  • THAT ARE ADVANTAGEOUS TOTHE PERSON WHO HAS
  • 00:27:22.240 --> 00:27:25.810
  • THE PERSON WHO HASCAPTURED ME--" NO, NOT A
  • 00:27:25.810 --> 00:27:28.113
  • CAPTURED ME--" NO, NOT ATRAITOR.
  • 00:27:28.113 --> 00:27:32.851
  • TRAITOR.[MUSIC]
  • 00:27:32.851 --> 00:27:33.485
  • [MUSIC]- LA MALINCHE: I SURVIVED
  • 00:27:33.485 --> 00:27:34.986
  • - LA MALINCHE: I SURVIVEDTHE MASSACRE OF THE PEOPLE
  • 00:27:34.986 --> 00:27:37.622
  • THE MASSACRE OF THE PEOPLEAT CHOLULA AND THE
  • 00:27:37.622 --> 00:27:40.258
  • AT CHOLULA AND THECONQUEST OF TENOCHTITLAN.
  • 00:27:40.258 --> 00:27:42.727
  • CONQUEST OF TENOCHTITLAN.I'VE BEEN WITH MY LORD,
  • 00:27:42.727 --> 00:27:44.729
  • I'VE BEEN WITH MY LORD,CORTES, ON MANY OF HIS
  • 00:27:44.729 --> 00:27:45.497
  • CORTES, ON MANY OF HISMARCHES, ONE TIME, AS FAR
  • 00:27:45.497 --> 00:27:50.835
  • MARCHES, ONE TIME, AS FARAS HONDURAS.
  • 00:27:50.835 --> 00:27:51.436
  • AS HONDURAS.- BERNAL: ON THIS
  • 00:27:51.436 --> 00:27:52.337
  • - BERNAL: ON THISOCCASION, THE MOTHER AND
  • 00:27:52.337 --> 00:27:53.471
  • OCCASION, THE MOTHER ANDTHE BROTHER OF
  • 00:27:53.471 --> 00:27:53.938
  • THE BROTHER OFDONA MARINA MADE THEIR
  • 00:27:53.938 --> 00:27:55.240
  • DONA MARINA MADE THEIRAPPEARANCE.
  • 00:27:55.240 --> 00:27:56.041
  • APPEARANCE.HER MOTHER APPEARED TO BE
  • 00:27:56.041 --> 00:27:58.410
  • HER MOTHER APPEARED TO BEUNDER GREAT ANXIETY,
  • 00:27:58.410 --> 00:27:59.110
  • UNDER GREAT ANXIETY,THINKING THAT THEY WERE
  • 00:27:59.110 --> 00:28:00.712
  • THINKING THAT THEY WEREGOING TO BE KILLED.
  • 00:28:00.712 --> 00:28:01.379
  • GOING TO BE KILLED.DONA MARINA EXPLAINED TO
  • 00:28:01.379 --> 00:28:04.382
  • DONA MARINA EXPLAINED TOTHEM THAT SHE KNEW THEY
  • 00:28:04.382 --> 00:28:05.350
  • THEM THAT SHE KNEW THEYDID NOT FULLY UNDERSTAND
  • 00:28:05.350 --> 00:28:05.917
  • DID NOT FULLY UNDERSTANDWHAT THEY WERE DOING WHEN
  • 00:28:05.917 --> 00:28:07.819
  • WHAT THEY WERE DOING WHENTHEY SENT HER AWAY TO THE
  • 00:28:07.819 --> 00:28:10.055
  • THEY SENT HER AWAY TO THELORD OF XICALANGO.
  • 00:28:10.055 --> 00:28:12.357
  • LORD OF XICALANGO.THAT SHE HAD FORGIVEN
  • 00:28:12.357 --> 00:28:13.725
  • THAT SHE HAD FORGIVENTHE PAST, THAT GOD HAD
  • 00:28:13.725 --> 00:28:14.826
  • THE PAST, THAT GOD HADCERTAINLY DIRECTED
  • 00:28:14.826 --> 00:28:17.195
  • CERTAINLY DIRECTEDEVERYTHING FOR HER GOOD,
  • 00:28:17.195 --> 00:28:18.496
  • EVERYTHING FOR HER GOOD,LEADING HER TO TURN FROM
  • 00:28:18.496 --> 00:28:20.965
  • LEADING HER TO TURN FROMTHE ERRORS OF HEATHENISM
  • 00:28:20.965 --> 00:28:22.333
  • THE ERRORS OF HEATHENISMAND LEARN OF CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:28:22.333 --> 00:28:23.868
  • AND LEARN OF CHRISTIANITY.THIS WOMAN, DONA MARINA,
  • 00:28:23.868 --> 00:28:26.204
  • THIS WOMAN, DONA MARINA,WAS A VALUABLE INSTRUMENT
  • 00:28:26.204 --> 00:28:27.338
  • WAS A VALUABLE INSTRUMENTTO US IN THE CONQUEST OF
  • 00:28:27.338 --> 00:28:29.474
  • TO US IN THE CONQUEST OFNEW SPAIN.
  • 00:28:29.474 --> 00:28:30.475
  • NEW SPAIN.WITHOUT HER AND THE
  • 00:28:30.475 --> 00:28:31.976
  • WITHOUT HER AND THEALMIGHTY, WE NEVER WOULD
  • 00:28:31.976 --> 00:28:33.278
  • ALMIGHTY, WE NEVER WOULDHAVE UNDERSTOOD THE
  • 00:28:33.278 --> 00:28:34.479
  • HAVE UNDERSTOOD THEMEXICAN LANGUAGE.
  • 00:28:34.479 --> 00:28:36.347
  • MEXICAN LANGUAGE.- TODD: THE IMPORTANT
  • 00:28:36.347 --> 00:28:37.415
  • - TODD: THE IMPORTANTTHING TO UNDERSTAND ABOUT
  • 00:28:37.415 --> 00:28:37.916
  • THING TO UNDERSTAND ABOUTLATIN AMERICA WHEN THE
  • 00:28:37.916 --> 00:28:39.117
  • LATIN AMERICA WHEN THEEUROPEANS FIRST ARRIVED IS
  • 00:28:39.117 --> 00:28:39.951
  • EUROPEANS FIRST ARRIVED ISTHAT THERE WERE TWO MAJOR
  • 00:28:39.951 --> 00:28:42.921
  • THAT THERE WERE TWO MAJOREMPIRES.
  • 00:28:42.921 --> 00:28:44.456
  • EMPIRES.IN MEXICO, YOU HAVE THE
  • 00:28:44.456 --> 00:28:45.857
  • IN MEXICO, YOU HAVE THEAZTEC EMPIRE, AND IN PERU,
  • 00:28:45.857 --> 00:28:46.925
  • AZTEC EMPIRE, AND IN PERU,YOU HAVE THE INCA EMPIRE,
  • 00:28:46.925 --> 00:28:49.427
  • YOU HAVE THE INCA EMPIRE,AND BOTH OF THESE ARE
  • 00:28:49.427 --> 00:28:50.361
  • AND BOTH OF THESE AREMULTIETHNIC EMPIRES, SO
  • 00:28:50.361 --> 00:28:52.530
  • MULTIETHNIC EMPIRES, SOIT'S IMPORTANT TO
  • 00:28:52.530 --> 00:28:54.232
  • IT'S IMPORTANT TOUNDERSTAND THAT THE AZTECS
  • 00:28:54.232 --> 00:28:56.701
  • UNDERSTAND THAT THE AZTECSRULED OVER DOZENS OF OTHER
  • 00:28:56.701 --> 00:28:58.303
  • RULED OVER DOZENS OF OTHERPEOPLES WHO THEY HAD
  • 00:28:58.303 --> 00:28:59.904
  • PEOPLES WHO THEY HADCONQUERED, AND THE SAME
  • 00:28:59.904 --> 00:29:01.106
  • CONQUERED, AND THE SAMEWITH THE INCA.
  • 00:29:01.106 --> 00:29:02.440
  • WITH THE INCA.THEY RULED OVER DOZENS OF
  • 00:29:02.440 --> 00:29:02.974
  • THEY RULED OVER DOZENS OFOTHER PEOPLES WHO THEY HAD
  • 00:29:02.974 --> 00:29:04.843
  • OTHER PEOPLES WHO THEY HADCONQUERED.
  • 00:29:04.843 --> 00:29:05.343
  • CONQUERED.- JUSTO: AND TO EXPLAIN
  • 00:29:05.343 --> 00:29:05.910
  • - JUSTO: AND TO EXPLAINWHAT HAPPENED WITH THE
  • 00:29:05.910 --> 00:29:06.778
  • WHAT HAPPENED WITH THECONQUEST, ESPECIALLY THE
  • 00:29:06.778 --> 00:29:07.579
  • CONQUEST, ESPECIALLY THEGREAT EMPIRES, THE AZTECS
  • 00:29:07.579 --> 00:29:09.781
  • GREAT EMPIRES, THE AZTECSAND THE INCAS, AND SO ON,
  • 00:29:09.781 --> 00:29:11.316
  • AND THE INCAS, AND SO ON,IS COMPARING A GAME OF
  • 00:29:11.316 --> 00:29:12.150
  • IS COMPARING A GAME OFCHESS WITH A GAME OF
  • 00:29:12.150 --> 00:29:12.817
  • CHESS WITH A GAME OFCHECKERS.
  • 00:29:12.817 --> 00:29:14.419
  • CHECKERS.TO WIN THE GAME OF
  • 00:29:14.419 --> 00:29:15.687
  • TO WIN THE GAME OFCHECKERS, YOU HAVE TO TAKE
  • 00:29:15.687 --> 00:29:17.055
  • CHECKERS, YOU HAVE TO TAKEIT DOWN TO THE LAST MAN.
  • 00:29:17.055 --> 00:29:18.256
  • IT DOWN TO THE LAST MAN.TO WIN THE GAME OF CHESS,
  • 00:29:18.256 --> 00:29:19.257
  • TO WIN THE GAME OF CHESS,YOU TAKE THE KING, AND YOU
  • 00:29:19.257 --> 00:29:20.692
  • YOU TAKE THE KING, AND YOUWON.
  • 00:29:20.692 --> 00:29:22.327
  • WON.AND WHEN YOU HAVE A
  • 00:29:22.327 --> 00:29:23.695
  • AND WHEN YOU HAVE ASOCIETY THAT'S VERY HIGHLY
  • 00:29:23.695 --> 00:29:25.196
  • SOCIETY THAT'S VERY HIGHLYSTRUCTURED, ALL YOU HAVE
  • 00:29:25.196 --> 00:29:26.097
  • STRUCTURED, ALL YOU HAVETO DO IS TAKE THE TOP, AND
  • 00:29:26.097 --> 00:29:27.065
  • TO DO IS TAKE THE TOP, ANDONCE YOU HAVE THE TOP, YOU
  • 00:29:27.065 --> 00:29:27.999
  • ONCE YOU HAVE THE TOP, YOUHAVE THE WHOLE THING.
  • 00:29:27.999 --> 00:29:28.566
  • HAVE THE WHOLE THING.- TODD: SO WHEN THEY
  • 00:29:28.566 --> 00:29:29.934
  • - TODD: SO WHEN THEYCONQUERED WHAT'S TODAY
  • 00:29:29.934 --> 00:29:31.336
  • CONQUERED WHAT'S TODAYMEXICO CITY, THEY
  • 00:29:31.336 --> 00:29:32.837
  • MEXICO CITY, THEYCONQUERED A WHOLE EMPIRE.
  • 00:29:32.837 --> 00:29:35.073
  • CONQUERED A WHOLE EMPIRE.SAME THING WITH PERU.
  • 00:29:35.073 --> 00:29:35.974
  • SAME THING WITH PERU.- JUSTO: SO IN MANY WAYS,
  • 00:29:35.974 --> 00:29:37.842
  • - JUSTO: SO IN MANY WAYS,THE INCAS AND THE AZTECS
  • 00:29:37.842 --> 00:29:39.911
  • THE INCAS AND THE AZTECSWERE LESS ABLE TO RESIST
  • 00:29:39.911 --> 00:29:42.814
  • WERE LESS ABLE TO RESISTTHE SPANISH THAN THE LESS
  • 00:29:42.814 --> 00:29:44.949
  • THE SPANISH THAN THE LESSCIVILIZED MOVE GROUPS
  • 00:29:44.949 --> 00:29:46.084
  • CIVILIZED MOVE GROUPSBECAUSE THEY HAD TO BE
  • 00:29:46.084 --> 00:29:47.418
  • BECAUSE THEY HAD TO BEKILLED DOWN TO THE LAST
  • 00:29:47.418 --> 00:29:48.586
  • KILLED DOWN TO THE LASTMAN OR CONQUERED DOWN TO
  • 00:29:48.586 --> 00:29:50.221
  • MAN OR CONQUERED DOWN TOTHE LAST MAN OR LAST
  • 00:29:50.221 --> 00:29:50.855
  • THE LAST MAN OR LASTPERSON.
  • 00:29:50.855 --> 00:29:51.389
  • PERSON.- TODD: THEY CREATED A
  • 00:29:51.389 --> 00:29:53.124
  • - TODD: THEY CREATED ACOLONIAL ADMINISTRATION,
  • 00:29:53.124 --> 00:29:55.093
  • COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION,AND BY THE 1600s THERE WAS
  • 00:29:55.093 --> 00:29:57.061
  • AND BY THE 1600s THERE WASNO DOUBT THAT THEY WERE IN
  • 00:29:57.061 --> 00:30:00.698
  • NO DOUBT THAT THEY WERE INCHARGE.
  • 00:30:00.698 --> 00:30:01.199
  • CHARGE.I MEAN, THERE WERE SOME
  • 00:30:01.199 --> 00:30:02.200
  • I MEAN, THERE WERE SOMESMALL REBELLIONS THAT THEY
  • 00:30:02.200 --> 00:30:03.168
  • SMALL REBELLIONS THAT THEYDEFEATED, BUT THERE WAS NO
  • 00:30:03.168 --> 00:30:04.068
  • DEFEATED, BUT THERE WAS NODOUBT THAT THEY WERE GONNA
  • 00:30:04.068 --> 00:30:04.602
  • DOUBT THAT THEY WERE GONNABE IN CHARGE FOR A LONG
  • 00:30:04.602 --> 00:30:06.371
  • BE IN CHARGE FOR A LONGTIME.
  • 00:30:06.371 --> 00:30:07.672
  • TIME.BUT THE BIGGEST PROBLEM BY
  • 00:30:07.672 --> 00:30:12.043
  • BUT THE BIGGEST PROBLEM BY1600 WAS THE DEATHS OF THE
  • 00:30:12.043 --> 00:30:13.711
  • 1600 WAS THE DEATHS OF THEINDIAN POPULATION.
  • 00:30:13.711 --> 00:30:14.312
  • INDIAN POPULATION.- DENNIS: THE GREAT TRAGEDY
  • 00:30:14.312 --> 00:30:15.880
  • - DENNIS: THE GREAT TRAGEDYOF THE COLONIAL EXPANSION
  • 00:30:15.880 --> 00:30:17.282
  • OF THE COLONIAL EXPANSIONOF IBERIA WAS THE
  • 00:30:17.282 --> 00:30:18.016
  • OF IBERIA WAS THEDEVASTATING LOSS OF LIFE.
  • 00:30:18.016 --> 00:30:19.617
  • DEVASTATING LOSS OF LIFE.THOUGH COUNTLESS
  • 00:30:19.617 --> 00:30:22.620
  • THOUGH COUNTLESSINDIGENOUS PEOPLE DIE AS A
  • 00:30:22.620 --> 00:30:23.988
  • INDIGENOUS PEOPLE DIE AS ARESULT OF WAR,
  • 00:30:23.988 --> 00:30:26.624
  • RESULT OF WAR,EXPLOITATION, AND GENOCIDE,
  • 00:30:26.624 --> 00:30:29.160
  • EXPLOITATION, AND GENOCIDE,MANY MORE DEATHS WERE CAUSED
  • 00:30:29.160 --> 00:30:30.595
  • MANY MORE DEATHS WERE CAUSEDBY DISEASES LIKE SMALLPOX.
  • 00:30:30.595 --> 00:30:32.330
  • BY DISEASES LIKE SMALLPOX.THE POPULATION OF THE NEW
  • 00:30:32.330 --> 00:30:33.531
  • THE POPULATION OF THE NEWWORLD HAD BEEN ISOLATED
  • 00:30:33.531 --> 00:30:34.833
  • WORLD HAD BEEN ISOLATEDFROM EUROPE AND AFRICA FOR
  • 00:30:34.833 --> 00:30:38.369
  • FROM EUROPE AND AFRICA FORTHOUSANDS OF YEARS.
  • 00:30:38.369 --> 00:30:40.171
  • THOUSANDS OF YEARS.WHEN THE EUROPEANS
  • 00:30:40.171 --> 00:30:40.805
  • WHEN THE EUROPEANSARRIVED, THESE DISEASES
  • 00:30:40.805 --> 00:30:41.606
  • ARRIVED, THESE DISEASESSPREAD LIKE WILDFIRE AND
  • 00:30:41.606 --> 00:30:42.740
  • SPREAD LIKE WILDFIRE ANDKILLED THE NATIVE
  • 00:30:42.740 --> 00:30:44.008
  • KILLED THE NATIVEPOPULATION BY THE MILLIONS.
  • 00:30:44.008 --> 00:30:48.246
  • POPULATION BY THE MILLIONS.- BARTOLOME: IN THE YEAR 1551,
  • 00:30:48.246 --> 00:30:49.447
  • - BARTOLOME: IN THE YEAR 1551,ANOTHER GREAT VILLAIN,
  • 00:30:49.447 --> 00:30:51.182
  • ANOTHER GREAT VILLAIN,FRANCISCO PIZARRO GONZALEZ,
  • 00:30:51.182 --> 00:30:52.116
  • FRANCISCO PIZARRO GONZALEZ,JOURNEYED WITH A NUMBER OF
  • 00:30:52.116 --> 00:30:54.485
  • HE HAD A GREAT OF
  • 00:30:55.753 --> 00:30:57.422
  • HE HAD A GREAT OFEXPERIENCE IN THE NEW
  • 00:30:57.422 --> 00:30:58.356
  • EXPERIENCE IN THE NEWWORLD, HAVING PARTICIPATED
  • 00:30:58.356 --> 00:30:58.923
  • WORLD, HAVING PARTICIPATEDOVER A NUMBER OF YEARS IN
  • 00:30:58.923 --> 00:31:00.558
  • OVER A NUMBER OF YEARS INTHE ATROCITIES AND
  • 00:31:00.558 --> 00:31:02.393
  • THE ATROCITIES ANDBARBARITIES HAPPENING ON
  • 00:31:02.393 --> 00:31:04.696
  • - TODD: I HAVE MUCH LESS
  • 00:31:05.797 --> 00:31:06.898
  • - TODD: I HAVE MUCH LESSRESPECT FOR THE PERUVIAN
  • 00:31:06.898 --> 00:31:09.300
  • RESPECT FOR THE PERUVIANCONQUISTADORS.
  • 00:31:09.300 --> 00:31:10.702
  • CONQUISTADORS.TO ME, THEY'RE MORE LIKE
  • 00:31:10.702 --> 00:31:13.371
  • TO ME, THEY'RE MORE LIKELAND PIRATES, YOU KNOW,
  • 00:31:13.371 --> 00:31:15.807
  • LAND PIRATES, YOU KNOW,JUST TOTALLY UNSCRUPULOUS,
  • 00:31:15.807 --> 00:31:17.508
  • JUST TOTALLY UNSCRUPULOUS,WILLING TO DO WHATEVER IT
  • 00:31:17.508 --> 00:31:18.543
  • WILLING TO DO WHATEVER ITTOOK TO CONQUER THIS
  • 00:31:18.543 --> 00:31:22.547
  • TOOK TO CONQUER THISKINGDOM AND TO GET RICH.
  • 00:31:22.547 --> 00:31:29.320
  • KINGDOM AND TO GET RICH.[MUSIC]
  • 00:31:29.320 --> 00:31:30.255
  • [MUSIC]- JUSTO: THE EL
  • 00:31:30.255 --> 00:31:31.589
  • - JUSTO: THE ELREQUERIMIENTO WAS A WAY OF
  • 00:31:31.589 --> 00:31:33.124
  • REQUERIMIENTO WAS A WAY OFGETTING AROUND THE LAW
  • 00:31:33.124 --> 00:31:35.159
  • GETTING AROUND THE LAWTHAT YOU CANNOT ENSLAVE
  • 00:31:35.159 --> 00:31:35.727
  • THAT YOU CANNOT ENSLAVEINDIANS UNLESS THEY ARE
  • 00:31:35.727 --> 00:31:36.861
  • INDIANS UNLESS THEY AREREBELS.
  • 00:31:36.861 --> 00:31:39.163
  • REBELS.IT WAS A LEGAL SUBTERFUGE
  • 00:31:39.163 --> 00:31:39.864
  • IT WAS A LEGAL SUBTERFUGETO DO WHAT THEY WANTED TO
  • 00:31:39.864 --> 00:31:41.766
  • TO DO WHAT THEY WANTED TODO ANYHOW.
  • 00:31:41.766 --> 00:31:42.333
  • DO ANYHOW.SO THE INDIANS WERE GIVEN
  • 00:31:42.333 --> 00:31:42.901
  • SO THE INDIANS WERE GIVENTHE OPPORTUNITY TO
  • 00:31:42.901 --> 00:31:44.469
  • THE OPPORTUNITY TOCONVERT, AND THEREFORE,
  • 00:31:44.469 --> 00:31:45.303
  • CONVERT, AND THEREFORE,THEY WOULD RETAIN THEIR
  • 00:31:45.303 --> 00:31:46.804
  • THEY WOULD RETAIN THEIRLANDS AND THE POWER AND
  • 00:31:46.804 --> 00:31:47.305
  • LANDS AND THE POWER ANDALL THAT, BUT IF THEY
  • 00:31:47.305 --> 00:31:47.872
  • ALL THAT, BUT IF THEYDIDN'T CONVERT, THEN THERE
  • 00:31:47.872 --> 00:31:48.640
  • DIDN'T CONVERT, THEN THEREWAS
  • 00:31:48.640 --> 00:31:51.075
  • WAS"IT'S MINE,"
  • 00:31:51.075 --> 00:31:51.843
  • "IT'S MINE,"AND, OBVIOUSLY, MAKE SURE
  • 00:31:51.843 --> 00:31:52.944
  • AND, OBVIOUSLY, MAKE SURETHEY DON'T CONVERT.
  • 00:31:52.944 --> 00:31:53.511
  • THEY DON'T CONVERT.- TODD: AND IT BASICALLY
  • 00:31:53.511 --> 00:31:55.079
  • - TODD: AND IT BASICALLYSAID, YOU KNOW, "WE'RE
  • 00:31:55.079 --> 00:31:57.448
  • SAID, YOU KNOW, "WE'RECONQUERING YOU FOR
  • 00:31:57.448 --> 00:31:59.851
  • CONQUERING YOU FORCATHOLICISM AND, YOU KNOW,
  • 00:31:59.851 --> 00:32:00.785
  • CATHOLICISM AND, YOU KNOW,THE POPE'S IN ROME, AND
  • 00:32:00.785 --> 00:32:03.054
  • THE POPE'S IN ROME, ANDYOU NEED TO BELIEVE IN
  • 00:32:03.054 --> 00:32:05.490
  • YOU NEED TO BELIEVE INCATHOLICISM, AND IT'S ALL
  • 00:32:05.490 --> 00:32:06.257
  • CATHOLICISM, AND IT'S ALLFOR YOUR GOOD."
  • 00:32:06.257 --> 00:32:06.791
  • FOR YOUR GOOD."- BARTOLOME: WHEN THEY
  • 00:32:06.791 --> 00:32:08.226
  • - BARTOLOME: WHEN THEYTAUGHT ME ABOUT THE FARCE
  • 00:32:08.226 --> 00:32:10.028
  • TAUGHT ME ABOUT THE FARCEOF REQUERIMIENTO, I DID
  • 00:32:10.028 --> 00:32:11.062
  • OF REQUERIMIENTO, I DIDNOT KNOW WHETHER TO LAUGH
  • 00:32:11.062 --> 00:32:12.263
  • NOT KNOW WHETHER TO LAUGHOR TO CRY.
  • 00:32:12.263 --> 00:32:13.064
  • OR TO CRY.- TODD: THE LAUGHABLE
  • 00:32:13.064 --> 00:32:14.098
  • - TODD: THE LAUGHABLEPART OF IT IS THAT MOST OF
  • 00:32:14.098 --> 00:32:15.533
  • PART OF IT IS THAT MOST OFTHE TIME IT WAS READ IN
  • 00:32:15.533 --> 00:32:17.502
  • THE TIME IT WAS READ INSPANISH OR LATIN, AND SO
  • 00:32:17.502 --> 00:32:18.870
  • SPANISH OR LATIN, AND SOTHE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE HAD
  • 00:32:18.870 --> 00:32:20.071
  • THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE HADNO IDEA WHAT WAS BEING
  • 00:32:20.071 --> 00:32:21.706
  • NO IDEA WHAT WAS BEINGREAD TO THEM.
  • 00:32:21.706 --> 00:32:22.273
  • READ TO THEM.IT COULD'VE BEEN JUST A
  • 00:32:22.273 --> 00:32:23.441
  • IT COULD'VE BEEN JUST ABUNCH OF JOKES OR
  • 00:32:23.441 --> 00:32:26.244
  • BUNCH OF JOKES ORGOBBLEDYGOOK, BUT IT, BUT
  • 00:32:26.244 --> 00:32:27.679
  • GOBBLEDYGOOK, BUT IT, BUTIT EASED CONSCIENCES.
  • 00:32:27.679 --> 00:32:28.780
  • IT EASED CONSCIENCES.- JUSTO: NOW, WHEN
  • 00:32:28.780 --> 00:32:30.014
  • - JUSTO: NOW, WHENPIZARRO ARRIVED IN THE
  • 00:32:30.014 --> 00:32:31.182
  • PIZARRO ARRIVED IN THEINCA EMPIRE, THE INCA
  • 00:32:31.182 --> 00:32:32.216
  • INCA EMPIRE, THE INCAEMPIRE WAS DIVIDED.
  • 00:32:32.216 --> 00:32:33.885
  • EMPIRE WAS DIVIDED.THERE WAS A CIVIL WAR
  • 00:32:33.885 --> 00:32:35.420
  • THERE WAS A CIVIL WARGOING ON.
  • 00:32:35.420 --> 00:32:36.688
  • GOING ON.THE INCA HAD A LEGITIMATE
  • 00:32:36.688 --> 00:32:38.089
  • THE INCA HAD A LEGITIMATEHEIR AND AN ILLEGITIMATE
  • 00:32:38.089 --> 00:32:39.557
  • HEIR AND AN ILLEGITIMATEHEIR.
  • 00:32:39.557 --> 00:32:40.758
  • HEIR.HE EVENTUALLY WON THE WAR.
  • 00:32:40.758 --> 00:32:45.964
  • HE EVENTUALLY WON THE WAR.HIS NAME WAS ATAHUALPA.
  • 00:32:45.964 --> 00:32:47.999
  • HIS NAME WAS ATAHUALPA.[MUSIC]
  • 00:32:47.999 --> 00:32:48.800
  • [MUSIC]- FRANCISCO PIZARRO
  • 00:32:48.800 --> 00:32:50.001
  • - FRANCISCO PIZARROGONZáLEZ: I ARRIVED TO
  • 00:32:50.001 --> 00:32:50.601
  • GONZáLEZ: I ARRIVED TOWHERE ATAHUALPA WAS
  • 00:32:50.601 --> 00:32:51.736
  • WHERE ATAHUALPA WASBROUGHT TO MEET US.
  • 00:32:51.736 --> 00:32:52.603
  • BROUGHT TO MEET US.WHEN KING ATAHUALPA WAS
  • 00:32:52.603 --> 00:32:55.373
  • WHEN KING ATAHUALPA WASCARRIED IN BY HIS
  • 00:32:55.373 --> 00:32:56.007
  • CARRIED IN BY HISSERVANTS, HE WAS NEVER TO
  • 00:32:56.007 --> 00:32:59.444
  • SERVANTS, HE WAS NEVER TOTOUCH THE GROUND.
  • 00:32:59.444 --> 00:33:00.111
  • TOUCH THE GROUND.HE WAS THAT KIND OF A
  • 00:33:00.111 --> 00:33:00.912
  • HE WAS THAT KIND OF APERSON, AND HE JUST SAT
  • 00:33:00.912 --> 00:33:05.283
  • PERSON, AND HE JUST SATTHERE.
  • 00:33:05.283 --> 00:33:07.618
  • THERE.AND THEY COULD TELL THAT
  • 00:33:07.618 --> 00:33:11.122
  • AND THEY COULD TELL THATTHE INCAS HAVE NEVER SEEN
  • 00:33:11.122 --> 00:33:12.357
  • THE INCAS HAVE NEVER SEENHORSES BY THE WAY THEY
  • 00:33:12.357 --> 00:33:15.360
  • HORSES BY THE WAY THEYREACTED.
  • 00:33:15.360 --> 00:33:17.595
  • REACTED.[MUSIC]
  • 00:33:17.595 --> 00:33:18.129
  • [MUSIC]- FRANCISCO: SO WITH
  • 00:33:18.129 --> 00:33:19.597
  • - FRANCISCO: SO WITHTHAT, WE WOULD IMPRESS
  • 00:33:19.597 --> 00:33:20.565
  • THAT, WE WOULD IMPRESSKING ATAHUALPA BY BRINGING
  • 00:33:20.565 --> 00:33:23.534
  • KING ATAHUALPA BY BRINGINGOUR HORSE FULL GALLOP AND
  • 00:33:23.534 --> 00:33:27.205
  • OUR HORSE FULL GALLOP ANDSTOPPING RIGHT IN HIS FACE.
  • 00:33:27.205 --> 00:33:29.140
  • STOPPING RIGHT IN HIS FACE.BUT ATAHUALPA DIDN'T BLINK.
  • 00:33:29.140 --> 00:33:30.908
  • BUT ATAHUALPA DIDN'T BLINK.HE DIDN'T MOVE AT ALL.
  • 00:33:30.908 --> 00:33:31.509
  • HE DIDN'T MOVE AT ALL.- BARTOLOME: KING ATAHUALPA
  • 00:33:31.509 --> 00:33:32.243
  • - BARTOLOME: KING ATAHUALPACAME IN ACOMPANIED BY MANY OF
  • 00:33:32.243 --> 00:33:37.682
  • CAME IN ACOMPANIED BY MANY OFHIS MEN, ALL NAKED AND ARMORED,
  • 00:33:37.682 --> 00:33:38.249
  • HIS MEN, ALL NAKED AND ARMORED,THOUGH THEIR WEAPONS WERE
  • 00:33:38.249 --> 00:33:39.751
  • THOUGH THEIR WEAPONS WEREA JOKE.
  • 00:33:39.751 --> 00:33:40.485
  • A JOKE.THEY WERE IGNORANT OF THE
  • 00:33:40.485 --> 00:33:41.552
  • THEY WERE IGNORANT OF THETRUE NATURE OF THESE
  • 00:33:41.552 --> 00:33:44.689
  • TRUE NATURE OF THESESPANIARDS WHO WOULD ATTACK
  • 00:33:44.689 --> 00:33:46.324
  • SPANIARDS WHO WOULD ATTACKAND ROB THE DEVIL HIMSELF
  • 00:33:46.324 --> 00:33:47.959
  • AND ROB THE DEVIL HIMSELFIF HE HAD GOLD ABOUT HIS
  • 00:33:47.959 --> 00:33:50.228
  • IF HE HAD GOLD ABOUT HISPERSON.
  • 00:33:50.228 --> 00:33:52.196
  • PERSON.- JUSTO: THEN THE PRIEST,
  • 00:33:52.196 --> 00:33:52.697
  • - JUSTO: THEN THE PRIEST,WHO HAD A FINANCIAL
  • 00:33:52.697 --> 00:33:54.732
  • WHO HAD A FINANCIALINVESTMENT IN THE
  • 00:33:54.732 --> 00:33:55.533
  • INVESTMENT IN THEENTERPRISE TOO, BY THE WAY,
  • 00:33:55.533 --> 00:33:56.434
  • ENTERPRISE TOO, BY THE WAY,READ THE EL REQUERIMIENTO,
  • 00:33:56.434 --> 00:33:58.236
  • READ THE EL REQUERIMIENTO,THE INCA COMES IN,
  • 00:33:58.236 --> 00:33:59.804
  • THE INCA COMES IN,AND HE TAKES
  • 00:33:59.804 --> 00:34:00.571
  • AND HE TAKESTHIS BREVIARY THAT HE WAS
  • 00:34:00.571 --> 00:34:01.472
  • THIS BREVIARY THAT HE WASHANDED,
  • 00:34:01.472 --> 00:34:02.006
  • HANDED,AND HE THROWS IT ON THE
  • 00:34:02.006 --> 00:34:02.740
  • AND HE THROWS IT ON THEGROUND.
  • 00:34:02.740 --> 00:34:03.875
  • GROUND.THAT'S SACRILEGE.
  • 00:34:03.875 --> 00:34:05.543
  • THAT'S SACRILEGE.AND THEN THE FIRE COMES
  • 00:34:05.543 --> 00:34:07.311
  • AND THEN THE FIRE COMESOUT FROM THE HOUSES, AND
  • 00:34:07.311 --> 00:34:09.147
  • OUT FROM THE HOUSES, ANDTHERE'S A STAMPEDE OF
  • 00:34:09.147 --> 00:34:11.649
  • THERE'S A STAMPEDE OFPEOPLE TRYING TO FLEE THE
  • 00:34:11.649 --> 00:34:12.183
  • PEOPLE TRYING TO FLEE THECITY'S WALLS, SO THEY
  • 00:34:12.183 --> 00:34:13.684
  • CITY'S WALLS, SO THEYCAN'T GET OUT.
  • 00:34:13.684 --> 00:34:15.053
  • CAN'T GET OUT.THEY'RE MOSTLY KILLED, AND
  • 00:34:15.053 --> 00:34:16.387
  • THEY'RE MOSTLY KILLED, ANDTHE INCA IS CAPTURED, AND
  • 00:34:16.387 --> 00:34:19.690
  • THE INCA IS CAPTURED, ANDTHEN EVENTUALLY, WELL, HE
  • 00:34:19.690 --> 00:34:23.661
  • THEN EVENTUALLY, WELL, HEBECOMES PIZARRO'S PRISONER.
  • 00:34:23.661 --> 00:34:24.462
  • BECOMES PIZARRO'S PRISONER.- BARTOLOMé: THEY HAGGLED
  • 00:34:24.462 --> 00:34:25.196
  • - BARTOLOMé: THEY HAGGLEDWITH HIM OVER THE RANSOM
  • 00:34:25.196 --> 00:34:28.833
  • WITH HIM OVER THE RANSOMFOR HIS RELEASE.
  • 00:34:28.833 --> 00:34:29.367
  • FOR HIS RELEASE.HE AGREED TO THE SUM OF
  • 00:34:29.367 --> 00:34:30.968
  • HE AGREED TO THE SUM OFFOUR MILLION CASTILIANS,
  • 00:34:30.968 --> 00:34:34.405
  • FOUR MILLION CASTILIANS,EVENTUALLY PAID THEM 15,
  • 00:34:34.405 --> 00:34:35.206
  • EVENTUALLY PAID THEM 15,FOR WHICH THEY AGREED TO
  • 00:34:35.206 --> 00:34:36.274
  • FOR WHICH THEY AGREED TORELEASE HIM.
  • 00:34:36.274 --> 00:34:37.608
  • RELEASE HIM.BUT IN THE END, THEY DID
  • 00:34:37.608 --> 00:34:39.343
  • BUT IN THE END, THEY DIDNOT HONOR THEIR SIDE OF
  • 00:34:39.343 --> 00:34:41.012
  • NOT HONOR THEIR SIDE OFTHE BARGAIN, FOR NOWHERE
  • 00:34:41.012 --> 00:34:42.180
  • THE BARGAIN, FOR NOWHEREIN THE NEW WORLD DID THE
  • 00:34:42.180 --> 00:34:45.416
  • IN THE NEW WORLD DID THESPANISH GIVE THEM WORTH.
  • 00:34:45.416 --> 00:34:46.384
  • SPANISH GIVE THEM WORTH.- FRANCISCO: "ATAHUALPA
  • 00:34:46.384 --> 00:34:47.151
  • - FRANCISCO: "ATAHUALPACOMMANDED HIS PEOPLE TO
  • 00:34:47.151 --> 00:34:47.919
  • COMMANDED HIS PEOPLE TOFILL AN ENTIRE ROOM WITH
  • 00:34:47.919 --> 00:34:49.854
  • FILL AN ENTIRE ROOM WITHGOLD.
  • 00:34:49.854 --> 00:34:51.289
  • GOLD.THAT WAS GOOD.
  • 00:34:51.289 --> 00:34:54.459
  • THAT WAS GOOD.EVEN STILL, ATAHUALPA HAD
  • 00:34:54.459 --> 00:34:58.029
  • EVEN STILL, ATAHUALPA HADTO GO.
  • 00:34:58.029 --> 00:34:58.629
  • TO GO.- JUSTO: AND EVENTUALLY
  • 00:34:58.629 --> 00:35:00.031
  • - JUSTO: AND EVENTUALLYPIZARRO TRICKS HIM INTO
  • 00:35:00.031 --> 00:35:05.136
  • PIZARRO TRICKS HIM INTOCOMMUNICATIONS WITH THE
  • 00:35:05.136 --> 00:35:07.371
  • COMMUNICATIONS WITH THEOUTSIDE, AND SO PIZARRO
  • 00:35:07.371 --> 00:35:08.439
  • OUTSIDE, AND SO PIZARROACCUSES HIM OF BEING A
  • 00:35:08.439 --> 00:35:09.240
  • ACCUSES HIM OF BEING ATRAITOR.
  • 00:35:09.240 --> 00:35:10.374
  • TRAITOR.- BARTOLOMé: THEY DECIDED
  • 00:35:10.374 --> 00:35:12.110
  • - BARTOLOMé: THEY DECIDEDTO BURN HIM ALIVE ALTHOUGH
  • 00:35:12.110 --> 00:35:13.945
  • TO BURN HIM ALIVE ALTHOUGHSEVERAL OF PIZARRO'S MEN
  • 00:35:13.945 --> 00:35:15.880
  • SEVERAL OF PIZARRO'S MENDID LATER ASK THEIR
  • 00:35:15.880 --> 00:35:17.281
  • DID LATER ASK THEIRCOMMANDER TO STRANGLE HIM
  • 00:35:17.281 --> 00:35:20.151
  • COMMANDER TO STRANGLE HIMBEFORE HE WAS BURNED.
  • 00:35:20.151 --> 00:35:21.652
  • BEFORE HE WAS BURNED.ONCE ATAHUALPA LEARNED OF
  • 00:35:21.652 --> 00:35:24.055
  • ONCE ATAHUALPA LEARNED OFHIS FATE, HE ASKED THEM,
  • 00:35:24.055 --> 00:35:26.090
  • HIS FATE, HE ASKED THEM,"WHY DO YOU WANT TO BURN
  • 00:35:26.090 --> 00:35:28.759
  • "WHY DO YOU WANT TO BURNME?
  • 00:35:28.759 --> 00:35:29.494
  • ME?IN WHAT WAY HAVE I HARMED
  • 00:35:29.494 --> 00:35:31.329
  • IN WHAT WAY HAVE I HARMEDYOU?
  • 00:35:31.329 --> 00:35:32.730
  • YOU?YOU DID NOT GIVE YOUR WORD
  • 00:35:32.730 --> 00:35:34.365
  • YOU DID NOT GIVE YOUR WORDTHAT YOU WOULD LET ME GO
  • 00:35:34.365 --> 00:35:36.601
  • THAT YOU WOULD LET ME GOIF I GAVE YOU GOLD.
  • 00:35:36.601 --> 00:35:37.735
  • IF I GAVE YOU GOLD.DID I NOT GIVE YOU ALL I
  • 00:35:37.735 --> 00:35:41.205
  • DID I NOT GIVE YOU ALL IPROMISED AND MORE?
  • 00:35:41.205 --> 00:35:43.107
  • PROMISED AND MORE?IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO FREE
  • 00:35:43.107 --> 00:35:45.776
  • IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO FREEME, THEN SEND ME TO YOUR
  • 00:35:45.776 --> 00:35:49.881
  • ME, THEN SEND ME TO YOURKING OF SPAIN, KING TO KING."
  • 00:35:49.881 --> 00:35:50.348
  • KING OF SPAIN, KING TO KING."THEN THEY BURNED HIM
  • 00:35:50.348 --> 00:35:53.417
  • THEN THEY BURNED HIMALL THE SAME.
  • 00:35:53.417 --> 00:35:54.185
  • ALL THE SAME.- TODD: TO ME, THAT SORT
  • 00:35:54.185 --> 00:35:55.086
  • - TODD: TO ME, THAT SORTOF THING, YOU CAN'T REALLY
  • 00:35:55.086 --> 00:35:55.686
  • OF THING, YOU CAN'T REALLYJUSTIFY THAT FOR ANY
  • 00:35:55.686 --> 00:35:57.321
  • JUSTIFY THAT FOR ANYREASON.
  • 00:35:57.321 --> 00:35:59.257
  • REASON.[MUSIC]
  • 00:35:59.257 --> 00:36:10.668
  • [MUSIC][VOCALIZING]
  • 00:36:10.668 --> 00:36:11.335
  • [VOCALIZING]- TODD: HISPANIC CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:36:11.335 --> 00:36:12.136
  • - TODD: HISPANIC CHRISTIANITYHAD A VERY HEALTHY
  • 00:36:12.136 --> 00:36:14.539
  • HAD A VERY HEALTHYFEAR OF HELL,
  • 00:36:14.539 --> 00:36:16.307
  • FEAR OF HELL,DAMNATION, AND MANY OF
  • 00:36:16.307 --> 00:36:19.677
  • DAMNATION, AND MANY OFTHEM WERE TAUGHT AND
  • 00:36:19.677 --> 00:36:21.179
  • THEM WERE TAUGHT ANDBELIEVED THAT, IF THEY
  • 00:36:21.179 --> 00:36:23.347
  • BELIEVED THAT, IF THEYDIDN'T REPENT, IF THEY
  • 00:36:23.347 --> 00:36:24.649
  • DIDN'T REPENT, IF THEYDIED IN THE STATE OF
  • 00:36:24.649 --> 00:36:25.416
  • DIED IN THE STATE OFMORTAL SIN, THAT THEY
  • 00:36:25.416 --> 00:36:28.119
  • MORTAL SIN, THAT THEYWOULD SPEND ETERNITY IN HELL.
  • 00:36:28.119 --> 00:36:29.387
  • WOULD SPEND ETERNITY IN HELL.- JUSTO: THE CONQUISTADORS
  • 00:36:29.387 --> 00:36:30.054
  • - JUSTO: THE CONQUISTADORSWERE VERY, VERY, VERY
  • 00:36:30.054 --> 00:36:30.688
  • WERE VERY, VERY, VERYSINCERE CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:36:30.688 --> 00:36:32.256
  • SINCERE CHRISTIANS.WHEN PIZARRO, WHO WAS MUCH
  • 00:36:32.256 --> 00:36:33.524
  • WHEN PIZARRO, WHO WAS MUCHWORSE THAN CORTES--AND HE
  • 00:36:33.524 --> 00:36:35.059
  • WORSE THAN CORTES--AND HEWAS THE ONE WHO CONQUERED
  • 00:36:35.059 --> 00:36:36.194
  • WAS THE ONE WHO CONQUEREDPERU--WHEN HE WAS
  • 00:36:36.194 --> 00:36:37.328
  • PERU--WHEN HE WASASSASSINATED, HE WAS
  • 00:36:37.328 --> 00:36:38.496
  • ASSASSINATED, HE WASMURDERED, THE LAST THING
  • 00:36:38.496 --> 00:36:39.630
  • MURDERED, THE LAST THINGHE DID WAS TO TAKE HIS
  • 00:36:39.630 --> 00:36:41.332
  • HE DID WAS TO TAKE HISBLOOD AND MAKE A CROSS SO
  • 00:36:41.332 --> 00:36:42.200
  • BLOOD AND MAKE A CROSS SOHE COULD LIE, LOOKING AT
  • 00:36:42.200 --> 00:36:44.502
  • HE COULD LIE, LOOKING ATTHE CROSS.
  • 00:36:44.502 --> 00:36:45.536
  • THE CROSS.NOW, HE HAD KILLED--I
  • 00:36:45.536 --> 00:36:46.070
  • NOW, HE HAD KILLED--IDON'T KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLE
  • 00:36:46.070 --> 00:36:47.004
  • DON'T KNOW HOW MANY PEOPLEBEFORE THAT, BUT HE
  • 00:36:47.004 --> 00:36:47.805
  • BEFORE THAT, BUT HETHOUGHT THAT HE WAS
  • 00:36:47.805 --> 00:36:50.708
  • THOUGHT THAT HE WASSERVING GOD.
  • 00:36:50.708 --> 00:36:52.076
  • SERVING GOD.SO THAT, TO ME, IS PERHAPS
  • 00:36:52.076 --> 00:36:53.744
  • SO THAT, TO ME, IS PERHAPSTHE MOST IMPORTANT LESSON
  • 00:36:53.744 --> 00:36:55.880
  • THE MOST IMPORTANT LESSONWE CAN DRAW FROM THAT TIME,
  • 00:36:55.880 --> 00:36:57.615
  • WE CAN DRAW FROM THAT TIME,THAT IT IS POSSIBLE
  • 00:36:57.615 --> 00:36:59.350
  • THAT IT IS POSSIBLETO BE A VERY SINCERE
  • 00:36:59.350 --> 00:37:04.021
  • TO BE A VERY SINCERECHRISTIAN AND BE HORRIBLE.
  • 00:37:04.021 --> 00:37:05.223
  • CHRISTIAN AND BE HORRIBLE.- FRANCISCO:
  • 00:37:05.223 --> 00:37:06.290
  • - FRANCISCO:[SPEAKING IN FOREIGN
  • 00:37:06.290 --> 00:37:07.858
  • [SPEAKING IN FOREIGNLANGUAGE]
  • 00:37:07.858 --> 00:37:08.459
  • LANGUAGE]- TODD: FROM A CATHOLIC
  • 00:37:08.459 --> 00:37:10.394
  • - TODD: FROM A CATHOLICPERSPECTIVE, EVERYBODY
  • 00:37:10.394 --> 00:37:11.996
  • PERSPECTIVE, EVERYBODYWHO'S BAPTIZED IS A
  • 00:37:11.996 --> 00:37:14.465
  • WHO'S BAPTIZED IS ACHRISTIAN.
  • 00:37:14.465 --> 00:37:15.533
  • CHRISTIAN.IT'S MORE A SENSE OF ARE
  • 00:37:15.533 --> 00:37:18.769
  • IT'S MORE A SENSE OF AREYOU A GOOD ONE OR A BAD ONE?
  • 00:37:18.769 --> 00:37:21.339
  • YOU A GOOD ONE OR A BAD ONE?AND I THINK VIRTUALLY ALL
  • 00:37:21.339 --> 00:37:22.873
  • AND I THINK VIRTUALLY ALLOF THESE PEOPLE WHO DID
  • 00:37:22.873 --> 00:37:24.175
  • OF THESE PEOPLE WHO DIDTERRIBLE THINGS WOULD'VE
  • 00:37:24.175 --> 00:37:27.011
  • TERRIBLE THINGS WOULD'VEBEEN BAPTIZED, SO I WOULD
  • 00:37:27.011 --> 00:37:28.246
  • BEEN BAPTIZED, SO I WOULDCONSIDER THEM CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:37:28.246 --> 00:37:29.447
  • CONSIDER THEM CHRISTIANS.I WOULD CONSIDER, YOU KNOW,
  • 00:37:29.447 --> 00:37:30.514
  • I WOULD CONSIDER, YOU KNOW,THESE ARE MEMBERS OF
  • 00:37:30.514 --> 00:37:33.985
  • THESE ARE MEMBERS OFTHE CHURCH.
  • 00:37:33.985 --> 00:37:34.552
  • THE CHURCH.SOME OF THEM ARE ON THEIR
  • 00:37:34.552 --> 00:37:35.286
  • SOME OF THEM ARE ON THEIRWAY TO HELL, BUT THEY'RE
  • 00:37:35.286 --> 00:37:40.057
  • WAY TO HELL, BUT THEY'REMEMBERS OF THE CHURCH.
  • 00:37:40.057 --> 00:37:40.625
  • MEMBERS OF THE CHURCH.- BARTOLOME: THEY SPARED
  • 00:37:40.625 --> 00:37:42.293
  • - BARTOLOME: THEY SPAREDNO ONE.
  • 00:37:42.293 --> 00:37:44.729
  • NO ONE.THEY BUILT SPECIALLY WIDE
  • 00:37:44.729 --> 00:37:46.931
  • THEY BUILT SPECIALLY WIDEPLATFORMS FROM WHICH THEY
  • 00:37:46.931 --> 00:37:48.699
  • PLATFORMS FROM WHICH THEYCOULD STRING THEIR VICTIMS UP,
  • 00:37:48.699 --> 00:37:49.867
  • COULD STRING THEIR VICTIMS UP,THE FEET JUST OFF THE
  • 00:37:49.867 --> 00:37:50.434
  • THE FEET JUST OFF THEGROUND WHERE THEY WOULD
  • 00:37:50.434 --> 00:37:56.307
  • GROUND WHERE THEY WOULDBURN THEM ALIVE.
  • 00:37:56.307 --> 00:37:57.141
  • BURN THEM ALIVE.PREGNANT WOMEN, MOTHERS OF
  • 00:37:57.141 --> 00:37:58.376
  • PREGNANT WOMEN, MOTHERS OFNEWBORN BABES, CHILDREN,
  • 00:37:58.376 --> 00:38:01.812
  • NEWBORN BABES, CHILDREN,OLD MEN WERE THROWN IN
  • 00:38:01.812 --> 00:38:04.882
  • OLD MEN WERE THROWN INTHESE PITS AND IMPALED ON
  • 00:38:04.882 --> 00:38:08.052
  • THESE PITS AND IMPALED ONTHE SPIKES.
  • 00:38:08.052 --> 00:38:09.453
  • THE SPIKES.I KNOW THESE POOR PEOPLE
  • 00:38:09.453 --> 00:38:11.389
  • I KNOW THESE POOR PEOPLEDO BETTER IF THEY WERE
  • 00:38:11.389 --> 00:38:13.224
  • DO BETTER IF THEY WEREENTRUSTED TO DEVILS IN
  • 00:38:13.224 --> 00:38:15.126
  • ENTRUSTED TO DEVILS INHELL THAN THEY DO AT THE
  • 00:38:15.126 --> 00:38:17.161
  • HELL THAN THEY DO AT THEHANDS OF THE DEVILS OF THE
  • 00:38:17.161 --> 00:38:18.929
  • HANDS OF THE DEVILS OF THENEW WORLD WHO MASQUERADE AS
  • 00:38:18.929 --> 00:38:22.433
  • NEW WORLD WHO MASQUERADE ASCHRISTIANS.
  • 00:38:22.433 --> 00:38:23.534
  • CHRISTIANS.THEY WENT FURTHER THAN ANY
  • 00:38:23.534 --> 00:38:25.636
  • THEY WENT FURTHER THAN ANYOF THEIR PREDECESSORS IN
  • 00:38:25.636 --> 00:38:27.238
  • OF THEIR PREDECESSORS INDEVISING NEW METHODS OF
  • 00:38:27.238 --> 00:38:28.873
  • DEVISING NEW METHODS OFCRUELTY AND DUPLICITY TO
  • 00:38:28.873 --> 00:38:30.541
  • CRUELTY AND DUPLICITY TOOBTAIN THE GOLD AND SILVER
  • 00:38:30.541 --> 00:38:33.244
  • OBTAIN THE GOLD AND SILVERTHEY CRAVED WITH NOT A
  • 00:38:33.244 --> 00:38:36.681
  • THEY CRAVED WITH NOT ATHOUGHT FOR THEIR OWN SOULS.
  • 00:38:36.681 --> 00:38:37.615
  • THOUGHT FOR THEIR OWN SOULS.- DENNIS: HOW COULD A
  • 00:38:37.615 --> 00:38:38.649
  • - DENNIS: HOW COULD ACONQUISTADOR COMMIT SUCH
  • 00:38:38.649 --> 00:38:40.951
  • CONQUISTADOR COMMIT SUCHHEINOUS ACTS AND STILL
  • 00:38:40.951 --> 00:38:43.554
  • HEINOUS ACTS AND STILLCONSIDER HIMSELF A CHRISTIAN?
  • 00:38:43.554 --> 00:38:45.589
  • CONSIDER HIMSELF A CHRISTIAN?THE ANSWER IS THAT MANY OF
  • 00:38:45.589 --> 00:38:47.291
  • THE ANSWER IS THAT MANY OFTHEM WEREN'T, AND THOSE
  • 00:38:47.291 --> 00:38:48.993
  • THEM WEREN'T, AND THOSEWHO WERE WRESTLED WITH OR
  • 00:38:48.993 --> 00:38:50.628
  • WHO WERE WRESTLED WITH ORSEARED THEIR CONSCIENCE.
  • 00:38:50.628 --> 00:38:52.330
  • SEARED THEIR CONSCIENCE.PERHAPS THEY FOCUSED ON
  • 00:38:52.330 --> 00:38:53.798
  • PERHAPS THEY FOCUSED ONTHE OLD TESTAMENT WHERE
  • 00:38:53.798 --> 00:38:54.865
  • THE OLD TESTAMENT WHERETHE ARMIES OF GOD
  • 00:38:54.865 --> 00:38:56.634
  • THE ARMIES OF GODCONQUERED OTHER PEOPLE
  • 00:38:56.634 --> 00:38:57.635
  • CONQUERED OTHER PEOPLEGROUPS, AND IN SO DOING,
  • 00:38:57.635 --> 00:38:59.704
  • GROUPS, AND IN SO DOING,NEGLECTED THE TEACHINGS OF
  • 00:38:59.704 --> 00:39:00.404
  • NEGLECTED THE TEACHINGS OFCHRIST, THOUGH A CLEAR
  • 00:39:00.404 --> 00:39:02.039
  • CHRIST, THOUGH A CLEARSIGN THAT THEY CAME TO
  • 00:39:02.039 --> 00:39:03.574
  • SIGN THAT THEY CAME TOUNDERSTAND THE TRUE SCOPE
  • 00:39:03.574 --> 00:39:05.142
  • UNDERSTAND THE TRUE SCOPEOF THEIR ACTIONS IS THAT
  • 00:39:05.142 --> 00:39:06.510
  • OF THEIR ACTIONS IS THATMANY OF THEM REPENTED ON
  • 00:39:06.510 --> 00:39:08.646
  • MANY OF THEM REPENTED ONTHEIR DEATHBED AND OFTEN
  • 00:39:08.646 --> 00:39:09.680
  • THEIR DEATHBED AND OFTENBEQUEATHED LARGE GIFTS TO
  • 00:39:09.680 --> 00:39:11.382
  • BEQUEATHED LARGE GIFTS TOTHE CHURCH.
  • 00:39:11.382 --> 00:39:11.982
  • THE CHURCH.- JUSTO: OTHERS, AT FIRST,
  • 00:39:11.982 --> 00:39:15.019
  • - JUSTO: OTHERS, AT FIRST,THE NATIVES
  • 00:39:15.019 --> 00:39:15.586
  • THE NATIVESABHORRED CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:39:15.586 --> 00:39:16.687
  • ABHORRED CHRISTIANITY.THERE'S A STORY, THERE WAS
  • 00:39:16.687 --> 00:39:18.389
  • THERE'S A STORY, THERE WASA MAN, A CHIEFTAIN IN
  • 00:39:18.389 --> 00:39:23.561
  • A MAN, A CHIEFTAIN INHISPANIOLA, WHAT'S NOW
  • 00:39:23.561 --> 00:39:24.028
  • HISPANIOLA, WHAT'S NOWHAITI, THE DOMINICAN
  • 00:39:24.028 --> 00:39:25.096
  • HAITI, THE DOMINICANREPUBLIC, WHO'S SEEN ALL
  • 00:39:25.096 --> 00:39:26.030
  • REPUBLIC, WHO'S SEEN ALLTHE ATROCITIES BEING
  • 00:39:26.030 --> 00:39:27.365
  • THE ATROCITIES BEINGCOMMITTED, FLED TO CUBA
  • 00:39:27.365 --> 00:39:28.399
  • COMMITTED, FLED TO CUBAAND ORGANIZED RESISTANCE
  • 00:39:28.399 --> 00:39:29.767
  • AND ORGANIZED RESISTANCETHERE WITH STICKS AND
  • 00:39:29.767 --> 00:39:31.102
  • THERE WITH STICKS ANDSTONES FIGHTING AGAINST
  • 00:39:31.102 --> 00:39:32.837
  • STONES FIGHTING AGAINSTARMOR, AND HE WAS
  • 00:39:32.837 --> 00:39:34.972
  • ARMOR, AND HE WASEVENTUALLY CAPTURED, AND
  • 00:39:34.972 --> 00:39:37.375
  • EVENTUALLY CAPTURED, ANDHE'S GONNA BE KILLED.
  • 00:39:37.375 --> 00:39:37.942
  • HE'S GONNA BE KILLED.- HATUEY: AFTER I FLED
  • 00:39:37.942 --> 00:39:39.744
  • - HATUEY: AFTER I FLEDFROM HISPANIOLA TO CUBA, I
  • 00:39:39.744 --> 00:39:42.913
  • FROM HISPANIOLA TO CUBA, IWAS CAPTURED AGAIN.
  • 00:39:42.913 --> 00:39:44.382
  • WAS CAPTURED AGAIN.THEY OFFERED ME BAPTISM TO
  • 00:39:44.382 --> 00:39:49.186
  • THEY OFFERED ME BAPTISM TOESCAPE HELL AND GO TO HEAVEN.
  • 00:39:49.186 --> 00:39:50.121
  • ESCAPE HELL AND GO TO HEAVEN.I ASK WHETHER CHRISTIANS
  • 00:39:50.121 --> 00:39:52.189
  • I ASK WHETHER CHRISTIANSWENT TO HEAVEN.
  • 00:39:52.189 --> 00:39:53.624
  • WENT TO HEAVEN.WHEN THEIR REPLY CAME THAT
  • 00:39:53.624 --> 00:39:56.193
  • WHEN THEIR REPLY CAME THATGOOD ONES DO, I TOLD THEM,
  • 00:39:56.193 --> 00:40:01.532
  • GOOD ONES DO, I TOLD THEM,"IF THAT IS TRUE, THEN I
  • 00:40:01.532 --> 00:40:06.070
  • "IF THAT IS TRUE, THEN ICHOOSE TO GO TO HELL."
  • 00:40:06.070 --> 00:40:07.638
  • CHOOSE TO GO TO HELL."[MUSIC]
  • 00:40:07.638 --> 00:40:08.739
  • [MUSIC]- JUSTO: SO THAT GIVES
  • 00:40:08.739 --> 00:40:09.273
  • - JUSTO: SO THAT GIVESSOME IDEA OF THE NATURE OF
  • 00:40:09.273 --> 00:40:11.208
  • SOME IDEA OF THE NATURE OFTHE WITNESS THAT HE GOT.
  • 00:40:11.208 --> 00:40:11.809
  • THE WITNESS THAT HE GOT.IF THERE ARE CHRISTIANS
  • 00:40:11.809 --> 00:40:12.977
  • IF THERE ARE CHRISTIANSTHERE, I DON'T WANT TO
  • 00:40:12.977 --> 00:40:13.944
  • THERE, I DON'T WANT TOHAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH IT.
  • 00:40:13.944 --> 00:40:14.445
  • HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH IT.- TODD: WHEN YOU SEE A
  • 00:40:14.445 --> 00:40:15.146
  • - TODD: WHEN YOU SEE AWHOLE VILLAGE DIE AND
  • 00:40:15.146 --> 00:40:16.547
  • WHOLE VILLAGE DIE ANDHAVE, YOU KNOW, ONE OR TWO
  • 00:40:16.547 --> 00:40:18.716
  • HAVE, YOU KNOW, ONE OR TWOSURVIVORS, THAT SEEMS LIKE
  • 00:40:18.716 --> 00:40:21.519
  • SURVIVORS, THAT SEEMS LIKETHE END OF THE WORLD, AND
  • 00:40:21.519 --> 00:40:23.587
  • THE END OF THE WORLD, ANDTHAT HAPPENED MANY TIMES,
  • 00:40:23.587 --> 00:40:25.289
  • THAT HAPPENED MANY TIMES,AND SO THERE WAS AN
  • 00:40:25.289 --> 00:40:26.857
  • AND SO THERE WAS ANAPOCALYPTIC SENSE,
  • 00:40:26.857 --> 00:40:28.692
  • APOCALYPTIC SENSE,NOT EVERYWHERE, BUT IN MANY
  • 00:40:28.692 --> 00:40:31.095
  • NOT EVERYWHERE, BUT IN MANYPARTS OF LATIN AMERICA,
  • 00:40:31.095 --> 00:40:33.364
  • PARTS OF LATIN AMERICA,AND I THINK THAT GAVE THE
  • 00:40:33.364 --> 00:40:38.936
  • AND I THINK THAT GAVE THENEW RELIGION SORT OF A
  • 00:40:38.936 --> 00:40:41.439
  • NEW RELIGION SORT OF ASENSE OF INEVITABILITY,
  • 00:40:41.439 --> 00:40:43.874
  • SENSE OF INEVITABILITY,LIKE IT COULDN'T BE
  • 00:40:43.874 --> 00:40:45.443
  • LIKE IT COULDN'T BERESISTED, THAT, BECAUSE
  • 00:40:45.443 --> 00:40:47.011
  • RESISTED, THAT, BECAUSETHERE WAS SO MUCH DEATH.
  • 00:40:47.011 --> 00:40:48.179
  • THERE WAS SO MUCH DEATH.- RAFAEL: I WILL SAY THAT
  • 00:40:48.179 --> 00:40:50.548
  • - RAFAEL: I WILL SAY THATTHE SITUATION WAS VERY BAD
  • 00:40:50.548 --> 00:40:51.315
  • THE SITUATION WAS VERY BADAS FAR AS THE TREATMENT OF
  • 00:40:51.315 --> 00:40:52.049
  • AS FAR AS THE TREATMENT OFTHE NATIVES.
  • 00:40:52.049 --> 00:40:53.050
  • THE NATIVES.BEFORE, THERE WAS A
  • 00:40:53.050 --> 00:40:53.717
  • BEFORE, THERE WAS ACONCERTED EFFORT TO
  • 00:40:53.717 --> 00:40:56.153
  • CONCERTED EFFORT TOCONVERT THEM.
  • 00:40:56.153 --> 00:41:00.691
  • CONVERT THEM.THAT TAKES PLACE AFTER 1519.
  • 00:41:00.691 --> 00:41:10.334
  • THAT TAKES PLACE AFTER 1519.[MUSIC]
  • 00:41:10.334 --> 00:41:11.235
  • [MUSIC]- TODD: THE FRIARS,
  • 00:41:11.235 --> 00:41:13.404
  • - TODD: THE FRIARS,I THINK THEY SAW THE NEW
  • 00:41:13.404 --> 00:41:14.238
  • I THINK THEY SAW THE NEWWORLD AS A SECOND CHANCE.
  • 00:41:14.238 --> 00:41:16.440
  • WORLD AS A SECOND CHANCE.THEY BELIEVED THAT THE OLD
  • 00:41:16.440 --> 00:41:18.542
  • THEY BELIEVED THAT THE OLDWORLD HAD BECOME SO
  • 00:41:18.542 --> 00:41:21.879
  • WORLD HAD BECOME SOCORRUPT THAT THEY COULD DO
  • 00:41:21.879 --> 00:41:24.315
  • CORRUPT THAT THEY COULD DOSOMETHING COMPLETELY NEW
  • 00:41:24.315 --> 00:41:24.882
  • SOMETHING COMPLETELY NEWIN THE AMERICAS, THAT THEY
  • 00:41:24.882 --> 00:41:26.083
  • IN THE AMERICAS, THAT THEYCOULD BUILD A TRULY
  • 00:41:26.083 --> 00:41:28.252
  • COULD BUILD A TRULYCHRISTIAN SOCIETY, AND SO
  • 00:41:28.252 --> 00:41:29.487
  • CHRISTIAN SOCIETY, AND SOESPECIALLY IN THE FIRST
  • 00:41:29.487 --> 00:41:31.222
  • ESPECIALLY IN THE FIRSTGENERATION, I MEAN, FRIARS
  • 00:41:31.222 --> 00:41:33.324
  • GENERATION, I MEAN, FRIARSWHO ARRIVED IN THE 1520s,
  • 00:41:33.324 --> 00:41:39.597
  • WHO ARRIVED IN THE 1520s,1530s, THEY WERE SORT OF A
  • 00:41:39.597 --> 00:41:41.499
  • 1530s, THEY WERE SORT OF ABUNCH OF TOTAL--ALMOST
  • 00:41:41.499 --> 00:41:42.433
  • BUNCH OF TOTAL--ALMOSTLIKE MARINES IN THE SENSE
  • 00:41:42.433 --> 00:41:43.100
  • LIKE MARINES IN THE SENSETHAT THEY WERE THE FEW,
  • 00:41:43.100 --> 00:41:44.869
  • THAT THEY WERE THE FEW,THE PROUD.
  • 00:41:44.869 --> 00:41:46.170
  • THE PROUD.THEY WERE TOTALLY COMMITTED.
  • 00:41:46.170 --> 00:41:47.605
  • THEY WERE TOTALLY COMMITTED.THEY WERE OFTEN SEEKING
  • 00:41:47.605 --> 00:41:49.840
  • THEY WERE OFTEN SEEKINGMARTYRDOM.
  • 00:41:49.840 --> 00:41:50.508
  • MARTYRDOM.THEY WANTED TO BUILD A
  • 00:41:50.508 --> 00:41:52.643
  • THEY WANTED TO BUILD ANEW WORLD, AND THEY WERE
  • 00:41:52.643 --> 00:41:57.314
  • NEW WORLD, AND THEY WEREWILLING TO DIE TO DO IT,
  • 00:41:57.314 --> 00:41:58.148
  • WILLING TO DIE TO DO IT,AND SO THAT ATTITUDE IS RARE,
  • 00:41:58.148 --> 00:42:02.853
  • AND SO THAT ATTITUDE IS RARE,AND I THINK IT SLOWLY WANED
  • 00:42:02.853 --> 00:42:05.956
  • AND I THINK IT SLOWLY WANEDOVER THE NEXT FEW DECADES,
  • 00:42:05.956 --> 00:42:08.025
  • OVER THE NEXT FEW DECADES,SO BY THE LATER 1500s,
  • 00:42:08.025 --> 00:42:09.360
  • SO BY THE LATER 1500s,THERE WEREN'T MANY PEOPLE
  • 00:42:09.360 --> 00:42:10.661
  • THERE WEREN'T MANY PEOPLELIKE THAT, OR THERE WEREN'T
  • 00:42:10.661 --> 00:42:12.096
  • LIKE THAT, OR THERE WEREN'TNEAR AS MANY PEOPLE LIKE THAT,
  • 00:42:12.096 --> 00:42:13.497
  • NEAR AS MANY PEOPLE LIKE THAT,AND I THINK BECAUSE OF THEIR
  • 00:42:13.497 --> 00:42:17.601
  • AND I THINK BECAUSE OF THEIRGREAT COMMITMENT TO CHRIST,
  • 00:42:17.601 --> 00:42:18.035
  • GREAT COMMITMENT TO CHRIST,TO THE CHURCH,
  • 00:42:18.035 --> 00:42:19.403
  • TO THE CHURCH,THEY WERE MUCH MORE
  • 00:42:19.403 --> 00:42:20.304
  • THEY WERE MUCH MORESENSITIVE TO WHAT WE
  • 00:42:20.304 --> 00:42:23.507
  • SENSITIVE TO WHAT WECALLED TODAY "HUMAN RIGHTS."
  • 00:42:23.507 --> 00:42:24.975
  • CALLED TODAY "HUMAN RIGHTS."THEY REALIZED, YOU KNOW,
  • 00:42:24.975 --> 00:42:25.643
  • THEY REALIZED, YOU KNOW,IF YOU ARE A FOLLOWER OF CHRIST,
  • 00:42:25.643 --> 00:42:27.278
  • IF YOU ARE A FOLLOWER OF CHRIST,YOU CAN'T BE ENSLAVING PEOPLE.
  • 00:42:27.278 --> 00:42:29.280
  • YOU CAN'T BE ENSLAVING PEOPLE.YOU CAN'T BE KILLING PEOPLE.
  • 00:42:29.280 --> 00:42:30.581
  • YOU CAN'T BE KILLING PEOPLE.YOU CAN'T BE RAPING.
  • 00:42:30.581 --> 00:42:32.883
  • YOU CAN'T BE RAPING.YOU HAVE TO FOLLOW
  • 00:42:32.883 --> 00:42:33.751
  • YOU HAVE TO FOLLOWTEACHINGS OF CHRIST.
  • 00:42:33.751 --> 00:42:35.653
  • TEACHINGS OF CHRIST.SO THAT SORT OF MISSIONARY
  • 00:42:35.653 --> 00:42:37.121
  • SO THAT SORT OF MISSIONARYPASSION OFTEN GOES HAND IN
  • 00:42:37.121 --> 00:42:42.760
  • PASSION OFTEN GOES HAND INHAND WITH JUSTICE.
  • 00:42:42.760 --> 00:42:46.730
  • HAND WITH JUSTICE.[MUSIC]
  • 00:42:46.730 --> 00:42:47.398
  • [MUSIC]- TODD: THE JESUIT
  • 00:42:47.398 --> 00:42:48.599
  • - TODD: THE JESUITMISSIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA,
  • 00:42:48.599 --> 00:42:52.369
  • MISSIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA,THEY BUILT ENTIRE
  • 00:42:52.369 --> 00:42:53.804
  • THEY BUILT ENTIREINDIGENOUS REPUBLICS THAT
  • 00:42:53.804 --> 00:42:56.807
  • INDIGENOUS REPUBLICS THATLASTED FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS,
  • 00:42:56.807 --> 00:42:58.609
  • LASTED FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS,SO GENERATIONS OF INDIGENOUS
  • 00:42:58.609 --> 00:43:01.612
  • SO GENERATIONS OF INDIGENOUSAMERICANS FROM VARIOUS
  • 00:43:01.612 --> 00:43:02.880
  • AMERICANS FROM VARIOUSINDIGENOUS TRIBES GREW
  • 00:43:02.880 --> 00:43:07.284
  • INDIGENOUS TRIBES GREWUP IN CATHOLIC SOCIETIES
  • 00:43:07.284 --> 00:43:08.185
  • UP IN CATHOLIC SOCIETIESTHAT WERE RUN SORT OF ON
  • 00:43:08.185 --> 00:43:09.720
  • THAT WERE RUN SORT OF ONA VERSION OF CATHOLIC SOCIALISM.
  • 00:43:09.720 --> 00:43:10.688
  • A VERSION OF CATHOLIC SOCIALISM.- RAFAEL: IT JUST WAS
  • 00:43:10.688 --> 00:43:12.389
  • - RAFAEL: IT JUST WASOBTAINED FROM THE KING THE
  • 00:43:12.389 --> 00:43:13.424
  • OBTAINED FROM THE KING THEAUTHORITY TO BE THE ONE
  • 00:43:13.424 --> 00:43:15.492
  • AUTHORITY TO BE THE ONEWHO WILL BE MANAGING THAT
  • 00:43:15.492 --> 00:43:15.960
  • WHO WILL BE MANAGING THATAREA, THAT WOULD BE
  • 00:43:15.960 --> 00:43:17.027
  • AREA, THAT WOULD BECOLLECTING THEIR TRIBUTE,
  • 00:43:17.027 --> 00:43:17.695
  • COLLECTING THEIR TRIBUTE,FOR EXAMPLE, AND WHAT THEY
  • 00:43:17.695 --> 00:43:19.396
  • FOR EXAMPLE, AND WHAT THEYESTABLISHED ARE BASICALLY
  • 00:43:19.396 --> 00:43:20.898
  • ESTABLISHED ARE BASICALLYCOMMUNITIES WHERE SOME
  • 00:43:20.898 --> 00:43:22.633
  • COMMUNITIES WHERE SOMESORT OF A COMMUNITARIAN
  • 00:43:22.633 --> 00:43:24.335
  • SORT OF A COMMUNITARIANSYSTEM EXISTED, AND THAT WENT
  • 00:43:24.335 --> 00:43:25.836
  • SYSTEM EXISTED, AND THAT WENTON FOR QUITE A LONG TIME.
  • 00:43:25.836 --> 00:43:26.770
  • ON FOR QUITE A LONG TIME.- TODD: IN MANY CASES
  • 00:43:26.770 --> 00:43:28.072
  • - TODD: IN MANY CASESTHOUGH, THEY WERE
  • 00:43:28.072 --> 00:43:30.874
  • THOUGH, THEY WEREUNDERMINED BY COLONIAL
  • 00:43:30.874 --> 00:43:33.377
  • UNDERMINED BY COLONIALAUTHORITIES, MERCHANTS,
  • 00:43:33.377 --> 00:43:36.146
  • AUTHORITIES, MERCHANTS,LANDOWNERS, AND OTHERS,
  • 00:43:36.146 --> 00:43:36.747
  • LANDOWNERS, AND OTHERS,AND THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT
  • 00:43:36.747 --> 00:43:38.048
  • AND THAT'S EXACTLY WHATHAPPENED WITH THE JESUIT
  • 00:43:38.048 --> 00:43:39.350
  • HAPPENED WITH THE JESUITMISSIONS IS THAT SLAVERS
  • 00:43:39.350 --> 00:43:42.252
  • MISSIONS IS THAT SLAVERSWOULD ACTUALLY RAID THESE
  • 00:43:42.252 --> 00:43:44.855
  • WOULD ACTUALLY RAID THESEJESUIT MISSIONS.
  • 00:43:44.855 --> 00:43:48.225
  • JESUIT MISSIONS.SO YOU HAVE SOME SPANISH
  • 00:43:48.225 --> 00:43:50.828
  • SO YOU HAVE SOME SPANISHJESUITS CREATING THIS
  • 00:43:50.828 --> 00:43:52.329
  • JESUITS CREATING THISALMOST IDYLLIC CHRISTIAN
  • 00:43:52.329 --> 00:43:55.432
  • ALMOST IDYLLIC CHRISTIANSOCIETY, AND OTHERS COMING
  • 00:43:55.432 --> 00:43:58.235
  • SOCIETY, AND OTHERS COMINGIN AND STEALING THOSE VERY
  • 00:43:58.235 --> 00:44:00.371
  • IN AND STEALING THOSE VERYSAME CATHOLIC INDIANS AND
  • 00:44:00.371 --> 00:44:01.438
  • SAME CATHOLIC INDIANS ANDTURNED THEM INTO SLAVES.
  • 00:44:01.438 --> 00:44:03.073
  • TURNED THEM INTO SLAVES.- MALE:
  • 00:44:03.073 --> 00:44:03.874
  • - MALE:[SPEAKING IN FOREIGN
  • 00:44:03.874 --> 00:44:05.442
  • [SPEAKING IN FOREIGNLANGUAGE]
  • 00:44:05.442 --> 00:44:06.143
  • LANGUAGE]- MALE:
  • 00:44:06.143 --> 00:44:06.910
  • - MALE:[SPEAKING IN FOREIGN
  • 00:44:06.910 --> 00:44:09.580
  • [SPEAKING IN FOREIGNLANGUAGE]
  • 00:44:09.580 --> 00:44:10.648
  • LANGUAGE]- TODD: SO THERE'S THIS
  • 00:44:10.648 --> 00:44:11.181
  • - TODD: SO THERE'S THISREAL SPLIT IN THE MIDDLE
  • 00:44:11.181 --> 00:44:12.082
  • REAL SPLIT IN THE MIDDLEOF SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE
  • 00:44:12.082 --> 00:44:13.384
  • OF SPANISH AND PORTUGUESESOCIETY IN THE NEW WORLD
  • 00:44:13.384 --> 00:44:15.686
  • SOCIETY IN THE NEW WORLDBETWEEN SOME WHO REALLY
  • 00:44:15.686 --> 00:44:16.954
  • BETWEEN SOME WHO REALLYWERE SAINTLY, WHO WERE
  • 00:44:16.954 --> 00:44:18.389
  • WERE SAINTLY, WHO WERECHRISTLIKE, AND OTHERS WHO
  • 00:44:18.389 --> 00:44:21.825
  • CHRISTLIKE, AND OTHERS WHOARE ALMOST DEMONIC.
  • 00:44:21.825 --> 00:44:28.866
  • ARE ALMOST DEMONIC.[MUSIC]
  • 00:44:28.866 --> 00:44:29.400
  • [MUSIC]- JUSTO: JUAN DE
  • 00:44:29.400 --> 00:44:31.869
  • - JUSTO: JUAN DEZUMARRAGA WAS BISHOP,
  • 00:44:31.869 --> 00:44:32.436
  • ZUMARRAGA WAS BISHOP,FIRST BISHOP OF MEXICO,
  • 00:44:32.436 --> 00:44:32.936
  • FIRST BISHOP OF MEXICO,AND THEN THE FIRST
  • 00:44:32.936 --> 00:44:34.304
  • AND THEN THE FIRSTARCHBISHOP.
  • 00:44:34.304 --> 00:44:35.939
  • ARCHBISHOP.HE WAS AN INTERESTING MAN.
  • 00:44:35.939 --> 00:44:37.408
  • HE WAS AN INTERESTING MAN.HE WAS A MAN OF LETTERS.
  • 00:44:37.408 --> 00:44:39.610
  • HE WAS A MAN OF LETTERS.- JUAN DE ZUMARRAGA: MY
  • 00:44:39.610 --> 00:44:40.377
  • - JUAN DE ZUMARRAGA: MYPRINTING PRESS WAS THE
  • 00:44:40.377 --> 00:44:41.011
  • PRINTING PRESS WAS THEFIRST PRINTING PRESS OF
  • 00:44:41.011 --> 00:44:43.847
  • FIRST PRINTING PRESS OFTHE NEW WORLD.
  • 00:44:43.847 --> 00:44:44.381
  • THE NEW WORLD.- JUSTO: HE WAS VERY MUCH
  • 00:44:44.381 --> 00:44:45.983
  • - JUSTO: HE WAS VERY MUCHPART OF A MOVEMENT THAT
  • 00:44:45.983 --> 00:44:47.751
  • PART OF A MOVEMENT THATEXISTED IN SPAIN TO REFORM
  • 00:44:47.751 --> 00:44:49.319
  • EXISTED IN SPAIN TO REFORMTHE CHURCH IN EVERYTHING
  • 00:44:49.319 --> 00:44:50.721
  • THE CHURCH IN EVERYTHINGEXCEPT DOCTRINE.
  • 00:44:50.721 --> 00:44:51.355
  • EXCEPT DOCTRINE.- RAFAEL: IN PARTICULAR,
  • 00:44:51.355 --> 00:44:52.790
  • - RAFAEL: IN PARTICULAR,I THINK THAT THAT'S WHY THE
  • 00:44:52.790 --> 00:44:53.824
  • I THINK THAT THAT'S WHY THEMEXICAN CONQUEST IS VERY
  • 00:44:53.824 --> 00:44:54.258
  • MEXICAN CONQUEST IS VERYIMPORTANT.
  • 00:44:54.258 --> 00:44:55.192
  • IMPORTANT.ALL OF A SUDDEN, IN 1519,
  • 00:44:55.192 --> 00:44:56.627
  • ALL OF A SUDDEN, IN 1519,THERE'S A CONQUEST OF THE
  • 00:44:56.627 --> 00:44:59.129
  • THERE'S A CONQUEST OF THEBIG EMPIRE AND THE
  • 00:44:59.129 --> 00:45:01.365
  • BIG EMPIRE AND THEOPPORTUNITY TO BRING INTO
  • 00:45:01.365 --> 00:45:02.433
  • OPPORTUNITY TO BRING INTOTHE FAITH THOUSANDS OF
  • 00:45:02.433 --> 00:45:04.568
  • THE FAITH THOUSANDS OFPEOPLE TO MAKE UP FOR
  • 00:45:04.568 --> 00:45:05.536
  • PEOPLE TO MAKE UP FORTHE PEOPLE WHO WERE BEING
  • 00:45:05.536 --> 00:45:07.471
  • THE PEOPLE WHO WERE BEINGLOST IN EUROPE.
  • 00:45:07.471 --> 00:45:08.105
  • LOST IN EUROPE.- JUSTO: HE APPEARS IN
  • 00:45:08.105 --> 00:45:09.940
  • - JUSTO: HE APPEARS INHISTORY FOR VARIOUS
  • 00:45:09.940 --> 00:45:11.642
  • HISTORY FOR VARIOUSREASONS: ONE IS BECAUSE HE
  • 00:45:11.642 --> 00:45:12.576
  • REASONS: ONE IS BECAUSE HEIS THE ONE WHO'S CONNECTED
  • 00:45:12.576 --> 00:45:13.410
  • IS THE ONE WHO'S CONNECTEDWITH THE WHOLE LEGEND OF
  • 00:45:13.410 --> 00:45:15.012
  • WITH THE WHOLE LEGEND OFTHE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE,
  • 00:45:15.012 --> 00:45:17.047
  • THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE,AND I KNOW THAT HE'S THE
  • 00:45:17.047 --> 00:45:18.382
  • AND I KNOW THAT HE'S THEBISHOP TO WHOM THE-- JUAN
  • 00:45:18.382 --> 00:45:19.983
  • BISHOP TO WHOM THE-- JUANDIEGO WENT WITH, BUT ALSO
  • 00:45:19.983 --> 00:45:22.386
  • DIEGO WENT WITH, BUT ALSOBECAUSE HE WAS THE PERSON
  • 00:45:22.386 --> 00:45:23.854
  • BECAUSE HE WAS THE PERSONWHO BROUGHT TO THE NEW
  • 00:45:23.854 --> 00:45:28.158
  • WHO BROUGHT TO THE NEWWORLD A VISION OF THE
  • 00:45:28.158 --> 00:45:29.026
  • WORLD A VISION OF THECHURCH THAT WAS NOT THE
  • 00:45:29.026 --> 00:45:31.528
  • CHURCH THAT WAS NOT THERADICAL DISCOURAGING
  • 00:45:31.528 --> 00:45:32.229
  • RADICAL DISCOURAGINGVISION OF THE CHURCH THAT
  • 00:45:32.229 --> 00:45:33.097
  • VISION OF THE CHURCH THATWAS DEVELOPING IN SPAIN AT
  • 00:45:33.097 --> 00:45:34.331
  • WAS DEVELOPING IN SPAIN ATTHIS TIME.
  • 00:45:34.331 --> 00:45:35.933
  • THIS TIME.- DENNIS: BISHOP ZUMARRAGA,
  • 00:45:35.933 --> 00:45:36.433
  • - DENNIS: BISHOP ZUMARRAGA,ALONG WITH MANY OTHER
  • 00:45:36.433 --> 00:45:37.334
  • ALONG WITH MANY OTHERMISSIONARIES,
  • 00:45:37.334 --> 00:45:39.136
  • MISSIONARIES,STARTED SCHOOLS WHERE
  • 00:45:39.136 --> 00:45:40.204
  • STARTED SCHOOLS WHEREYOUNG INDIGENOUS BOYS
  • 00:45:40.204 --> 00:45:41.138
  • YOUNG INDIGENOUS BOYSCOULD LEARN TO READ AND
  • 00:45:41.138 --> 00:45:42.106
  • COULD LEARN TO READ ANDWRITE LATIN AND SPANISH IN
  • 00:45:42.106 --> 00:45:45.209
  • WRITE LATIN AND SPANISH INORDER TO BECOME SCHOLARS.
  • 00:45:45.209 --> 00:45:46.443
  • ORDER TO BECOME SCHOLARS.PERHAPS MORE IMPORTANTLY,
  • 00:45:46.443 --> 00:45:47.177
  • PERHAPS MORE IMPORTANTLY,MISSIONARIES LEARNED THE
  • 00:45:47.177 --> 00:45:48.212
  • MISSIONARIES LEARNED THELOCAL LANGUAGES SO THAT
  • 00:45:48.212 --> 00:45:50.214
  • LOCAL LANGUAGES SO THATTHE CATECHISM'S SERMONS
  • 00:45:50.214 --> 00:45:51.715
  • THE CATECHISM'S SERMONSAND PARTS OF THE BIBLE
  • 00:45:51.715 --> 00:45:53.016
  • AND PARTS OF THE BIBLECOULD BE UNDERSTOOD IN THE
  • 00:45:53.016 --> 00:45:54.585
  • COULD BE UNDERSTOOD IN THEHARD LANGUAGE OF THE
  • 00:45:54.585 --> 00:45:57.621
  • HARD LANGUAGE OF THEPEOPLE WITH THE HOPE THAT
  • 00:45:57.621 --> 00:45:58.355
  • PEOPLE WITH THE HOPE THATTHE SEEDS OF INDIGENOUS
  • 00:45:58.355 --> 00:45:59.890
  • THE SEEDS OF INDIGENOUSCHRISTIANITY WOULD GROW.
  • 00:45:59.890 --> 00:46:00.691
  • CHRISTIANITY WOULD GROW.- TODD: NOW, AFTER THE
  • 00:46:00.691 --> 00:46:03.026
  • - TODD: NOW, AFTER THECOUNCIL OF TRENT, WHICH
  • 00:46:03.026 --> 00:46:05.929
  • COUNCIL OF TRENT, WHICHENDED IN THE 1560s, THE
  • 00:46:05.929 --> 00:46:06.964
  • ENDED IN THE 1560s, THECATHOLIC CHURCH CLAMPED
  • 00:46:06.964 --> 00:46:08.298
  • CATHOLIC CHURCH CLAMPEDDOWN ON ALL THAT.
  • 00:46:08.298 --> 00:46:08.999
  • DOWN ON ALL THAT.THE REASON THEY CLAMPED
  • 00:46:08.999 --> 00:46:09.833
  • THE REASON THEY CLAMPEDDOWN ON ALL THAT WAS
  • 00:46:09.833 --> 00:46:12.569
  • DOWN ON ALL THAT WASBECAUSE, IN EUROPE, BIBLE
  • 00:46:12.569 --> 00:46:13.504
  • BECAUSE, IN EUROPE, BIBLETRANSLATION AND THE
  • 00:46:13.504 --> 00:46:15.272
  • TRANSLATION AND THEVERNACULAR AND THE
  • 00:46:15.272 --> 00:46:16.840
  • VERNACULAR AND THEINDIGENOUS SCRIPTURES WAS
  • 00:46:16.840 --> 00:46:17.841
  • INDIGENOUS SCRIPTURES WASASSOCIATED WITH
  • 00:46:17.841 --> 00:46:19.643
  • ASSOCIATED WITHPROTESTANTISM, AND SO THAT
  • 00:46:19.643 --> 00:46:21.411
  • PROTESTANTISM, AND SO THATFAILURE TO TRANSLATE, I
  • 00:46:21.411 --> 00:46:22.946
  • FAILURE TO TRANSLATE, ITHINK, DEPRIVED LATER
  • 00:46:22.946 --> 00:46:26.650
  • THINK, DEPRIVED LATERGENERATIONS OF TRULY
  • 00:46:26.650 --> 00:46:28.719
  • GENERATIONS OF TRULYVIBRANT INDIGENOUS
  • 00:46:28.719 --> 00:46:32.322
  • VIBRANT INDIGENOUSCHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:46:32.322 --> 00:46:35.826
  • CHRISTIANITY.[MUSIC]
  • 00:46:35.826 --> 00:46:36.393
  • [MUSIC]- TODD: PETER CLAVER WAS
  • 00:46:36.393 --> 00:46:37.327
  • - TODD: PETER CLAVER WASA JESUIT WHO WORKED IN
  • 00:46:37.327 --> 00:46:39.997
  • A JESUIT WHO WORKED INCOLOMBIA.
  • 00:46:39.997 --> 00:46:40.764
  • COLOMBIA.- JOSEPH PERRY: SO WHAT
  • 00:46:40.764 --> 00:46:41.598
  • - JOSEPH PERRY: SO WHATWE KNOW OF HIS STORY, HE
  • 00:46:41.598 --> 00:46:42.933
  • WE KNOW OF HIS STORY, HEWAS INFLUENCED BY A MENTOR
  • 00:46:42.933 --> 00:46:44.334
  • WAS INFLUENCED BY A MENTOROF HIS, A MEMBER OF THE
  • 00:46:44.334 --> 00:46:46.103
  • OF HIS, A MEMBER OF THEJESUIT ORDER, BY THE NAME
  • 00:46:46.103 --> 00:46:49.807
  • JESUIT ORDER, BY THE NAMEOF ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZ.
  • 00:46:49.807 --> 00:46:51.074
  • OF ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZ.ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZ
  • 00:46:51.074 --> 00:46:53.944
  • ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZCAPTURED FOR CLAVER THE
  • 00:46:53.944 --> 00:46:55.746
  • CAPTURED FOR CLAVER THEEXCITEMENT OF THE ERA, AND
  • 00:46:55.746 --> 00:46:57.915
  • EXCITEMENT OF THE ERA, ANDTHAT WAS THE CONQUEST OF
  • 00:46:57.915 --> 00:46:59.049
  • THAT WAS THE CONQUEST OFTHE NEW WORLD.
  • 00:46:59.049 --> 00:47:00.818
  • THE NEW WORLD.- ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZ:
  • 00:47:00.818 --> 00:47:01.652
  • - ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZ:OH, HOLY BROTHER OF MY
  • 00:47:01.652 --> 00:47:03.620
  • OH, HOLY BROTHER OF MYSOUL, WHAT A FIELD IS HERE
  • 00:47:03.620 --> 00:47:07.191
  • SOUL, WHAT A FIELD IS HEREOPENED TO YOUR ZEAL.
  • 00:47:07.191 --> 00:47:08.058
  • OPENED TO YOUR ZEAL.HE WHO KNOWS NOT HOW TO
  • 00:47:08.058 --> 00:47:09.459
  • HE WHO KNOWS NOT HOW TOSUFFER KNOWS NOT HOW TO
  • 00:47:09.459 --> 00:47:11.628
  • SUFFER KNOWS NOT HOW TOLOVE.
  • 00:47:11.628 --> 00:47:12.830
  • LOVE.IF THE GLORY OF GOD'S
  • 00:47:12.830 --> 00:47:15.065
  • IF THE GLORY OF GOD'SHOUSE CONCERNS YOU, GO TO
  • 00:47:15.065 --> 00:47:16.066
  • HOUSE CONCERNS YOU, GO TOTHE INDIES AND SAVE
  • 00:47:16.066 --> 00:47:17.568
  • THE INDIES AND SAVEMILLIONS OF THESE
  • 00:47:17.568 --> 00:47:19.703
  • MILLIONS OF THESEPERISHING SOULS.
  • 00:47:19.703 --> 00:47:20.404
  • PERISHING SOULS.- PETER CLAVER: THE GLORY
  • 00:47:20.404 --> 00:47:21.271
  • - PETER CLAVER: THE GLORYOF GOD'S HOUSE DID CONCERN
  • 00:47:21.271 --> 00:47:21.972
  • OF GOD'S HOUSE DID CONCERNME.
  • 00:47:21.972 --> 00:47:23.540
  • ME.I COULD THINK OF NOTHING
  • 00:47:23.540 --> 00:47:26.810
  • I COULD THINK OF NOTHINGELSE.
  • 00:47:26.810 --> 00:47:27.411
  • ELSE.I HAD TO GO.
  • 00:47:27.411 --> 00:47:29.980
  • I HAD TO GO.THE NEW WORLD WAS THE
  • 00:47:29.980 --> 00:47:31.782
  • THE NEW WORLD WAS THEGREATEST SPIRITUAL
  • 00:47:31.782 --> 00:47:33.250
  • GREATEST SPIRITUALOPPORTUNITY.
  • 00:47:33.250 --> 00:47:34.351
  • OPPORTUNITY.ALONG WITH MY FELLOW
  • 00:47:34.351 --> 00:47:36.320
  • ALONG WITH MY FELLOWBROTHERS, I ASKED HUMBLY
  • 00:47:36.320 --> 00:47:37.654
  • BROTHERS, I ASKED HUMBLYTO BE USED BY GOD WITHOUT
  • 00:47:37.654 --> 00:47:39.256
  • TO BE USED BY GOD WITHOUTRESERVATIONS, AND AS GOD'S
  • 00:47:39.256 --> 00:47:41.558
  • RESERVATIONS, AND AS GOD'SSERVANTS, WE WOULD LEAVE
  • 00:47:41.558 --> 00:47:42.993
  • SERVANTS, WE WOULD LEAVETHE CORRUPT WORLD BEHIND
  • 00:47:42.993 --> 00:47:44.561
  • THE CORRUPT WORLD BEHINDAND CREATE A NEW ONE, ONE
  • 00:47:44.561 --> 00:47:47.197
  • AND CREATE A NEW ONE, ONETHAT WAS FAIR AND JUST,
  • 00:47:47.197 --> 00:47:58.308
  • THAT WAS FAIR AND JUST,WHERE ALL SOULS WILL KNOW GOD.
  • 00:47:58.308 --> 00:47:58.876
  • WHERE ALL SOULS WILL KNOW GOD.- TODD: IN THE EARLY DAYS
  • 00:47:58.876 --> 00:48:00.577
  • - TODD: IN THE EARLY DAYSOF COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA,
  • 00:48:00.577 --> 00:48:02.446
  • OF COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA,BASICALLY THE 1500s, THE
  • 00:48:02.446 --> 00:48:07.351
  • BASICALLY THE 1500s, THECONQUISTADORS OFTEN
  • 00:48:07.351 --> 00:48:08.652
  • CONQUISTADORS OFTENENSLAVED INDIGENOUS
  • 00:48:08.652 --> 00:48:10.888
  • ENSLAVED INDIGENOUSPEOPLE, BUT THIS SORT OF
  • 00:48:10.888 --> 00:48:11.455
  • PEOPLE, BUT THIS SORT OFINDIGENOUS SLAVERY DID NOT
  • 00:48:11.455 --> 00:48:12.756
  • INDIGENOUS SLAVERY DID NOTGO VERY WELL.
  • 00:48:12.756 --> 00:48:13.891
  • GO VERY WELL.THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, FOR
  • 00:48:13.891 --> 00:48:14.691
  • THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, FORWHATEVER REASON, HATED
  • 00:48:14.691 --> 00:48:16.126
  • WHATEVER REASON, HATEDBEING SLAVES EVEN MORE
  • 00:48:16.126 --> 00:48:17.961
  • BEING SLAVES EVEN MORETHAN MOST PEOPLE, WOULD
  • 00:48:17.961 --> 00:48:20.530
  • THAN MOST PEOPLE, WOULDOFTEN RUN AWAY OR COMMIT
  • 00:48:20.530 --> 00:48:23.233
  • OFTEN RUN AWAY OR COMMITSUICIDE OR JUST DIE.
  • 00:48:23.233 --> 00:48:24.234
  • SUICIDE OR JUST DIE.- ROLENA: IT BECAME CLEAR
  • 00:48:24.234 --> 00:48:25.369
  • - ROLENA: IT BECAME CLEARTHAT A NEW SOURCE OF LABOR
  • 00:48:25.369 --> 00:48:26.536
  • THAT A NEW SOURCE OF LABORWAS NEEDED, AND THAT'S
  • 00:48:26.536 --> 00:48:27.604
  • WAS NEEDED, AND THAT'SWHEN AFRICAN SLAVES WERE
  • 00:48:27.604 --> 00:48:28.438
  • WHEN AFRICAN SLAVES WEREIMPORTED.
  • 00:48:28.438 --> 00:48:29.706
  • IMPORTED.THIS BEGAN BEFORE THE END
  • 00:48:29.706 --> 00:48:31.208
  • THIS BEGAN BEFORE THE ENDOF THE 15TH CENTURY.
  • 00:48:31.208 --> 00:48:32.075
  • OF THE 15TH CENTURY.- TODD: AND SO, FOR THESE
  • 00:48:32.075 --> 00:48:33.110
  • - TODD: AND SO, FOR THESEBIG PLANTATIONS, THEY
  • 00:48:33.110 --> 00:48:34.678
  • BIG PLANTATIONS, THEYWOULD BRING IN LARGE
  • 00:48:34.678 --> 00:48:36.280
  • WOULD BRING IN LARGENUMBERS OF AFRICANS, AND
  • 00:48:36.280 --> 00:48:37.681
  • NUMBERS OF AFRICANS, ANDTHE CONDITIONS WERE OFTEN
  • 00:48:37.681 --> 00:48:43.854
  • THE CONDITIONS WERE OFTENTERRIBLE.
  • 00:48:43.854 --> 00:48:44.454
  • TERRIBLE.PROBABLY A LOT OF
  • 00:48:44.454 --> 00:48:45.589
  • PROBABLY A LOT OFAMERICANS ARE FAMILIAR
  • 00:48:45.589 --> 00:48:46.189
  • AMERICANS ARE FAMILIARWITH AMERICAN PLANTATION
  • 00:48:46.189 --> 00:48:47.691
  • WITH AMERICAN PLANTATIONSLAVERY.
  • 00:48:47.691 --> 00:48:49.326
  • SLAVERY.I THINK IT'S TRUE THAT
  • 00:48:49.326 --> 00:48:51.561
  • I THINK IT'S TRUE THATLATIN AMERICAN PLANTATION
  • 00:48:51.561 --> 00:48:53.430
  • LATIN AMERICAN PLANTATIONSLAVERY WAS EVEN WORSE,
  • 00:48:53.430 --> 00:48:54.264
  • SLAVERY WAS EVEN WORSE,AND DEFINITELY THE DEATH
  • 00:48:54.264 --> 00:48:57.901
  • AND DEFINITELY THE DEATHRATE WAS HIGHER.
  • 00:48:57.901 --> 00:48:58.468
  • RATE WAS HIGHER.- JOSEPH: THEY WERE
  • 00:48:58.468 --> 00:48:59.670
  • - JOSEPH: THEY WERETAKING FROM AREAS IN THE
  • 00:48:59.670 --> 00:49:00.237
  • TAKING FROM AREAS IN THECENTRAL PART OF AFRICA IN
  • 00:49:00.237 --> 00:49:01.338
  • CENTRAL PART OF AFRICA INTHE CONGO BASIN OR FROM
  • 00:49:01.338 --> 00:49:02.839
  • THE CONGO BASIN OR FROMTHE WESTERN SHORES OF
  • 00:49:02.839 --> 00:49:04.641
  • THE WESTERN SHORES OFAFRICA, PLACES TODAY THAT
  • 00:49:04.641 --> 00:49:06.076
  • AFRICA, PLACES TODAY THATARE CARVED OUT AS
  • 00:49:06.076 --> 00:49:07.577
  • ARE CARVED OUT ASCOUNTRIES LIKE NIGERIA,
  • 00:49:07.577 --> 00:49:11.515
  • COUNTRIES LIKE NIGERIA,GHANA, CAMEROON.
  • 00:49:11.515 --> 00:49:12.115
  • GHANA, CAMEROON.- BARTOLOME: THERE WERE
  • 00:49:12.115 --> 00:49:12.749
  • - BARTOLOME: THERE WEREMANY SLAVES IN MY HOMETOWN
  • 00:49:12.749 --> 00:49:14.618
  • MANY SLAVES IN MY HOMETOWNOF SEVILLE, IMPORTED
  • 00:49:14.618 --> 00:49:17.554
  • OF SEVILLE, IMPORTEDBY THE PORTUGUESE OVER THE
  • 00:49:17.554 --> 00:49:18.088
  • BY THE PORTUGUESE OVER THELAST HALF CENTURY,
  • 00:49:18.088 --> 00:49:21.858
  • LAST HALF CENTURY,BLACK AND WHITE.
  • 00:49:21.858 --> 00:49:22.826
  • BLACK AND WHITE.WHEN I SAW THE ENSLAVEMENT
  • 00:49:22.826 --> 00:49:23.694
  • WHEN I SAW THE ENSLAVEMENTOF THE FREE INDIANS,
  • 00:49:23.694 --> 00:49:27.531
  • OF THE FREE INDIANS,I THOUGHT, "WHY NOT
  • 00:49:27.531 --> 00:49:28.231
  • I THOUGHT, "WHY NOTPREACHERS, SLAVES
  • 00:49:28.231 --> 00:49:30.300
  • PREACHERS, SLAVESFROM SPAIN AND AFRICA,
  • 00:49:30.300 --> 00:49:30.867
  • FROM SPAIN AND AFRICA,WHO WERE ALREADY DEPRIVED
  • 00:49:30.867 --> 00:49:33.036
  • WHO WERE ALREADY DEPRIVEDOF THEIR FREEDOM?"
  • 00:49:33.036 --> 00:49:34.371
  • OF THEIR FREEDOM?"NOT KNOWING THE TERRIBLE
  • 00:49:34.371 --> 00:49:36.173
  • NOT KNOWING THE TERRIBLEIMPLICATIONS OF WHAT I WAS
  • 00:49:36.173 --> 00:49:39.209
  • IMPLICATIONS OF WHAT I WASPROPOSING.
  • 00:49:39.209 --> 00:49:40.644
  • PROPOSING.- TODD: CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA,
  • 00:49:40.644 --> 00:49:43.213
  • - TODD: CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA,WAS THE MAIN SLAVE PORT.
  • 00:49:43.213 --> 00:49:44.014
  • WAS THE MAIN SLAVE PORT.- JOSEPH: THERE WERE MORE
  • 00:49:44.014 --> 00:49:45.215
  • - JOSEPH: THERE WERE MORETHAN LIKELY ABOUT 12
  • 00:49:45.215 --> 00:49:46.149
  • THAN LIKELY ABOUT 12MILLION THAT WERE BROUGHT,
  • 00:49:46.149 --> 00:49:47.751
  • MILLION THAT WERE BROUGHT,GIVE OR TAKE TWO OR THREE
  • 00:49:47.751 --> 00:49:49.486
  • GIVE OR TAKE TWO OR THREEMILLION OTHERS WHO JUST
  • 00:49:49.486 --> 00:49:51.455
  • MILLION OTHERS WHO JUSTDID NOT MAKE IT, WHO DIED
  • 00:49:51.455 --> 00:49:52.122
  • DID NOT MAKE IT, WHO DIEDALONG WHAT THEY CALLED THE
  • 00:49:52.122 --> 00:49:53.256
  • ALONG WHAT THEY CALLED THEMIDDLE PASSAGE.
  • 00:49:53.256 --> 00:49:53.824
  • MIDDLE PASSAGE.- FEMALE: SO MANY DIED AT
  • 00:49:53.824 --> 00:49:54.591
  • - FEMALE: SO MANY DIED ATSEA.
  • 00:49:54.591 --> 00:49:58.128
  • SEA.WE ARE SICK.
  • 00:49:58.128 --> 00:50:01.331
  • WE ARE SICK.WE ARE WEAK.
  • 00:50:01.331 --> 00:50:01.965
  • WE ARE WEAK.ARE THEY GOING TO KILL THE
  • 00:50:01.965 --> 00:50:03.700
  • ARE THEY GOING TO KILL THEREST OF US?
  • 00:50:03.700 --> 00:50:04.201
  • REST OF US?- BARTOLOME: I DID NOT
  • 00:50:04.201 --> 00:50:06.203
  • - BARTOLOME: I DID NOTKNOW OF THE VIOLENCE AND
  • 00:50:06.203 --> 00:50:06.903
  • KNOW OF THE VIOLENCE ANDDEATH THAT THE NEGRO
  • 00:50:06.903 --> 00:50:10.974
  • DEATH THAT THE NEGROSLAVES ENDURED.
  • 00:50:10.974 --> 00:50:13.276
  • SLAVES ENDURED.I WAS BLIND BY MY DEVOTION
  • 00:50:13.276 --> 00:50:14.845
  • I WAS BLIND BY MY DEVOTIONTO THE INDIANS, AND I
  • 00:50:14.845 --> 00:50:15.645
  • TO THE INDIANS, AND IREGRETTED THE ADVICE I
  • 00:50:15.645 --> 00:50:17.981
  • REGRETTED THE ADVICE IGAVE.
  • 00:50:17.981 --> 00:50:20.851
  • GAVE.LATER, I ADVOCATED FOR ALL
  • 00:50:20.851 --> 00:50:22.152
  • LATER, I ADVOCATED FOR ALLTHE SLAVES, INDIAN AND
  • 00:50:22.152 --> 00:50:25.489
  • THE SLAVES, INDIAN ANDAFRICAN, BUT I'M NOT
  • 00:50:25.489 --> 00:50:27.591
  • AFRICAN, BUT I'M NOTCERTAIN THAT MY IGNORANCE
  • 00:50:27.591 --> 00:50:30.861
  • CERTAIN THAT MY IGNORANCEAND GOOD INTENTIONS WILL
  • 00:50:30.861 --> 00:50:33.964
  • AND GOOD INTENTIONS WILLEXCUSE ME BEFORE THE
  • 00:50:33.964 --> 00:50:38.568
  • EXCUSE ME BEFORE THEJUDGMENT OF GOD.
  • 00:50:38.568 --> 00:50:43.907
  • JUDGMENT OF GOD.[MUSIC]
  • 00:50:43.907 --> 00:50:44.508
  • [MUSIC]- JOSEPH: WHEN YOU GO TO
  • 00:50:44.508 --> 00:50:45.642
  • - JOSEPH: WHEN YOU GO TOCARTAGENA TODAY, YOU CAN
  • 00:50:45.642 --> 00:50:46.209
  • CARTAGENA TODAY, YOU CANVISIT THE ROOMS THAT
  • 00:50:46.209 --> 00:50:47.611
  • VISIT THE ROOMS THATFATHER CLAVER LIVED IN,
  • 00:50:47.611 --> 00:50:49.546
  • FATHER CLAVER LIVED IN,VERY SMALL, MODEST BEDROOM
  • 00:50:49.546 --> 00:50:51.181
  • VERY SMALL, MODEST BEDROOMAND A FRONT ROOM, AND
  • 00:50:51.181 --> 00:50:53.850
  • AND A FRONT ROOM, ANDCARVED INTO THE WALL OF
  • 00:50:53.850 --> 00:50:56.987
  • CARVED INTO THE WALL OFHIS BEDROOM WAS A HOLE
  • 00:50:56.987 --> 00:50:57.754
  • HIS BEDROOM WAS A HOLEWHERE HE WOULD WATCH DAILY
  • 00:50:57.754 --> 00:51:01.224
  • WHERE HE WOULD WATCH DAILYTHE SHIPS COMING INTO PORT.
  • 00:51:01.224 --> 00:51:02.092
  • THE SHIPS COMING INTO PORT.- PETER: I WOULD WAIT FOR
  • 00:51:02.092 --> 00:51:02.993
  • - PETER: I WOULD WAIT FORSHIPS TO COME IN, AND WEEP
  • 00:51:02.993 --> 00:51:04.594
  • SHIPS TO COME IN, AND WEEPFOR THE POOR WRETCHES THAT
  • 00:51:04.594 --> 00:51:12.002
  • FOR THE POOR WRETCHES THATWERE BOUND WITHIN THEM.
  • 00:51:12.002 --> 00:51:12.602
  • WERE BOUND WITHIN THEM.MY HOPES FOR A JUST WORLD,
  • 00:51:12.602 --> 00:51:15.672
  • MY HOPES FOR A JUST WORLD,SHATTERED.
  • 00:51:15.672 --> 00:51:17.707
  • SHATTERED.- JOSEPH: FATHER CLAVER
  • 00:51:17.707 --> 00:51:18.742
  • - JOSEPH: FATHER CLAVERHAD A HABIT, IF THE
  • 00:51:18.742 --> 00:51:19.643
  • HAD A HABIT, IF THECAPTAIN OF THE VESSEL
  • 00:51:19.643 --> 00:51:20.911
  • CAPTAIN OF THE VESSELALLOWED HIM TO DO SO, WAS
  • 00:51:20.911 --> 00:51:22.279
  • ALLOWED HIM TO DO SO, WASTO BOARD SHIP AND TO HELP
  • 00:51:22.279 --> 00:51:23.547
  • TO BOARD SHIP AND TO HELPWITH THE DISEMBARKMENT OF
  • 00:51:23.547 --> 00:51:25.382
  • WITH THE DISEMBARKMENT OFTHE SLAVES.
  • 00:51:25.382 --> 00:51:26.149
  • THE SLAVES.- PETER: NOW ALL I COULD
  • 00:51:26.149 --> 00:51:27.551
  • - PETER: NOW ALL I COULDDO WAS MINISTER TO THE
  • 00:51:27.551 --> 00:51:29.186
  • DO WAS MINISTER TO THESOULS OF THOSE WHOSE
  • 00:51:29.186 --> 00:51:32.055
  • SOULS OF THOSE WHOSEBODIES WERE ENSLAVED,
  • 00:51:32.055 --> 00:51:38.361
  • BODIES WERE ENSLAVED,MISTREATED, DISDAINED.
  • 00:51:38.361 --> 00:51:38.929
  • MISTREATED, DISDAINED.- JOSEPH: HE HAD A GROUP
  • 00:51:38.929 --> 00:51:39.996
  • - JOSEPH: HE HAD A GROUPOF PEOPLE, FELLOW
  • 00:51:39.996 --> 00:51:42.099
  • OF PEOPLE, FELLOWMINISTERS, A MIXTURE OF
  • 00:51:42.099 --> 00:51:43.133
  • MINISTERS, A MIXTURE OFCLERGY AND LAY PEOPLE WHO
  • 00:51:43.133 --> 00:51:44.167
  • CLERGY AND LAY PEOPLE WHOHELPED HIM BRING FOOD AND
  • 00:51:44.167 --> 00:51:45.769
  • HELPED HIM BRING FOOD ANDMEDICINES AND CLOTHING AND
  • 00:51:45.769 --> 00:51:47.170
  • MEDICINES AND CLOTHING ANDBLANKETS, AND A CRUCIFIX
  • 00:51:47.170 --> 00:51:49.573
  • BLANKETS, AND A CRUCIFIXTO MEET THE PEOPLE.
  • 00:51:49.573 --> 00:51:50.140
  • TO MEET THE PEOPLE.- TODD: I THINK YOU WOULD
  • 00:51:50.140 --> 00:51:50.841
  • - TODD: I THINK YOU WOULDSAY HE HAD A SPECIAL
  • 00:51:50.841 --> 00:51:51.741
  • SAY HE HAD A SPECIALGRACE, A SPECIAL SENSE OF
  • 00:51:51.741 --> 00:51:54.377
  • GRACE, A SPECIAL SENSE OFCOMPASSION BECAUSE
  • 00:51:54.377 --> 00:51:55.545
  • COMPASSION BECAUSEEVERYBODY IN CARTAGENA SAW
  • 00:51:55.545 --> 00:51:56.780
  • EVERYBODY IN CARTAGENA SAWWHAT WAS GOING ON, BUT HE
  • 00:51:56.780 --> 00:51:58.815
  • WHAT WAS GOING ON, BUT HEWAS THE ONE WHO RESPONDED,
  • 00:51:58.815 --> 00:52:02.018
  • WAS THE ONE WHO RESPONDED,AND SO HE JUST STARTED
  • 00:52:02.018 --> 00:52:03.854
  • AND SO HE JUST STARTEDDOING WHAT HE COULD FOR
  • 00:52:03.854 --> 00:52:05.322
  • DOING WHAT HE COULD FORTHESE POOR PEOPLE.
  • 00:52:05.322 --> 00:52:06.957
  • THESE POOR PEOPLE.- PETER: WE MUST SPEAK TO
  • 00:52:06.957 --> 00:52:08.758
  • - PETER: WE MUST SPEAK TOTHEM WITH OUR HANDS BEFORE
  • 00:52:08.758 --> 00:52:09.693
  • THEM WITH OUR HANDS BEFOREWE TRY TO SPEAK TO THEM
  • 00:52:09.693 --> 00:52:11.394
  • WE TRY TO SPEAK TO THEMWITH OUR MOUTHS.
  • 00:52:11.394 --> 00:52:11.895
  • WITH OUR MOUTHS.- JOSEPH: LATER ON, IN
  • 00:52:11.895 --> 00:52:13.230
  • - JOSEPH: LATER ON, INHIS MINISTRY AS THE YEARS
  • 00:52:13.230 --> 00:52:14.264
  • HIS MINISTRY AS THE YEARSWENT ON, DIFFERENT SLAVES
  • 00:52:14.264 --> 00:52:16.032
  • WENT ON, DIFFERENT SLAVESWHO WERE ALREADY THERE,
  • 00:52:16.032 --> 00:52:17.634
  • WHO WERE ALREADY THERE,THEY ACTED AS INTERPRETERS
  • 00:52:17.634 --> 00:52:18.502
  • THEY ACTED AS INTERPRETERSFOR HIM, AND IT GOT EASIER
  • 00:52:18.502 --> 00:52:19.769
  • FOR HIM, AND IT GOT EASIERFOR HIM TO COMMUNICATE AND
  • 00:52:19.769 --> 00:52:22.806
  • FOR HIM TO COMMUNICATE ANDBEGIN SPEAKING A, SORT OF,
  • 00:52:22.806 --> 00:52:25.375
  • BEGIN SPEAKING A, SORT OF,CATECHISM WITH THE PEOPLE
  • 00:52:25.375 --> 00:52:26.576
  • CATECHISM WITH THE PEOPLEABOUT THE ONE GOD AND THE
  • 00:52:26.576 --> 00:52:28.612
  • ABOUT THE ONE GOD AND THESUFFERING JESUS.
  • 00:52:28.612 --> 00:52:30.847
  • SUFFERING JESUS.- PETER: I WOULD SHOW
  • 00:52:30.847 --> 00:52:32.315
  • - PETER: I WOULD SHOWTHEM CHRIST, THE SUFFERING
  • 00:52:32.315 --> 00:52:37.320
  • THEM CHRIST, THE SUFFERINGCHRIST, SCOURGED AS THEY
  • 00:52:37.320 --> 00:52:41.791
  • CHRIST, SCOURGED AS THEYWERE.
  • 00:52:41.791 --> 00:52:42.459
  • WERE.I WANTED TO SHOW THEM THAT
  • 00:52:42.459 --> 00:52:44.728
  • I WANTED TO SHOW THEM THATSOMEONE ELSE SUFFERED AS
  • 00:52:44.728 --> 00:52:46.463
  • SOMEONE ELSE SUFFERED ASTHEY DID SO THAT THEY
  • 00:52:46.463 --> 00:52:46.997
  • THEY DID SO THAT THEYCOULD FEEL A CONNECTION
  • 00:52:46.997 --> 00:52:50.567
  • COULD FEEL A CONNECTIONWITH CHRIST.
  • 00:52:50.567 --> 00:52:54.804
  • WITH CHRIST.[MUSIC]
  • 00:52:54.804 --> 00:52:55.505
  • [MUSIC]- TODD: HE DEVOTED HIS
  • 00:52:55.505 --> 00:52:56.706
  • - TODD: HE DEVOTED HISLIFE TO CARING FOR
  • 00:52:56.706 --> 00:52:58.909
  • LIFE TO CARING FORENSLAVED AFRICANS IN
  • 00:52:58.909 --> 00:53:01.444
  • ENSLAVED AFRICANS INWHATEVER WAYS HE COULD
  • 00:53:01.444 --> 00:53:03.680
  • WHATEVER WAYS HE COULDEVEN THOUGH THE SOCIETY
  • 00:53:03.680 --> 00:53:06.349
  • EVEN THOUGH THE SOCIETYAROUND HIM COULDN'T HAVE
  • 00:53:06.349 --> 00:53:08.518
  • AROUND HIM COULDN'T HAVECARED LESS AND ACCEPTED
  • 00:53:08.518 --> 00:53:10.187
  • CARED LESS AND ACCEPTEDTHE INSTITUTION OF
  • 00:53:10.187 --> 00:53:11.488
  • THE INSTITUTION OFSLAVERY, ACCEPTED THE
  • 00:53:11.488 --> 00:53:12.923
  • SLAVERY, ACCEPTED THESLAVE TRADE AND WAS ALMOST
  • 00:53:12.923 --> 00:53:14.991
  • SLAVE TRADE AND WAS ALMOSTEMBARRASSED BY HIM.
  • 00:53:14.991 --> 00:53:15.492
  • EMBARRASSED BY HIM.- JOSEPH: PEDRO NEVER
  • 00:53:15.492 --> 00:53:16.893
  • - JOSEPH: PEDRO NEVERCHANGED HIS MIND.
  • 00:53:16.893 --> 00:53:17.761
  • CHANGED HIS MIND.HE NEVER WENT BACK HOME,
  • 00:53:17.761 --> 00:53:18.328
  • HE NEVER WENT BACK HOME,NEVER VISITED HOME.
  • 00:53:18.328 --> 00:53:20.864
  • NEVER VISITED HOME.HE SPENT THE NEXT
  • 00:53:20.864 --> 00:53:21.765
  • HE SPENT THE NEXT40-SOME-ODD YEARS
  • 00:53:21.765 --> 00:53:23.800
  • 40-SOME-ODD YEARSMINISTERING TO SLAVES OFF
  • 00:53:23.800 --> 00:53:25.835
  • MINISTERING TO SLAVES OFFTHE SHIPS BY CALLING
  • 00:53:25.835 --> 00:53:27.704
  • THE SHIPS BY CALLINGHIMSELF THE SLAVE OF THE
  • 00:53:27.704 --> 00:53:28.872
  • HIMSELF THE SLAVE OF THENEGROES FOREVER, AND
  • 00:53:28.872 --> 00:53:32.776
  • NEGROES FOREVER, ANDINDEED HE WAS.
  • 00:53:32.776 --> 00:53:33.310
  • INDEED HE WAS.- JUSTO: AT THE END OF
  • 00:53:33.310 --> 00:53:34.211
  • - JUSTO: AT THE END OFHIS LIFE, HE HAD A--
  • 00:53:34.211 --> 00:53:36.379
  • HIS LIFE, HE HAD A--SEEMED TO BE A STROKE OR
  • 00:53:36.379 --> 00:53:38.248
  • SEEMED TO BE A STROKE ORSOMETHING, BUT HE WAS
  • 00:53:38.248 --> 00:53:38.848
  • SOMETHING, BUT HE WASINCAPACITATED, AND THE
  • 00:53:38.848 --> 00:53:40.150
  • INCAPACITATED, AND THELAST THING THAT HAPPENED
  • 00:53:40.150 --> 00:53:41.952
  • LAST THING THAT HAPPENEDAT THE VERY END, SOME HIGH
  • 00:53:41.952 --> 00:53:44.654
  • AT THE VERY END, SOME HIGHOFFICER OR SOMETHING
  • 00:53:44.654 --> 00:53:46.523
  • OFFICER OR SOMETHINGMANAGED TO GET HIS
  • 00:53:46.523 --> 00:53:51.261
  • MANAGED TO GET HISSUPERIOR TO ORDER HIM TO
  • 00:53:51.261 --> 00:53:52.796
  • SUPERIOR TO ORDER HIM TOGIVE UP HIS CRUCIFIX
  • 00:53:52.796 --> 00:53:55.532
  • GIVE UP HIS CRUCIFIXBEFORE HE DIED.
  • 00:53:55.532 --> 00:53:57.100
  • BEFORE HE DIED.- TODD: SO HE'S A STORY
  • 00:53:57.100 --> 00:54:00.604
  • - TODD: SO HE'S A STORYOF, I THINK, A CHRISTLIKE
  • 00:54:00.604 --> 00:54:05.208
  • OF, I THINK, A CHRISTLIKEDEVOTION THAT ENDS UP IN A
  • 00:54:05.208 --> 00:54:08.445
  • DEVOTION THAT ENDS UP IN ACHRISTLIKE REJECTION.
  • 00:54:08.445 --> 00:54:08.979
  • CHRISTLIKE REJECTION.- JUSTO: TOWARD THE END
  • 00:54:08.979 --> 00:54:11.281
  • - JUSTO: TOWARD THE ENDOF HIS DAYS, PETER CLAVER
  • 00:54:11.281 --> 00:54:13.149
  • OF HIS DAYS, PETER CLAVERWAS STRUCK BY A PARALYZING
  • 00:54:13.149 --> 00:54:15.452
  • WAS STRUCK BY A PARALYZINGDISEASE AND WAS HARDLY
  • 00:54:15.452 --> 00:54:17.787
  • DISEASE AND WAS HARDLYABLE TO LEAVE HIS CELL.
  • 00:54:17.787 --> 00:54:18.955
  • ABLE TO LEAVE HIS CELL.HE SAW SOMETHING APPEAR
  • 00:54:18.955 --> 00:54:19.489
  • HE SAW SOMETHING APPEARWHERE HIS EYES FILLED WITH
  • 00:54:19.489 --> 00:54:21.491
  • WHERE HIS EYES FILLED WITHTEARS.
  • 00:54:21.491 --> 00:54:24.394
  • TEARS.HE WAS IN SO MUCH PAIN.
  • 00:54:24.394 --> 00:54:26.563
  • HE WAS IN SO MUCH PAIN.HE SUFFERED SO MUCH HE WAS
  • 00:54:26.563 --> 00:54:28.465
  • HE SUFFERED SO MUCH HE WASSCARED TO SLEEP.
  • 00:54:28.465 --> 00:54:28.965
  • SCARED TO SLEEP.AND CLAVER HAD TO SUFFER
  • 00:54:28.965 --> 00:54:29.866
  • AND CLAVER HAD TO SUFFERIN HIS OWN FLESH THE
  • 00:54:29.866 --> 00:54:33.436
  • IN HIS OWN FLESH THECONSEQUENCES OF THE EVIL
  • 00:54:33.436 --> 00:54:37.274
  • CONSEQUENCES OF THE EVILOF THE BLACK RACE.
  • 00:54:37.274 --> 00:54:37.941
  • OF THE BLACK RACE.THESE SLAVES TREATED HIM
  • 00:54:37.941 --> 00:54:40.710
  • THESE SLAVES TREATED HIMCRUELLY, LETTING HIM DIE
  • 00:54:40.710 --> 00:54:41.778
  • CRUELLY, LETTING HIM DIEIN HIS OWN FILTH, IN MANY
  • 00:54:41.778 --> 00:54:43.480
  • IN HIS OWN FILTH, IN MANYWAYS REPEATING THE SIN, ON
  • 00:54:43.480 --> 00:54:44.547
  • WAYS REPEATING THE SIN, ONHIS SICKBED, MANY OF THE
  • 00:54:44.547 --> 00:54:45.315
  • HIS SICKBED, MANY OF THETORTURES OF THE SLAVES'
  • 00:54:45.315 --> 00:54:49.486
  • TORTURES OF THE SLAVES'ATLANTIC PASSAGE.
  • 00:54:49.486 --> 00:54:49.986
  • ATLANTIC PASSAGE.[MUSIC]
  • 00:54:49.986 --> 00:54:59.663
  • [MUSIC][SOUND OF HORSES WALKING]
  • 00:54:59.663 --> 00:55:00.196
  • [SOUND OF HORSES WALKING]- TODD: THE SPANISH
  • 00:55:00.196 --> 00:55:00.930
  • - TODD: THE SPANISHEMPIRE WAS FULL OF
  • 00:55:00.930 --> 00:55:03.533
  • EMPIRE WAS FULL OFCONTRADICTIONS.
  • 00:55:03.533 --> 00:55:04.200
  • CONTRADICTIONS.THE EMPIRE WAS TRYING TO
  • 00:55:04.200 --> 00:55:06.036
  • THE EMPIRE WAS TRYING TOBE CATHOLIC.
  • 00:55:06.036 --> 00:55:07.103
  • BE CATHOLIC.IT WAS ALSO TRYING TO MAKE
  • 00:55:07.103 --> 00:55:08.371
  • IT WAS ALSO TRYING TO MAKEAS MUCH MONEY AS POSSIBLE,
  • 00:55:08.371 --> 00:55:09.439
  • AS MUCH MONEY AS POSSIBLE,BUT I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT
  • 00:55:09.439 --> 00:55:11.875
  • BUT I THINK IT'S IMPORTANTNOT TO JUDGE THE SPANISH
  • 00:55:11.875 --> 00:55:13.243
  • NOT TO JUDGE THE SPANISHEMPIRE OR THE PORTUGUESE
  • 00:55:13.243 --> 00:55:15.145
  • EMPIRE OR THE PORTUGUESEEMPIRE TOO HARSHLY.
  • 00:55:15.145 --> 00:55:16.279
  • EMPIRE TOO HARSHLY.WE HAVE TO JUDGE THEM.
  • 00:55:16.279 --> 00:55:19.049
  • WE HAVE TO JUDGE THEM.WE HAVE TO SAY THAT SOME
  • 00:55:19.049 --> 00:55:19.916
  • WE HAVE TO SAY THAT SOMEOF THE THINGS THEY DID
  • 00:55:19.916 --> 00:55:20.550
  • OF THE THINGS THEY DIDWERE WRONG, BUT WE HAVE
  • 00:55:20.550 --> 00:55:21.051
  • WERE WRONG, BUT WE HAVEOUR ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
  • 00:55:21.051 --> 00:55:23.019
  • OUR ISSUES AND PROBLEMSJUST AS WELL.
  • 00:55:23.019 --> 00:55:23.853
  • JUST AS WELL.- ROLENA: AND FOR ALL OF
  • 00:55:23.853 --> 00:55:24.854
  • - ROLENA: AND FOR ALL OFTHE CONTRADICTIONS THAT
  • 00:55:24.854 --> 00:55:26.690
  • THE CONTRADICTIONS THATCAN BE POINTED TO IN ANY
  • 00:55:26.690 --> 00:55:28.658
  • CAN BE POINTED TO IN ANYOF THEIR OWN EXPERIENCES,
  • 00:55:28.658 --> 00:55:30.460
  • OF THEIR OWN EXPERIENCES,WE ALWAYS NEED TO REMEMBER
  • 00:55:30.460 --> 00:55:32.195
  • WE ALWAYS NEED TO REMEMBERTHE CONTRADICTIONS WITHIN
  • 00:55:32.195 --> 00:55:35.198
  • THE CONTRADICTIONS WITHINWHICH WE AS INDIVIDUALS
  • 00:55:35.198 --> 00:55:36.566
  • WHICH WE AS INDIVIDUALSLIVE EVERY DAY OF OUR
  • 00:55:36.566 --> 00:55:40.270
  • LIVE EVERY DAY OF OURLIVES.
  • 00:55:40.270 --> 00:55:40.737
  • LIVES.- RAFAEL: PEOPLE
  • 00:55:40.737 --> 00:55:41.805
  • - RAFAEL: PEOPLESOMETIMES ARE VERY
  • 00:55:41.805 --> 00:55:42.272
  • SOMETIMES ARE VERYHUBRISTIC WHICH GOES
  • 00:55:42.272 --> 00:55:43.573
  • HUBRISTIC WHICH GOESBEYOND PRIDE.
  • 00:55:43.573 --> 00:55:44.541
  • BEYOND PRIDE.YOU KNOW, THEY THINK, "NO,
  • 00:55:44.541 --> 00:55:46.509
  • YOU KNOW, THEY THINK, "NO,I WOULD NEVER DO THAT,"
  • 00:55:46.509 --> 00:55:47.610
  • I WOULD NEVER DO THAT,"AND DO THEY THINK ABOUT
  • 00:55:47.610 --> 00:55:49.746
  • AND DO THEY THINK ABOUTWHAT THEY DO EVERY DAY?
  • 00:55:49.746 --> 00:55:50.580
  • WHAT THEY DO EVERY DAY?I THINK IN MANY WAYS
  • 00:55:50.580 --> 00:55:51.915
  • I THINK IN MANY WAYSWE DO NOT DO SO MANY THINGS
  • 00:55:51.915 --> 00:55:52.782
  • WE DO NOT DO SO MANY THINGSBECAUSE WE HAVEN'T
  • 00:55:52.782 --> 00:55:53.717
  • BECAUSE WE HAVEN'TBEEN GIVEN OPPORTUNITY TO
  • 00:55:53.717 --> 00:55:56.252
  • BEEN GIVEN OPPORTUNITY TODO THAT.
  • 00:55:56.252 --> 00:55:56.753
  • DO THAT.- ROLENA: AND EVEN WHEN
  • 00:55:56.753 --> 00:55:59.823
  • - ROLENA: AND EVEN WHENWE SAY, "YES, THIS OR THAT
  • 00:55:59.823 --> 00:56:01.658
  • WE SAY, "YES, THIS OR THATSITUATION IN THE WORLD IS
  • 00:56:01.658 --> 00:56:03.626
  • SITUATION IN THE WORLD ISTERRIBLE," AND WE LEAVE IT
  • 00:56:03.626 --> 00:56:05.562
  • TERRIBLE," AND WE LEAVE ITAT THAT, WRINGING OUR
  • 00:56:05.562 --> 00:56:07.997
  • AT THAT, WRINGING OURHANDS, FURROWING OUR BROW
  • 00:56:07.997 --> 00:56:10.633
  • HANDS, FURROWING OUR BROWAND SAYING, "OH, HOW SAD,"
  • 00:56:10.633 --> 00:56:13.703
  • AND SAYING, "OH, HOW SAD,"WE'RE STILL IMPLICATED.
  • 00:56:13.703 --> 00:56:17.907
  • WE'RE STILL IMPLICATED.WE'RE STILL, ON A LARGER
  • 00:56:17.907 --> 00:56:19.042
  • WE'RE STILL, ON A LARGERSCALE, RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
  • 00:56:19.042 --> 00:56:19.843
  • SCALE, RESPONSIBLE FOR THETHINGS THAT WE DO AND
  • 00:56:19.843 --> 00:56:21.511
  • THINGS THAT WE DO ANDDON'T DO.
  • 00:56:21.511 --> 00:56:22.011
  • DON'T DO.- TODD: THERE'S THAT
  • 00:56:22.011 --> 00:56:24.481
  • - TODD: THERE'S THATPARABLE OF JESUS, YOU
  • 00:56:24.481 --> 00:56:25.815
  • PARABLE OF JESUS, YOUKNOW, ABOUT THE WHEAT AND
  • 00:56:25.815 --> 00:56:26.383
  • KNOW, ABOUT THE WHEAT ANDTHE TARES, AND SO I ALMOST
  • 00:56:26.383 --> 00:56:27.484
  • THE TARES, AND SO I ALMOSTTHINK IT'S, LIKE, IT'S THE
  • 00:56:27.484 --> 00:56:29.285
  • THINK IT'S, LIKE, IT'S THETRUE CHURCH WILL HAVE THIS
  • 00:56:29.285 --> 00:56:33.423
  • TRUE CHURCH WILL HAVE THISCONTRADICTION OF PEOPLE
  • 00:56:33.423 --> 00:56:35.325
  • CONTRADICTION OF PEOPLEWHO HAVE THE NAME OF
  • 00:56:35.325 --> 00:56:36.926
  • WHO HAVE THE NAME OFCHRIST, ARE BAPTIZED, BUT
  • 00:56:36.926 --> 00:56:39.629
  • CHRIST, ARE BAPTIZED, BUTACT REALLY BADLY, AND
  • 00:56:39.629 --> 00:56:41.564
  • ACT REALLY BADLY, ANDTHAT'S DEFINITELY A STORY
  • 00:56:41.564 --> 00:56:43.032
  • THAT'S DEFINITELY A STORYOF LATIN AMERICAN
  • 00:56:43.032 --> 00:56:44.067
  • OF LATIN AMERICANCHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:56:44.067 --> 00:56:45.568
  • CHRISTIANITY.- JOSEPH: GOD'S GLORY
  • 00:56:45.568 --> 00:56:46.603
  • - JOSEPH: GOD'S GLORYSHINES THROUGH DESPITE
  • 00:56:46.603 --> 00:56:49.005
  • SHINES THROUGH DESPITEMAN'S MESSING UP THINGS.
  • 00:56:49.005 --> 00:56:50.407
  • MAN'S MESSING UP THINGS.THAT'S ALWAYS BEEN THE
  • 00:56:50.407 --> 00:56:51.875
  • THAT'S ALWAYS BEEN THECASE.
  • 00:56:51.875 --> 00:56:53.109
  • CASE.IT'S STILL TRUE TODAY.
  • 00:56:53.109 --> 00:56:55.979
  • IT'S STILL TRUE TODAY.WHEREVER YOU FIND A DOSAGE
  • 00:56:55.979 --> 00:57:00.650
  • WHEREVER YOU FIND A DOSAGEOF CONCENTRATED VIRTUE AND
  • 00:57:00.650 --> 00:57:03.253
  • OF CONCENTRATED VIRTUE ANDGOODNESS AND THE CHRISTIAN
  • 00:57:03.253 --> 00:57:04.187
  • GOODNESS AND THE CHRISTIANUNDERSTANDING OF THAT, NOT
  • 00:57:04.187 --> 00:57:05.755
  • UNDERSTANDING OF THAT, NOTTOO FAR DOWN THE STREET,
  • 00:57:05.755 --> 00:57:06.389
  • TOO FAR DOWN THE STREET,YOU'RE GONNA FIND
  • 00:57:06.389 --> 00:57:07.157
  • YOU'RE GONNA FINDCONCENTRATED EVIL
  • 00:57:07.157 --> 00:57:09.726
  • CONCENTRATED EVILSOMEWHERE.
  • 00:57:09.726 --> 00:57:10.693
  • SOMEWHERE.- DENNIS: DESPITE THE
  • 00:57:10.693 --> 00:57:11.428
  • - DENNIS: DESPITE THECRIMES OF THE SPANISH AND
  • 00:57:11.428 --> 00:57:12.462
  • CRIMES OF THE SPANISH ANDPORTUGUESE CONQUERORS AND
  • 00:57:12.462 --> 00:57:14.764
  • PORTUGUESE CONQUERORS ANDTHE TWISTED LINES DRAWN BY
  • 00:57:14.764 --> 00:57:15.732
  • THE TWISTED LINES DRAWN BYTHE MANY PRIESTS AND
  • 00:57:15.732 --> 00:57:17.500
  • THE MANY PRIESTS ANDMEMBERS OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS,
  • 00:57:17.500 --> 00:57:18.635
  • MEMBERS OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS,CHRISTIANITY TOOK
  • 00:57:18.635 --> 00:57:19.869
  • CHRISTIANITY TOOKROOT IN 16TH CENTURY
  • 00:57:19.869 --> 00:57:21.471
  • ROOT IN 16TH CENTURYLATIN AMERICA.
  • 00:57:21.471 --> 00:57:23.606
  • LATIN AMERICA.FRUIT OF THE NEW FAITH WAS
  • 00:57:23.606 --> 00:57:24.507
  • FRUIT OF THE NEW FAITH WASEVIDENT IN THE CHURCHES,
  • 00:57:24.507 --> 00:57:25.842
  • EVIDENT IN THE CHURCHES,HOSPITALS, AND SCHOOLS,
  • 00:57:25.842 --> 00:57:27.010
  • HOSPITALS, AND SCHOOLS,ESTABLISHED AND OPERATED
  • 00:57:27.010 --> 00:57:28.678
  • ESTABLISHED AND OPERATEDBY PRIESTS AND NUNS.
  • 00:57:28.678 --> 00:57:29.779
  • BY PRIESTS AND NUNS.THERE WAS THE AUTHENTIC
  • 00:57:29.779 --> 00:57:30.914
  • THERE WAS THE AUTHENTICCONVERSION OF MANY
  • 00:57:30.914 --> 00:57:32.315
  • CONVERSION OF MANYINDIGENOUS MEN AND WOMEN,
  • 00:57:32.315 --> 00:57:34.050
  • INDIGENOUS MEN AND WOMEN,AS WELL AS THE NEWFOUND
  • 00:57:34.050 --> 00:57:35.485
  • AS WELL AS THE NEWFOUNDBELIEF AMONG THE AFRICAN
  • 00:57:35.485 --> 00:57:36.486
  • BELIEF AMONG THE AFRICANSLAVES BORN OF THE
  • 00:57:36.486 --> 00:57:37.587
  • SLAVES BORN OF THESACRIFICES OF SAINTS LIKE
  • 00:57:37.587 --> 00:57:39.689
  • SACRIFICES OF SAINTS LIKEPEDRO CLAVER.
  • 00:57:39.689 --> 00:57:40.924
  • PEDRO CLAVER.COLUMBUS THOUGHT HE HAD
  • 00:57:40.924 --> 00:57:42.325
  • COLUMBUS THOUGHT HE HADDISCOVERED THE LOST EDEN
  • 00:57:42.325 --> 00:57:43.126
  • DISCOVERED THE LOST EDENIN THE NEW WORLD.
  • 00:57:43.126 --> 00:57:45.862
  • IN THE NEW WORLD.NOW THE ONLY HOPE FOR
  • 00:57:45.862 --> 00:57:47.030
  • NOW THE ONLY HOPE FORUTOPIA WAS IN THE HANDS OF
  • 00:57:47.030 --> 00:57:48.064
  • UTOPIA WAS IN THE HANDS OFTHE PURIFIERS OF THE
  • 00:57:48.064 --> 00:57:48.998
  • THE PURIFIERS OF THECHURCH OF ENGLAND, WHO
  • 00:57:48.998 --> 00:57:50.567
  • CHURCH OF ENGLAND, WHOWERE FLEEING EUROPE IN A
  • 00:57:50.567 --> 00:57:51.768
  • WERE FLEEING EUROPE IN ADESPERATE ATTEMPT TO
  • 00:57:51.768 --> 00:57:53.169
  • DESPERATE ATTEMPT TOESTABLISH THEIR OWN EDEN
  • 00:57:53.169 --> 00:57:55.004
  • ESTABLISH THEIR OWN EDENIN NORTH AMERICA.
  • 00:57:55.004 --> 00:57:56.406
  • IN NORTH AMERICA.WOULD THEY SUCCEED IN
  • 00:57:56.406 --> 00:57:57.574
  • WOULD THEY SUCCEED INESTABLISHING A PURE
  • 00:57:57.574 --> 00:57:58.141
  • ESTABLISHING A PURECHRISTIANITY IN THE NEW
  • 00:57:58.141 --> 00:57:59.275
  • CHRISTIANITY IN THE NEWWORLD?
  • 00:57:59.275 --> 00:58:00.677
  • WORLD?OR WOULD THEIRS BECOME
  • 00:58:00.677 --> 00:58:08.785
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:58:36.646 --> 00:58:43.086

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