Part 2: Heroines and Heroes of Faith | TBN

Part 2: Heroines and Heroes of Faith

Watch Part 2: Heroines and Heroes of Faith
January 21, 2021
59:14

Meet heroines and heroes of faith who helped to spread the message of Jesus throughout Europe in Part 2 of the six-part documentary series Inexplicable: How Christianity Spread to the Ends of the Earth, hosted by Golden Globe® nominee Dennis Haysbert.

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Part 2: Heroines and Heroes of Faith

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  • [THUNDER CRASHES]
  • 00:00:03.958 --> 00:00:07.762
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:00:07.829 --> 00:01:14.862
  • - ROME.
  • 00:01:14.929 --> 00:01:15.930
  • A CITY OFINCOMPARABLE BEAUTY.
  • 00:01:15.997 --> 00:01:18.032
  • THOUSANDS OF YEARS OFHISTORY HAVE UNFOLDED
  • 00:01:18.099 --> 00:01:19.967
  • HERE WITH ONLY THEREMAINS OF BYGONE ERAS
  • 00:01:20.034 --> 00:01:23.171
  • LEFT TO TELL ITS STORY.
  • 00:01:23.237 --> 00:01:24.705
  • BUT WHAT A STORYIT HAS TO TELL.
  • 00:01:24.772 --> 00:01:27.608
  • WE BEGIN OURSTORY IN A.D. 41O.
  • 00:01:27.675 --> 00:01:29.544
  • ROME HAS FALLENTO THE VISIGOTHS.
  • 00:01:29.610 --> 00:01:32.180
  • MANY OF THE ROMANSBELIEVE THEY WERE BEING
  • 00:01:32.246 --> 00:01:34.649
  • PUNISHED FOR TURNING AWAYFROM THE PAGAN GODS.
  • 00:01:34.715 --> 00:01:37.251
  • SAINT JEROME LAMENTSTHE EMPIRE STATE.
  • 00:01:37.318 --> 00:01:40.988
  • - FROM THE WEST, ATERRIBLE RUMOR CAME TO US
  • 00:01:41.055 --> 00:01:43.357
  • THAT ROME IS BESIEGED,THAT THE SAFETY OF THE
  • 00:01:43.424 --> 00:01:45.593
  • CITIZENS ISREDEEMED BY GOLD.
  • 00:01:45.660 --> 00:01:47.795
  • DESPOILED AND AGAINSURROUNDED, THEY LOST
  • 00:01:47.862 --> 00:01:50.264
  • THEIR WEALTH AND NOWARE LOSING THEIR LIVES.
  • 00:01:50.331 --> 00:01:53.534
  • THE VOICE CANNOTCONTINUE.
  • 00:01:53.601 --> 00:01:56.137
  • SOBS INTERRUPT ITS WORDS.
  • 00:01:56.204 --> 00:01:58.506
  • CAPTURED IS THE CITYTHAT CAPTURED THE WORLD.
  • 00:01:58.573 --> 00:02:02.310
  • - SUDDENLY IT SEEMEDAS IF THE EMPIRE
  • 00:02:02.376 --> 00:02:04.345
  • WAS COLLAPSING.
  • 00:02:04.412 --> 00:02:05.780
  • IT WAS A VERY BAD MOMENTFOR CHRISTIANS AND IT
  • 00:02:05.846 --> 00:02:08.583
  • FORCED AUGUSTINE INPARTICULAR TO HAVE TO
  • 00:02:08.649 --> 00:02:12.220
  • THINK WHAT IT MEANTBECAUSE THERE WERE
  • 00:02:12.286 --> 00:02:15.022
  • NON-CHRISTIANS AROUND HIMSAYING LOOK, THIS IS
  • 00:02:15.089 --> 00:02:17.725
  • WHAT HAPPENS
  • 00:02:17.792 --> 00:02:19.060
  • IF YOU ALIGN THE EMPIREWITH THIS CHRISTIAN GOD.
  • 00:02:19.126 --> 00:02:22.630
  • IT'S DISASTROUS.
  • 00:02:22.697 --> 00:02:24.298
  • OUT OF THAT CAME THATEXTRAORDINARY BOOK, THE
  • 00:02:24.365 --> 00:02:26.634
  • CITY OF GOD.
  • 00:02:26.701 --> 00:02:28.002
  • - SAINT AUGUSTINE'SWORDS --
  • 00:02:28.069 --> 00:02:30.171
  • - THEY LOST ALL THEY HAD?
  • 00:02:30.238 --> 00:02:31.872
  • THEIR FAITH?
  • 00:02:31.939 --> 00:02:33.040
  • THEIR GODLINESS?
  • 00:02:33.107 --> 00:02:34.508
  • THE POSSESSIONS OF THEHIDDEN MAN OF THE HEART
  • 00:02:34.575 --> 00:02:39.347
  • WHICH IN THE SIGHT OFGOD ARE OF GREAT PRICE?
  • 00:02:39.413 --> 00:02:41.082
  • DID THEY LOSE THOSE?
  • 00:02:41.148 --> 00:02:43.184
  • - THE VERY CENTER OFTHE CHRISTIAN WORLD HAD
  • 00:02:43.251 --> 00:02:44.885
  • COLLAPSED, AND THE YOUNGRELIGION IN EUROPE WOULD
  • 00:02:44.952 --> 00:02:46.754
  • NOW FACE 1.000 YEARSOF RELENTLESS ATTACKS.
  • 00:02:46.821 --> 00:02:49.857
  • TIME AFTER TIME IT WOULDAPPEAR THAT THE DIVINE
  • 00:02:49.924 --> 00:02:52.326
  • TAPESTRY IN THE MAKINGWOULD BE TORN TO SHREDS.
  • 00:02:52.393 --> 00:02:55.329
  • THE BLACK PLAGUE WOULDKILL NEARLY 30% OF
  • 00:02:55.396 --> 00:02:57.131
  • THE POPULATION.
  • 00:02:57.198 --> 00:02:59.433
  • POLITICS AND THEOLOGYWOULD CREATE A GREAT
  • 00:02:59.500 --> 00:03:01.269
  • SCHISM SPLITTINGTHE CHURCH IN TWO.
  • 00:03:01.335 --> 00:03:03.404
  • LATER THE CRUSADESAND THE INQUISITION
  • 00:03:03.471 --> 00:03:05.406
  • THREATENED TO FATALLYWOUND THE SPREAD OF
  • 00:03:05.473 --> 00:03:07.375
  • THE GOSPEL.
  • 00:03:07.441 --> 00:03:08.743
  • EVEN THE ATTEMPTS TOREFORM THE FAITH WOULD
  • 00:03:08.809 --> 00:03:10.444
  • TEAR THE CHURCHAPART AGAIN.
  • 00:03:10.511 --> 00:03:13.481
  • AS SAINT AUGUSTINEPREDICTS, THE STORY OF
  • 00:03:13.547 --> 00:03:15.783
  • CHRISTIANITY ISJUST BEGINNING.
  • 00:03:15.850 --> 00:03:18.919
  • THERE WOULD BE TROUBLESAND CHALLENGES AHEAD, BUT
  • 00:03:18.986 --> 00:03:22.223
  • THERE WOULD EMERGE WOMENAND MEN WHOSE FAITH
  • 00:03:22.290 --> 00:03:24.392
  • LITERALLY TRANSFORMED THELANDSCAPES AROUND THEM.
  • 00:03:24.458 --> 00:03:27.862
  • SOME OF THESE HEROESYOU MAY HAVE HEARD OF.
  • 00:03:27.928 --> 00:03:30.865
  • BUT WE'VE UNCOVEREDREMARKABLE STORIES THAT
  • 00:03:30.931 --> 00:03:33.401
  • YOU'VE NEVER HEARD.
  • 00:03:33.467 --> 00:03:35.169
  • LET US START OUR JOURNEYIN CANTERBURY ENGLAND
  • 00:03:35.236 --> 00:03:37.805
  • WITH A YOUNG WOMANNAMED BERTHA.
  • 00:03:37.872 --> 00:03:41.042
  • - BERTHA WAS A CHRISTIANPRINCESS IN FRANCE.
  • 00:03:41.108 --> 00:03:44.145
  • CAN YOU IMAGINE AS AYOUNG GIRL BEING GIVEN IN
  • 00:03:44.211 --> 00:03:46.681
  • MARRIAGE TO THE PAGAN WARLORD,ETHELBERT OF KENT
  • 00:03:46.747 --> 00:03:51.185
  • WHOSE THE BIGGEST FISHGOING BECAUSE HE'S
  • 00:03:51.252 --> 00:03:52.987
  • FOLLOWED UP ALL THEOTHER MINOR WARLORDS.
  • 00:03:53.054 --> 00:03:56.157
  • WE CAN TELL SHE WOULDHAVE BEEN A RURAL WOMAN
  • 00:03:56.223 --> 00:03:59.226
  • IN THE MEROVINGIAN COURTAND IF YOU EVER WANTED
  • 00:03:59.293 --> 00:04:02.530
  • THE GAME OF THRONES COMETO LIFE, IT WOULD BE
  • 00:04:02.596 --> 00:04:05.666
  • MEROVINGIANCOURT POLITICS.
  • 00:04:05.733 --> 00:04:07.935
  • THEY'D KILL ANYBODY INTHEIR WAY, AND SO FOR A
  • 00:04:08.002 --> 00:04:10.905
  • WOMAN TO STAY ALIVE ANDKEEP HER INTEGRITY AND TO
  • 00:04:10.971 --> 00:04:15.476
  • HAVE A KEY ROLE TO PLAYHERSELF AT THIS PERIOD
  • 00:04:15.543 --> 00:04:18.245
  • TAKES AN AWFUL LOT OFSTRENGTH OF CHARACTER AND
  • 00:04:18.312 --> 00:04:20.448
  • RESOLVE TO ACTUALLY HAVETHE COURAGE TO KEEP
  • 00:04:20.514 --> 00:04:23.417
  • BRINGING THE SUBJECTOF YOUR FAITH TO THE
  • 00:04:23.484 --> 00:04:27.021
  • FOREFRONT WHEN THEEXPECTATION ON YOUR
  • 00:04:27.088 --> 00:04:30.124
  • HUSBAND'S PART IS THATYOU WILL FIT IN NEATLY
  • 00:04:30.191 --> 00:04:32.426
  • AND ACTUALLY JUST GET ONWITH HIS WAY, HIS WORLD
  • 00:04:32.493 --> 00:04:36.831
  • VIEW AND HISPAGAN RELIGION.
  • 00:04:36.897 --> 00:04:38.999
  • AND SHE DID A GOODJOB DID BERTHA.
  • 00:04:39.066 --> 00:04:40.501
  • SHE'S NAGGED AND NAGGEDAND NAGGED UNTIL SAINT
  • 00:04:40.568 --> 00:04:43.637
  • AUGUSTINE WAS INVITEDOVER FROM ROME IN 596 TO
  • 00:04:43.704 --> 00:04:49.777
  • ACTUALLY COME ANDMEET THE KING.
  • 00:04:49.844 --> 00:04:53.180
  • HE GOES WITH BERTHA.
  • 00:04:53.247 --> 00:04:54.915
  • HE MEETS HIM ONTHE KENT COAST.
  • 00:04:54.982 --> 00:04:58.486
  • MEETS HIM OUTSIDE BECAUSEIF YOU MEET HIM IN THE
  • 00:04:58.552 --> 00:04:59.854
  • BUILDING, HE MIGHT BEABLE TO PUT A SPELL ON
  • 00:04:59.920 --> 00:05:01.489
  • YOU MORE EFFECTIVELY.
  • 00:05:01.555 --> 00:05:03.224
  • BERTHA AND AUGUSTINE DO AREALLY REALLY GOOD JOB.
  • 00:05:03.290 --> 00:05:07.328
  • NOT ONLY DO THEY GET THEPERMISSION TO COME IN AND
  • 00:05:07.395 --> 00:05:09.597
  • PREACH TO THE PEOPLE WHOARE NOW CAMPING OUT IN
  • 00:05:09.663 --> 00:05:12.633
  • THE OLD ROMAN CITYOF CANTERBURY,
  • 00:05:12.700 --> 00:05:15.302
  • THEY GET GIVEN A LITTLETINY ROMAN MORTUARY
  • 00:05:15.369 --> 00:05:18.406
  • CHAPEL, A PRIT IF YOULIKE TO GO AND START
  • 00:05:18.472 --> 00:05:22.076
  • WORSHIPPING IN.
  • 00:05:22.143 --> 00:05:23.277
  • AND FROM THERE, AUGUSTINE BUILDSHIS MISSION.
  • 00:05:23.344 --> 00:05:25.513
  • IF HAD HADN'T HAD BEENFOR THEM KEEPING THE
  • 00:05:25.579 --> 00:05:27.882
  • FLAME AND FANNING ITINTO LIFE AGAIN, THEN WE
  • 00:05:27.948 --> 00:05:32.453
  • WOULDN'T HAVETHE ARCH BISHOP
  • 00:05:32.520 --> 00:05:33.921
  • OF CANTERBURY NOW.
  • 00:05:33.988 --> 00:05:36.323
  • SO I THINK THESE LITTLEHUMAN STORIES ARE FACTS
  • 00:05:36.390 --> 00:05:39.527
  • OF COMMITMENT AND BRAVERYAND TAKING THOSE RISKS
  • 00:05:39.593 --> 00:05:42.296
  • FOR YOUR FAITH.
  • 00:05:42.363 --> 00:05:43.731
  • IT'S INSPIRATIONAL.
  • 00:05:43.798 --> 00:05:46.033
  • - BERTHA AND ETHELBERT'SLEGACY LIVED ON.
  • 00:05:46.100 --> 00:05:49.103
  • THEIR DAUGHTER ETHELBERTMARRIED KING EDWARD
  • 00:05:49.170 --> 00:05:53.174
  • CONVERTING HIM AND HISROYAL COURT TO HER FAITH
  • 00:05:53.240 --> 00:05:56.410
  • THUS BRINGING ABOUT THECONVERSION OF THE ENTIRE
  • 00:05:56.477 --> 00:05:59.079
  • PAGAN NORTH OF ENGLAND.
  • 00:05:59.146 --> 00:06:00.748
  • IT IS ASTOUNDING THATA PERSON WHO LEFT NO
  • 00:06:00.815 --> 00:06:03.851
  • SPEECHES OR WRITINGS ANDPASSED NO LAWS COULD HAVE
  • 00:06:03.918 --> 00:06:07.121
  • SUCH A PROFOUND IMPACTON THE SPREAD
  • 00:06:07.188 --> 00:06:10.057
  • OF CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:06:10.124 --> 00:06:12.026
  • - THIS SET OF ISLANDS,BRITAIN, IRELAND, YOU GET SOME
  • 00:06:12.092 --> 00:06:16.263
  • EXTRAORDINARY FIGURESMOVING BEYOND THE
  • 00:06:16.330 --> 00:06:19.800
  • FRONTIERS OFCHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:06:19.867 --> 00:06:21.735
  • THE MOST OBVIOUS EXAMPLEIS A VERY LATE ROMAN
  • 00:06:21.802 --> 00:06:26.073
  • PROBABLY OF THE 5THCENTURY CALLED PATRICK.
  • 00:06:26.140 --> 00:06:29.677
  • - IT'S INTERESTINGTO ME THAT SO MUCH OF
  • 00:06:29.743 --> 00:06:31.378
  • CHRISTIANITY WASSPREAD BY SLAVES.
  • 00:06:31.445 --> 00:06:34.448
  • PATRICK WAS TAKEN AS ASLAVE FROM ENGLAND INTO
  • 00:06:34.515 --> 00:06:39.286
  • IRELAND WHERE HE WAS ALLALONE, HERDING SHEEP, AND
  • 00:06:39.353 --> 00:06:43.958
  • HE HAD BEEN IN ACHRISTIAN FAMILY, BUT
  • 00:06:44.024 --> 00:06:46.794
  • REALLY DON'T TAKERELIGION TOO SERIOUSLY
  • 00:06:46.861 --> 00:06:50.798
  • CHRISTIAN FAMILY.
  • 00:06:50.865 --> 00:06:52.466
  • AND HE STARTED TAKINGIT VERY SERIOUSLY.
  • 00:06:52.533 --> 00:06:55.469
  • AND AFTER SEVERAL YEARSOF THAT, HE FINALLY
  • 00:06:55.536 --> 00:06:59.073
  • MANAGED TO ESCAPE.
  • 00:06:59.139 --> 00:07:00.708
  • - WE GOT 2 PRECIOUS DOCUMENTSFROM PATRICK
  • 00:07:00.774 --> 00:07:03.711
  • ONE OF WHICH IS BASICALLYSORT OF AN AUTO BIOGRAPHY
  • 00:07:03.777 --> 00:07:06.347
  • OF FASHIONS IN WHICH HETELLS THE STORY OF BEING
  • 00:07:06.413 --> 00:07:09.250
  • CAPTURED BY IRISHSLAVERS, TAKEN TO
  • 00:07:09.316 --> 00:07:13.153
  • IRELAND, LEARNING ABOUTIRELAND, SPEAKING --
  • 00:07:13.220 --> 00:07:18.158
  • - HE ENDED UP BACK INENGLAND ANYWAY, AND HE
  • 00:07:18.225 --> 00:07:20.861
  • WAS REALLY A DEVOUTCHRISTIAN AT THAT POINT.
  • 00:07:20.928 --> 00:07:24.298
  • AND AFTER HE GOT HOME, HEHAD A DREAM THAT SOMEONE
  • 00:07:24.365 --> 00:07:31.105
  • FROM WHERE HE HAD BEEN INIRELAND WAS SAYING COME
  • 00:07:31.171 --> 00:07:35.409
  • BACK AND CONVERT US.
  • 00:07:35.476 --> 00:07:38.045
  • - IN THE KNOWLEDGE OFTHIS FAITH IN THE TRINITY
  • 00:07:38.112 --> 00:07:40.548
  • AND WITHOUT LETTING THEDANGERS PREVENT IT, IT IS
  • 00:07:40.614 --> 00:07:43.083
  • RIGHT TO MAKE KNOWN THEGIFT OF GOD AND HIS
  • 00:07:43.150 --> 00:07:46.153
  • ETERNAL CONSOLATION.
  • 00:07:46.220 --> 00:07:48.522
  • IT IS RIGHT TO SPREADABROAD THE NAME OF GOD
  • 00:07:48.589 --> 00:07:51.025
  • FAITHFULLY AND WITHOUTFEAR SO THAT EVEN AFTER
  • 00:07:51.091 --> 00:07:54.528
  • MY DEATH I MAY LEAVESOMETHING OF VALUE TO THE
  • 00:07:54.595 --> 00:07:57.598
  • MANY THOUSANDS OF MYBROTHERS AND SISTERS, THE
  • 00:07:57.665 --> 00:08:00.067
  • CHILDREN WHOM IBAPTIZED IN THE LORD.
  • 00:08:00.134 --> 00:08:04.204
  • - HE WASN'T THE FIRST,BUT HIS EFFECT WAS
  • 00:08:04.271 --> 00:08:06.740
  • EXTRAORDINARY, AND NOW WEREMEMBER PATRICK AS THE
  • 00:08:06.807 --> 00:08:10.911
  • ORIGINATOR OF IRISHCHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:08:10.978 --> 00:08:13.314
  • - MEANWHILE IN FRANCE,THE ONGOING MUSLIM
  • 00:08:13.380 --> 00:08:15.616
  • INVASION INTO WESTERNEUROPE WAS FINALLY HALTED
  • 00:08:15.683 --> 00:08:18.419
  • BY CHARLES MARTEL INTHE BATTLE OF TOURS WHICH
  • 00:08:18.485 --> 00:08:22.389
  • WAS NOTEABLY ONEWITHOUT CAVALRY.
  • 00:08:22.456 --> 00:08:24.224
  • THIS VICTORY ENSUREDHIS FAMILY DYNASTY,
  • 00:08:24.291 --> 00:08:27.094
  • THE CAROLINGIANS.
  • 00:08:27.161 --> 00:08:28.796
  • HIS GRANDSON, CHARLESTHE GREAT OR CHARLEMAGNE
  • 00:08:28.862 --> 00:08:32.766
  • BECAME A PROMINENT FIGUREIN EUROPEAN HISTORY.
  • 00:08:32.833 --> 00:08:35.302
  • HE REACHED THE HEIGHT OFPOWER WHEN HE WAS CROWNED
  • 00:08:35.369 --> 00:08:38.572
  • EMPEROR OF THE ROMANS BYPOPE LEO THE THIRD ON
  • 00:08:38.639 --> 00:08:41.575
  • CHRISTMAS DAY AD 800IN SAINT PETERS'S
  • 00:08:41.642 --> 00:08:45.279
  • BASILICA IN ROME.
  • 00:08:45.346 --> 00:08:46.947
  • - CHARLEMAGNE WAS ARULER COMING INTO WHAT
  • 00:08:47.014 --> 00:08:51.986
  • HAD BEEN GALL.
  • 00:08:52.052 --> 00:08:53.654
  • IT WAS NOW CALLED THEKINGDOM OF THE FRANKS.
  • 00:08:53.721 --> 00:08:55.789
  • WITHIN THIS WORLD, THISWORLD STRETCHED THROUGH
  • 00:08:55.856 --> 00:08:59.393
  • FRANCE INTO THE RHINELANDINTO WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE
  • 00:08:59.460 --> 00:09:03.497
  • NETHERLANDS AS FAR ASSWITZERLAND INTO GERMANY,
  • 00:09:03.564 --> 00:09:06.667
  • A VAST AREA OF CENTRALEUROPE CAME UNDER
  • 00:09:06.734 --> 00:09:09.803
  • HIS CONTROL.
  • 00:09:09.870 --> 00:09:11.071
  • CHARLEMAGNE WAS ONE OFTHE MOST SUCCESSFUL
  • 00:09:11.138 --> 00:09:14.108
  • SEIZERS OF ANOPPORTUNITY IN HISTORY.
  • 00:09:14.174 --> 00:09:16.243
  • A MAN WHO HAD NOREAL CLAIM TO POWER.
  • 00:09:16.310 --> 00:09:19.947
  • HE SEIZED IT FROM ANANCIENT DYNASTY WHICH HAD
  • 00:09:20.014 --> 00:09:24.118
  • WORKED ITSELF OUT, ANDTOOK ON THE MOST POTENT
  • 00:09:24.184 --> 00:09:29.189
  • IDEA OF POWER THAT HECOULD WHICH WAS TO BE AN
  • 00:09:29.256 --> 00:09:32.926
  • EMPEROR, AN EMPERORLIKE A ROMAN EMPEROR.
  • 00:09:32.993 --> 00:09:36.430
  • - HE COULD READ BUTCOULDN'T WRITE BECAUSE HE
  • 00:09:36.497 --> 00:09:41.101
  • HAD SPENT SO MUCH TIMEWIELDING A SWORD.
  • 00:09:41.168 --> 00:09:43.303
  • SWORDS AT THAT TIME WEREREALLY HEAVY THINGS THAT YOU
  • 00:09:43.370 --> 00:09:45.572
  • SORT OF HANDLE LIKE ABAT, AND HE HAD PEOPLE
  • 00:09:45.639 --> 00:09:48.342
  • READ TO HIM.
  • 00:09:48.409 --> 00:09:49.777
  • AND HE WAS VERY MUCHIN FAVOR OF EDUCATION.
  • 00:09:49.843 --> 00:09:52.413
  • HE BROUGHT FAMOUS --FROMENGLAND OUT FROM YORK TO
  • 00:09:52.479 --> 00:09:54.948
  • COME AND REFORMTHE SCHOOLS.
  • 00:09:55.015 --> 00:09:56.917
  • - HE SAW THAT THEKEY TO THIS EMPIRE OF THE
  • 00:09:56.984 --> 00:10:00.287
  • MIND WHICH HE WANTED TOTURN INTO A REAL EMPIRE
  • 00:10:00.354 --> 00:10:02.923
  • WAS TO FEED THE MIND,AND FEED IT WITH THE
  • 00:10:02.990 --> 00:10:07.494
  • LITERATURE OF THE ANCIENTWORLD AND OF THE CHURCH
  • 00:10:07.561 --> 00:10:11.131
  • WHICH HAD COME FROMTHAT ANCIENT WORLD.
  • 00:10:11.198 --> 00:10:13.167
  • HE NEVER FORMALLY CALLEDTHIS THE HOLY
  • 00:10:13.233 --> 00:10:15.135
  • ROMAN EMPIRE.
  • 00:10:15.202 --> 00:10:16.270
  • THAT WOULD BE HISSUCCESSORS, BUT THAT'S
  • 00:10:16.336 --> 00:10:17.705
  • WHAT IT WAS.
  • 00:10:17.771 --> 00:10:19.473
  • IT WAS AN AMALGAM OF THEANCIENT WORLD AND THE
  • 00:10:19.540 --> 00:10:23.343
  • CHURCH WHICH WOULDBE BASED ON THEIR
  • 00:10:23.410 --> 00:10:25.279
  • LITERATURE, BOTH THELITERATURE AVAILABLE FROM
  • 00:10:25.345 --> 00:10:28.782
  • PRE CHRISTIAN ROME BUTALSO EVERYTHING, THE BIBLE
  • 00:10:28.849 --> 00:10:32.486
  • AND THEOLOGY AND THEEARLY FATHERS OF THE
  • 00:10:32.553 --> 00:10:35.589
  • CHURCH, ALL THESE WERENEEDED TO BE COPIED OUT IN
  • 00:10:35.656 --> 00:10:39.760
  • TEXT IN HUGE QUANTITIES.
  • 00:10:39.827 --> 00:10:41.528
  • IT WOULD HAVE TO BE DONEQUICKLY, SO THEY INVENTED
  • 00:10:41.595 --> 00:10:43.731
  • A SKRIT, A NEWSKRIT TO DO IT IN.
  • 00:10:43.797 --> 00:10:46.233
  • LITTLE LETTERS RATHERTHAN THE BIG FORMAL
  • 00:10:46.300 --> 00:10:48.435
  • CAPITALS, AND ITWAS MINUSCULE.
  • 00:10:48.502 --> 00:10:50.804
  • CAROLINGIAN MINISCULE,AND YOU SEE IT ON THE
  • 00:10:50.871 --> 00:10:53.941
  • PRINTED PAGE IN THEBOOKS YOU OPEN TODAY.
  • 00:10:54.007 --> 00:10:56.343
  • THAT'S ITS DESCENDENT.
  • 00:10:56.410 --> 00:10:57.878
  • - SO HIS WORK WAS NOTSO MUCH IN SPREADING
  • 00:10:57.945 --> 00:10:59.980
  • CHRISTIANITY OFMISSION WORK.
  • 00:11:00.047 --> 00:11:01.849
  • HIS WORK WAS MOSTLY INREFORMING THE CHURCH
  • 00:11:01.915 --> 00:11:04.918
  • WITHIN HIS EMPIREBY MEANS OF
  • 00:11:04.985 --> 00:11:07.054
  • BETTER EDUCATION.
  • 00:11:07.121 --> 00:11:08.455
  • - CHARLEMAGNE EDUCATEDAND UNITED A NEW ROMAN
  • 00:11:08.522 --> 00:11:11.625
  • EMPIRE, A CHRISTIANEMPIRE THAT WAS NOW
  • 00:11:11.692 --> 00:11:14.695
  • BETTER EQUIPPEDTHAN EVER BEFORE.
  • 00:11:14.762 --> 00:11:17.297
  • WHEN HE DIED IN AACHEN,GERMANY IN A.D.
  • 00:11:17.364 --> 00:11:20.701
  • 814, THE WESTERN CHURCHHAD UNDERGONE A CULTURAL
  • 00:11:20.768 --> 00:11:23.070
  • AND INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL.
  • 00:11:23.137 --> 00:11:25.405
  • THE CHURCH IN THE EASTWAS ALSO
  • 00:11:25.472 --> 00:11:28.408
  • EXPERIENCING CHANGE.
  • 00:11:28.475 --> 00:11:29.777
  • ABOUT THE TIME OF CHARLEMAGNE'SDEATH, 2 BROTHERS
  • 00:11:29.843 --> 00:11:33.313
  • WERE BORN IN THE CITYOF THESSALONICA OF THE
  • 00:11:33.380 --> 00:11:35.716
  • BYZANTINE EMPIRE.
  • 00:11:35.783 --> 00:11:37.384
  • THEIR NAMES WERECONSTANTINE, RENAMED
  • 00:11:37.451 --> 00:11:39.787
  • CYRIL AND MICHAELRENAMED METHODIUS.
  • 00:11:39.853 --> 00:11:43.056
  • IN A.D. 860,
  • 00:11:43.123 --> 00:11:44.291
  • THE EMPEROR MICHAELSENT THE BROTHERS ON A
  • 00:11:44.358 --> 00:11:47.561
  • MISSIONARY EXPEDITION TOTHE CAZARES. THE BROTHERS
  • 00:11:47.628 --> 00:11:51.298
  • MISSION MADE ALASTING IMPRESSION.
  • 00:11:51.365 --> 00:11:53.767
  • THEY BEGAN THE WORKWHICH WOULD SOLIDIFY
  • 00:11:53.834 --> 00:11:56.470
  • THEIR PLACE IN THEHISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:11:56.537 --> 00:11:58.972
  • AND GIVE THEM THE NAMETHE APOSTLES TO
  • 00:11:59.039 --> 00:12:00.808
  • THE SLAVS.
  • 00:12:00.874 --> 00:12:02.276
  • - THEY WERE SENT BY MIKETHE THIRD TO ARREST
  • 00:12:02.342 --> 00:12:06.446
  • THE PRINCE OF MORAVIA.
  • 00:12:06.513 --> 00:12:10.417
  • AT THAT TIME THERE WEREALREADY CHRISTIANITY -THE
  • 00:12:10.484 --> 00:12:15.189
  • CHRISTIANITY WAS ALREADYSPREADING IN THE
  • 00:12:15.255 --> 00:12:17.424
  • SOUTHEASTERN RUSSIA.
  • 00:12:17.491 --> 00:12:19.726
  • ROSTISLAV WAS SEEKINGINDEPENDENCE AND WANTED
  • 00:12:19.793 --> 00:12:22.462
  • TO BRING A RELIGION THATCOULD BE TAUGHT AND
  • 00:12:22.529 --> 00:12:26.233
  • EXPLAINED IN NATIVELANGUAGE, SO INSTEAD OF
  • 00:12:26.300 --> 00:12:30.871
  • TURNING TO ROME WHOWAS ALREADY SENDING
  • 00:12:30.938 --> 00:12:33.574
  • EMISSARIES, HETURNED TO THE EAST TO
  • 00:12:33.640 --> 00:12:37.845
  • CONSTANTINOPLE AND ASKEDEMPEROR MICHAEL THE THIRD
  • 00:12:37.911 --> 00:12:41.281
  • TO SEND SOME MISSIONARIESWHO CAN COME AND TEACH
  • 00:12:41.348 --> 00:12:46.553
  • HIS PEOPLE TO EMBRACECHRISTIANITY IN THEIR
  • 00:12:46.620 --> 00:12:49.556
  • NATIVE LANGUAGE.
  • 00:12:49.623 --> 00:12:51.625
  • - THERE WAS NO WAYOF WRITING THE SLAVIC
  • 00:12:51.692 --> 00:12:55.596
  • LANGUAGES, SO THEY PRODUCEDENOUGH OF IT, THERE IS A
  • 00:12:55.662 --> 00:13:00.667
  • SLIGHT VARIATION OFTHE GREEK ALPHABET.
  • 00:13:00.734 --> 00:13:02.169
  • THEY WERE REALLY ORIGINALFROM THE EASTERN CHURCH.
  • 00:13:02.236 --> 00:13:04.571
  • - AND CREATED A SCRIPTTHAT WAS CALLED GLAGOLITIC
  • 00:13:04.638 --> 00:13:10.611
  • OR -- SO THE FIRSTSCRIPT THAT LATER BECAME
  • 00:13:10.677 --> 00:13:15.883
  • ALL SLAVANIC LANGUAGE.
  • 00:13:15.949 --> 00:13:18.252
  • THE ENTERPRISE WAS VERYSUCCESSFUL IN THE FACT
  • 00:13:18.318 --> 00:13:23.190
  • THAT PEOPLEEMBRACED THE LANGUAGE, THE
  • 00:13:23.257 --> 00:13:28.262
  • WRITTEN LANGUAGE ANDMETHODIUS TRANSLATED MOST
  • 00:13:28.328 --> 00:13:32.165
  • OF THE NEW TESTAMENT,PSALMS AND DEFINITELY ALL
  • 00:13:32.232 --> 00:13:33.834
  • OF THE CHURCH LITURGY.
  • 00:13:33.901 --> 00:13:35.969
  • SO PEOPLE KNEW THISLANGUAGE WAS A LITTLE BIT
  • 00:13:36.036 --> 00:13:39.072
  • DIFFERENT THAN THEY'REUSED TO BUT THEY ALSO
  • 00:13:39.139 --> 00:13:42.042
  • KNEW IT'S A SPECIALLANGUAGE SET TO BE USED
  • 00:13:42.109 --> 00:13:44.111
  • IN CHURCH.
  • 00:13:44.177 --> 00:13:45.812
  • SO THAT PROMOTED THESPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:13:45.879 --> 00:13:48.515
  • REALLY WELL.
  • 00:13:48.582 --> 00:13:49.917
  • - JOHN 1: 1 WERE THEFIRST WORDS TRANSLATED
  • 00:13:49.983 --> 00:13:52.986
  • INTO THE OLD SLAVANICNOW RUSSIAN LANGUAGE.
  • 00:13:53.053 --> 00:13:55.422
  • LET'S HEAR IT.
  • 00:13:55.489 --> 00:13:57.291
  • [SPEAKING IN SLAVIC]
  • 00:13:57.357 --> 00:14:04.665
  • - NOW THE BIBLETRANSLATED, OLD RUSSIA
  • 00:14:04.731 --> 00:14:06.500
  • WAS READY FORTHE NEW CHAPTER.
  • 00:14:06.566 --> 00:14:08.302
  • ITS HISTORY AS WE KNOWIT BEGAN WITH AN UNUSUAL
  • 00:14:08.368 --> 00:14:10.671
  • WARRIOR PRINCESSNAMED OLGA.
  • 00:14:10.737 --> 00:14:12.806
  • - OLGA IS IMPORTANT INTHE HISTORY OF RUSSIA
  • 00:14:12.873 --> 00:14:15.575
  • BECAUSE OF HER RULE.
  • 00:14:15.642 --> 00:14:17.544
  • HER HUSBAND EGAN WASKILLED BY A
  • 00:14:17.611 --> 00:14:21.415
  • NEIGHBORING TRIBE.
  • 00:14:21.481 --> 00:14:23.383
  • SHE WAS A WIDOW WHICH ISVERY UNUSUAL AT THAT TIME
  • 00:14:23.450 --> 00:14:28.822
  • TO RULE FOR A WIDOW, ANDSHE WAS VERY FIRM IN NOT
  • 00:14:28.889 --> 00:14:35.262
  • GETTING MARRIED AGAIN.
  • 00:14:35.329 --> 00:14:36.964
  • IT'S NOT QUITE CLEAR WHYSHE BECAME A CHRISTIAN OR
  • 00:14:37.030 --> 00:14:39.700
  • HOW SHE HEARD ABOUT IT.
  • 00:14:39.766 --> 00:14:41.001
  • IT'S CLEAR THATTHERE WERE CHRISTIAN
  • 00:14:41.068 --> 00:14:44.438
  • MISSIONARIES FROMCONSTANTINOPLE OR
  • 00:14:44.504 --> 00:14:48.475
  • BYZANTINE AT THAT TIMEALREADY AROUND HER, SO
  • 00:14:48.542 --> 00:14:51.945
  • SHE TRAVELED TOCONSTANTINOPLE AND SHE
  • 00:14:52.012 --> 00:14:55.415
  • ASKED THE EMPEROR HIMSELFCONSTANTINE TO BE
  • 00:14:55.482 --> 00:15:00.587
  • BAPTIZED BY HIM.
  • 00:15:00.654 --> 00:15:03.023
  • WHEN SHE CAME BACK, SHESTARTED EVANGELIZING BUT
  • 00:15:03.090 --> 00:15:08.528
  • HER SON WAS NOTINTERESTED IN
  • 00:15:08.595 --> 00:15:12.299
  • ACCEPTING CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:15:12.366 --> 00:15:13.633
  • HE THOUGHT IT WOULD BERIDICULOUS TO BECOME A
  • 00:15:13.700 --> 00:15:17.571
  • CHRISTIAN AMONG OTHERPAGAN LEADERS, BUT IT WAS
  • 00:15:17.637 --> 00:15:20.540
  • HER GRANDSON, VLADIMIR,WHO IS CREDITED WITH
  • 00:15:20.607 --> 00:15:25.379
  • FULLY BRINGINGCHRISTIANITY TO RUSSIA.
  • 00:15:25.445 --> 00:15:28.915
  • -- TELLS THE STORY OFRUSSIA FROM MID 800'S.
  • 00:15:28.982 --> 00:15:33.787
  • VLADIMIR WAS INTERESTINGIN THERE IS A REALLY BIG
  • 00:15:33.854 --> 00:15:39.126
  • CHANGE IN HIS LIFE ANDIN HIS BEHAVIOR, IN HIS
  • 00:15:39.192 --> 00:15:42.929
  • ATTITUDE BEFORE HE BECAMEA CHRISTIAN AND AFTER HE
  • 00:15:42.996 --> 00:15:46.099
  • BECAME A CHRISTIAN.
  • 00:15:46.166 --> 00:15:47.834
  • AS A PAGAN, HE WASANGRY, VERY VILE MAN, AND
  • 00:15:47.901 --> 00:15:52.039
  • HE ALSO WAS VERYPROMISCUOUS.
  • 00:15:52.105 --> 00:15:54.374
  • HE HAD MULTIPLEMULTIPLE WIVES.
  • 00:15:54.441 --> 00:15:58.912
  • VLADIMIR IS KNOWN FORSENDING HIS ENVOYS ALL
  • 00:15:58.979 --> 00:16:02.949
  • OVER THE WORLD BECAUSEHE WANTED TO FIND A NEW
  • 00:16:03.016 --> 00:16:08.655
  • RELIGION FOR HIS PEOPLETHAT WOULD UNITE THEM BUT
  • 00:16:08.722 --> 00:16:13.627
  • IT WILL ALSO MAKETHEM DIFFERENT.
  • 00:16:13.693 --> 00:16:17.998
  • - AND ENVOYS CAME TOSAMPLED FAITH, THEY
  • 00:16:18.065 --> 00:16:22.602
  • SAMPLE, ISLAM,THEY SAMPLED LATIN
  • 00:16:22.669 --> 00:16:25.806
  • CHRISTIANITY, BYZANTINECHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:16:25.872 --> 00:16:28.875
  • THEY WALKED INTO THISCHURCH AND SAID THIS
  • 00:16:28.942 --> 00:16:30.510
  • IS HEAVEN.
  • 00:16:30.577 --> 00:16:31.812
  • THIS IS IT.
  • 00:16:31.878 --> 00:16:33.346
  • - AND THEN WE WENT ONTOGREECE, AND THE GREEKS
  • 00:16:33.413 --> 00:16:35.816
  • LED US TO THE EDIFICESWHERE THEY WORSHIP THEIR
  • 00:16:35.882 --> 00:16:37.617
  • GOD, AND WE KNEW NOTWHERE WE WERE, IN HEAVEN
  • 00:16:37.684 --> 00:16:41.855
  • OR AN EARTH FOR ON EARTHTHERE IS NO SUCH SPLENDOR
  • 00:16:41.922 --> 00:16:44.958
  • OR SUCH BEAUTY, AND WEARE AT A LOSS HOW TO
  • 00:16:45.025 --> 00:16:47.627
  • DESCRIBE IT.
  • 00:16:47.694 --> 00:16:50.130
  • - SO AFTER THAT REPORT,HE WAS REALLY MOVED, AND
  • 00:16:50.197 --> 00:16:53.600
  • HE REALLY WANTED TOEMBRACE THAT AND TO BE
  • 00:16:53.667 --> 00:16:57.871
  • PART OF THAT, SO HETRAVELED TO
  • 00:16:57.938 --> 00:17:01.842
  • OUTSIDE CONSTANTINOPLE.
  • 00:17:01.908 --> 00:17:04.945
  • HE WAS BAPTIZED AND THENHE MARRIED THE EMPEROR'S
  • 00:17:05.011 --> 00:17:08.081
  • SISTER, ANNA.
  • 00:17:08.148 --> 00:17:11.852
  • AND BOTH OF THEMCAME BACK TO RUSSIA.
  • 00:17:11.918 --> 00:17:15.155
  • HE BROUGHT ALL THE PEOPLETOGETHER, SENT THEM INTO
  • 00:17:15.222 --> 00:17:18.125
  • THE RIVER VOLGA AND THATWAS PROBABLY THE FIRST
  • 00:17:18.191 --> 00:17:22.062
  • MASSIVE BAPTISM BECAUSETHOUSANDS WERE BAPTIZED.
  • 00:17:22.129 --> 00:17:25.999
  • THE SAME HAPPENED IN--IN THE RIVER --.
  • 00:17:26.066 --> 00:17:33.974
  • VLADIMIR WAS THE FIRSTTO BUILD A STONE CHURCH.
  • 00:17:34.040 --> 00:17:39.012
  • AND THERE WAS A VERYBEAUTIFUL WHITE
  • 00:17:39.079 --> 00:17:41.681
  • STONE CHURCH.
  • 00:17:41.748 --> 00:17:43.550
  • IT WAS VERY IMPORTANT INTHE DAILY SERVICES, AND
  • 00:17:43.617 --> 00:17:47.621
  • THEN THIS IS WHERE HEAND HIS WIFE ANNA
  • 00:17:47.687 --> 00:17:51.324
  • WERE BURIED.
  • 00:17:51.391 --> 00:17:53.493
  • - FOR OVER A THOUSANDYEARS, RUSSIA REMAINED A
  • 00:17:53.560 --> 00:17:55.495
  • CHRISTIAN NATION.
  • 00:17:55.562 --> 00:17:57.664
  • CHRISTIANITY SPREADTHROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE AND
  • 00:17:57.731 --> 00:17:59.866
  • BECAME A SYMBOL OFNATIONAL IDENTITY
  • 00:17:59.933 --> 00:18:01.868
  • AFFECTING EVERYAREA OF LIFE.
  • 00:18:01.935 --> 00:18:04.371
  • EVEN TODAY THE RUSSIANLANGUAGE HAS MANY PHRASES
  • 00:18:04.437 --> 00:18:06.907
  • AND COMMON IDIOMS THATCOME DIRECTLY FROM
  • 00:18:06.973 --> 00:18:09.476
  • THE BIBLE.
  • 00:18:09.543 --> 00:18:12.212
  • FOR EXAMPLE, THE WORDFOR THANK YOU [SPEAKING
  • 00:18:12.279 --> 00:18:15.448
  • RUSSIAN ] ACTUALLY COMESFROM THE PHASE [SPEAKING
  • 00:18:15.515 --> 00:18:18.251
  • RUSSIAN ] WHICHMEANS GOD SAVES.
  • 00:18:18.318 --> 00:18:21.421
  • SO EVERY TIME YOU THANKSOMEONE, YOU'RE ACTUALLY
  • 00:18:21.488 --> 00:18:23.990
  • THANKING GOD FORALLOWING YOU TO BE HERE.
  • 00:18:24.057 --> 00:18:26.526
  • AT THE SAME TIME, THEREST OF CHRISTIAN EUROPE
  • 00:18:26.593 --> 00:18:29.196
  • WAS CONTENDING WITH AHISTORIC SPLIT FUELED BY
  • 00:18:29.262 --> 00:18:31.665
  • POLITICAL ANDRELIGION TENSIONS.
  • 00:18:31.731 --> 00:18:34.434
  • THE SCHISM OF 1054ESSENTIALLY SPLINTERED
  • 00:18:34.501 --> 00:18:37.137
  • MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANITYINTO 2 BRANCHES, THE
  • 00:18:37.204 --> 00:18:39.906
  • LATIN WEST CENTERED INROME, AND THE GREEK EAST
  • 00:18:39.973 --> 00:18:42.676
  • CENTERED INCONSTANTINOPLE.
  • 00:18:42.742 --> 00:18:46.513
  • - FOR THE EARLIESTCHURCH IN THE FIRST
  • 00:18:46.580 --> 00:18:48.715
  • CENTURY THEY HADCOMMUNION EVERY DAY.
  • 00:18:48.782 --> 00:18:50.550
  • THIS WAS PART OF THEIRIDENTITY AND THEIR LINK
  • 00:18:50.617 --> 00:18:52.852
  • WITH THE VERY JESUS OFTHE TEXT, SO HOW YOU
  • 00:18:52.919 --> 00:18:54.821
  • TREATED THE BLOOD ANDTHE BODY OF CHRIST WAS
  • 00:18:54.888 --> 00:18:57.891
  • EXTREMELY IMPORTANT, ANDIT WAS WORTH FOR THEM TO
  • 00:18:57.958 --> 00:19:01.061
  • DIVIDE, AND TOTHIS DAY THERE STILL IS
  • 00:19:01.127 --> 00:19:05.265
  • AN EASTERN AND WESTERNCHURCH AMONG
  • 00:19:05.332 --> 00:19:07.300
  • THOSE STRANDS.
  • 00:19:07.367 --> 00:19:11.538
  • - FOR THE CHURCH SPLITIN 2, THE MONASTIC
  • 00:19:11.605 --> 00:19:14.040
  • MOVEMENT CONTINUED TOSPREAD THROUGHOUT BOTH
  • 00:19:14.107 --> 00:19:16.876
  • THE EAST AND THE WEST.
  • 00:19:16.943 --> 00:19:18.645
  • - ALL THESE PEOPLE HAVEBEEN TRAINING FOR AND
  • 00:19:18.712 --> 00:19:20.680
  • PREPARING FOR MARTEL.
  • 00:19:20.747 --> 00:19:22.649
  • I HAVE TO BE A CHRISTIANOF SUCH CONVICTION THAT
  • 00:19:22.716 --> 00:19:27.454
  • I'M READY TO DIE.
  • 00:19:27.520 --> 00:19:29.222
  • AND THEN SUDDENLYEVERYTHING CHANGES.
  • 00:19:29.289 --> 00:19:31.358
  • AND NOW IT'S OKAY TO BEA CHRISTIAN, AND WHAT DO
  • 00:19:31.424 --> 00:19:34.394
  • YOU DO WITHALL THAT ZEAL?
  • 00:19:34.461 --> 00:19:36.663
  • YOU BEGIN WONDERING ABOUTALL THIS CHEAP CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:19:36.730 --> 00:19:38.999
  • THAT'S DEVELOPING AROUNDYOU AND ONE OF THE
  • 00:19:39.065 --> 00:19:41.801
  • OPTIONS, THERE ARE MANYOPTIONS BUT ONE IS SAYING
  • 00:19:41.868 --> 00:19:43.670
  • I'M GONNA GO AWAYSOMEPLACE AND GET AWAY
  • 00:19:43.737 --> 00:19:46.306
  • FROM THISCORRUPT SOCIETY.
  • 00:19:46.373 --> 00:19:47.974
  • BEFORE I WAS AWAY FROMTHE CORRUPT SOCIETY
  • 00:19:48.041 --> 00:19:49.643
  • BECAUSE THEY DIDN'T WANTME, BUT NOW I'M GONNA BE
  • 00:19:49.709 --> 00:19:51.878
  • AWAY FROM IT BECAUSE IDON'T WANT TO BE LIKE THEM.
  • 00:19:51.945 --> 00:19:54.047
  • IT WAS MORE THE WILDERNESS.AND THEY'LL GO THERE
  • 00:19:54.114 --> 00:19:57.417
  • AND APPARENTLY THEYWENT BY THEMSELVES.
  • 00:19:57.484 --> 00:20:00.553
  • AND THEY EVENTUALLY BEGANFORMING GROUPS AND SO ON.
  • 00:20:00.620 --> 00:20:03.290
  • - ONE OF THE MOSTNOTABLE FIGURES OF THE
  • 00:20:03.356 --> 00:20:04.858
  • MOVEMENT WAS AN ITALIAN,GIOVANNI DI PIETRO DI
  • 00:20:04.924 --> 00:20:09.162
  • BERNARDONE, WHO BASED HISLIFE AND HIS ORDER
  • 00:20:09.229 --> 00:20:12.932
  • ON ONE SIMPLE RULE.
  • 00:20:12.999 --> 00:20:15.101
  • TO FOLLOW THE TEACHINGSOF CHRIST AND
  • 00:20:15.168 --> 00:20:16.903
  • TO WALK IN HIS FOOTSTEPS.
  • 00:20:16.970 --> 00:20:19.272
  • HE WOULD LATER BECOMEONE OF THE MOST BELOVED
  • 00:20:19.339 --> 00:20:21.708
  • SAINTS OF THE CHURCH,SAINT FRANCIS OF ASSISI.
  • 00:20:21.775 --> 00:20:26.079
  • - SO FRANCIS IS GROWINGUP IN THIS NEW ECONOMY,
  • 00:20:26.146 --> 00:20:28.748
  • THIS MONEY ECONOMY.
  • 00:20:28.815 --> 00:20:31.184
  • HIS FATHER IS MAKING MONEY,HIS FATHER IS A MERCHANT.
  • 00:20:31.251 --> 00:20:33.787
  • SO ONE DAY HE COMES ANDHE TELLS HIS BUDDIES
  • 00:20:33.853 --> 00:20:38.258
  • AFTER HE'S BEENAWAY, I GOT MARRIED!
  • 00:20:38.325 --> 00:20:41.361
  • WHO? WHAT? WHO DID HE MARRY?
  • 00:20:41.428 --> 00:20:44.998
  • MADONNA POVERTA. MADAM POVERTY.
  • 00:20:45.065 --> 00:20:48.468
  • AT THAT POINT HE DECIDEDHE WAS GOING TO BE POOR.
  • 00:20:48.535 --> 00:20:52.305
  • WELL HIS FATHERDIDN'T LIKE THAT.
  • 00:20:52.372 --> 00:20:54.307
  • HE SAYS WHATARE YOU DOING?
  • 00:20:54.374 --> 00:20:56.676
  • I'M FEEDING YOU, I'MGIVING YOU MY CLOTHES,
  • 00:20:56.743 --> 00:20:58.645
  • YOU ARE AGAINST ALLTHAT I AM ABOUT!
  • 00:20:58.712 --> 00:21:02.315
  • AND HE SAID OKAY, I DON'TWANT TO HEAR FROM YOU,
  • 00:21:02.382 --> 00:21:04.951
  • SO HE TAKES OFF ALL HISCLOTHES AND GIVES THEM
  • 00:21:05.018 --> 00:21:06.586
  • BACK TO HIM AND OFFAWAY NAKED HE GOES
  • 00:21:06.653 --> 00:21:08.755
  • OFF TO THE WOODS.
  • 00:21:08.822 --> 00:21:10.824
  • THAT'S THE MAKINGOF A SAINT.
  • 00:21:10.890 --> 00:21:14.027
  • IT'S A DIFFERENTKIND OF SAINT.
  • 00:21:14.094 --> 00:21:15.628
  • HE'S COMMITTED TO ITAND BECAUSE OF THAT,
  • 00:21:15.695 --> 00:21:19.032
  • IMMEDIATELY HE BEGINS HAVINGMORE PEOPLE AROUND HIM.
  • 00:21:19.099 --> 00:21:22.969
  • AND THEN HE WANTS TOORGANIZE THESE PEOPLE.
  • 00:21:23.036 --> 00:21:30.076
  • HE GOES TO ROME TO GETPERMISSION FROM THE POPE,
  • 00:21:30.143 --> 00:21:36.583
  • AT THAT POINT HAPPENS TOBE INNOCENT III, MOST
  • 00:21:36.649 --> 00:21:38.518
  • POWERFUL POPETHERE'S EVER BEEN.
  • 00:21:38.585 --> 00:21:41.121
  • INNOCENT, ACCORDING TOTHE PEOPLE TELLS US FROM
  • 00:21:41.187 --> 00:21:43.790
  • THE CHRONICLES SAYINNOCENT TO HIM, YOU
  • 00:21:43.857 --> 00:21:46.359
  • SMELL LIKE A PIG! GOWALLOW AMONG THE PIGS!
  • 00:21:46.426 --> 00:21:51.698
  • SO HE BOWS, HE GOES AWAY,HE COMES BACK AFTER A
  • 00:21:51.765 --> 00:21:54.601
  • WHILE COVERED WITH MUDAND SAID FATHER, I'VE
  • 00:21:54.667 --> 00:21:57.604
  • DONE AS YOU COMMANDED,NOW WILL YOU DO AS I PRAY?
  • 00:21:57.670 --> 00:22:01.040
  • AND FRANCIS, INNOCENT WASSMART ENOUGH TO SEE THAT
  • 00:22:01.107 --> 00:22:06.613
  • THERE WAS SOMETHING HEREHE BETTER SUPPORT.
  • 00:22:06.679 --> 00:22:09.382
  • - ONE OF THE THINGS THATMADE HIM SO POPULAR WAS
  • 00:22:09.449 --> 00:22:12.352
  • HIS DESIRE FOR PEACE,SO FROM 1095 TO 1492,
  • 00:22:12.419 --> 00:22:18.224
  • YOU HAVE A SERIES OFCRUSADES THAT COULD
  • 00:22:18.291 --> 00:22:20.827
  • HAVE LASTED LONGER.
  • 00:22:20.894 --> 00:22:23.263
  • THE CRUSADES REFLECTEDTHE ANGER THAT MANY OF
  • 00:22:23.329 --> 00:22:27.000
  • THE WESTERN CHRISTIANSESPECIALLY HAD WITH
  • 00:22:27.066 --> 00:22:29.869
  • MUSLIMS AND SOME OFTHEIR HOLY AREAS.
  • 00:22:29.936 --> 00:22:33.573
  • IN FACT IN 1219, HE WENTTO EGYPT TO MEET WITH THE
  • 00:22:33.640 --> 00:22:36.876
  • SULTAN TRYING TO CONVERTHIM, BUT ULTIMATELY
  • 00:22:36.943 --> 00:22:39.779
  • WANTING TO END THECONFLICT BETWEEN THE
  • 00:22:39.846 --> 00:22:42.982
  • CHRISTIANS ANDTHE MUSLIMS.
  • 00:22:43.049 --> 00:22:44.918
  • IN FACT, THAT HAD ABEARING ON A LOT OF
  • 00:22:44.984 --> 00:22:47.420
  • PEOPLE AS WE WOULD SEEWITH PEOPLE WANTING TO DO
  • 00:22:47.487 --> 00:22:51.458
  • THINGS TO HELP THOSE WHOARE DISENFRANCHISED.
  • 00:22:51.524 --> 00:22:55.061
  • OF COURSE ST. FRANCISWOULD HAVE SO MANY
  • 00:22:55.128 --> 00:22:57.197
  • FOLLOWERS AND HE STARTEDTHE FRANCISCAN ORDER.
  • 00:22:57.263 --> 00:22:59.999
  • SO THE FRANCISCANS WEREMUCH BELOVED AND SOME
  • 00:23:00.066 --> 00:23:03.736
  • PEOPLE WANTED THEM, WITHTHEM WHEN THEY WENT TO A
  • 00:23:03.803 --> 00:23:07.040
  • NEW TERRITORY SAID THEYCOULD HAVE PEOPLE THAT
  • 00:23:07.106 --> 00:23:09.776
  • WEREN'T TRYING TO ACQUIRETHINGS OR TO BECOME
  • 00:23:09.843 --> 00:23:12.312
  • WEALTHY, SO IT WASREFRESHING TO HAVE THIS
  • 00:23:12.378 --> 00:23:16.416
  • GROUP OF MENDICANTS ORPEOPLE DENY THEMSELVES
  • 00:23:16.483 --> 00:23:19.786
  • TO EMULATE JESUS.
  • 00:23:19.853 --> 00:23:24.991
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:23:25.058 --> 00:23:38.471
  • THAT CAUGHT ON, AND THEREBECAME THESE CELLS AND
  • 00:23:38.538 --> 00:23:41.007
  • THESE GROUPS ANDBUILDINGS IN SCHOOLS
  • 00:23:41.074 --> 00:23:43.977
  • THROUGHOUT EUROPE.
  • 00:23:44.043 --> 00:23:46.746
  • - WOMEN DIDTHE SAME THING.
  • 00:23:46.813 --> 00:23:48.214
  • I THINK WOMEN ALSO DIDTHAT FOR ANOTHER REASON.
  • 00:23:48.281 --> 00:23:51.651
  • THERE WERE NOT TOO MANYOPTIONS FOR A WOMAN WHO
  • 00:23:51.718 --> 00:23:53.253
  • DOES NOT WANT TO BESUBJECT TO A MAN,
  • 00:23:53.319 --> 00:23:56.556
  • WHO WANTS TO BE ABLE TO DO,TO THINK FOR HERSELF.
  • 00:23:56.623 --> 00:24:00.360
  • THERE'S A LETTER FROMCYPRIAN LATER THAT HE
  • 00:24:00.426 --> 00:24:04.063
  • WRITES TO A WOMAN AND HESAYS IF YOU DO THIS, YOU
  • 00:24:04.130 --> 00:24:09.168
  • WILL BE FREE FROM THECURSES OF GENESIS BECAUSE
  • 00:24:09.235 --> 00:24:13.806
  • YOU WILL NO LONGER BESUBJECT TO A MAN AND YOU
  • 00:24:13.873 --> 00:24:15.909
  • WILL NO LONGER HAVEPAIN IN CHILDBIRTH.
  • 00:24:15.975 --> 00:24:19.078
  • - ONE OF THE PEOPLETHAT CAME ON THE SCENE,
  • 00:24:19.145 --> 00:24:21.114
  • PERHAPS ONE OF THE MOSTWRITTEN ABOUT INDIVIDUALS
  • 00:24:21.180 --> 00:24:23.883
  • AND CERTAINLY ENGAGINGSTORY TO READ AND A MAJOR
  • 00:24:23.950 --> 00:24:28.288
  • PART OF HISTORY ANDTHAT'S CATHERINE OF SIENA.
  • 00:24:28.354 --> 00:24:31.090
  • - IN 1347, A GIRL NAMEDCATHERINE WAS BORN IN
  • 00:24:31.157 --> 00:24:34.360
  • SIENA, ITALY JUST MONTHSBEFORE THE BLACK DEATH
  • 00:24:34.427 --> 00:24:37.430
  • SWEPT THROUGH EUROPE.
  • 00:24:37.497 --> 00:24:39.532
  • CATHERINE WAS ONE OF 25SIBLINGS MOST OF WHOM
  • 00:24:39.599 --> 00:24:43.102
  • DIED IN CHILDHOOD.
  • 00:24:43.169 --> 00:24:45.305
  • EVEN HER TWIN SISTERDID NOT SURVIVE.
  • 00:24:45.371 --> 00:24:48.241
  • DURING THIS DARK TIME INEUROPEAN HISTORY, WITH A
  • 00:24:48.308 --> 00:24:51.177
  • THIRD OF THE POPULATIONDECIMATED BY THE PLAGUE,
  • 00:24:51.244 --> 00:24:54.347
  • HOW DID THIS YOUNG WOMANBECOME A WELL-KNOWN
  • 00:24:54.414 --> 00:24:57.383
  • PUBLIC FIGURE, AREFORMER, A WRITER, A
  • 00:24:57.450 --> 00:25:01.120
  • POLITICAL ACTIVIST WHOWAS ABLE TO INFLUENCE THE
  • 00:25:01.187 --> 00:25:05.091
  • CHURCH AND CIVILPOLICIES OF HER TIME.
  • 00:25:05.158 --> 00:25:08.628
  • LET'S START OUR STORYWHEN LITTLE CATHERINE WAS
  • 00:25:08.695 --> 00:25:11.130
  • LIVING IN HERFAMILY HOME.
  • 00:25:11.197 --> 00:25:13.232
  • HER FATHER WASA CLOTH DYER.
  • 00:25:13.299 --> 00:25:15.902
  • SHE OFTEN SPENT HER DAYS BYTHE MAIN CITY FOUNTAIN,
  • 00:25:15.969 --> 00:25:20.907
  • LOCATED JUST BELOWHER FAMILY HOME IN SIENA.
  • 00:25:20.974 --> 00:25:25.244
  • - TODAY WHEN WE THINK OFCATHERINE OF SIENA, WE
  • 00:25:25.311 --> 00:25:28.314
  • THINK OF ONE OF THE ONLYFOUR WOMEN DOCTORS IN THE
  • 00:25:28.381 --> 00:25:31.684
  • CATHOLIC CHURCH, MEANINGONE OF THE BRIGHTEST
  • 00:25:31.751 --> 00:25:34.954
  • PEOPLE OF THEOLOGY INTHEIR WHOLE TRADITION
  • 00:25:35.021 --> 00:25:37.357
  • FOR ALL TIMES.
  • 00:25:37.423 --> 00:25:39.225
  • WELL IT BEGAN IN A HOUSEIN SIENA WHERE SHE WOULD
  • 00:25:39.292 --> 00:25:42.395
  • RUN DOWN THE STEPS ANDLOVED TO PLAY IN THE
  • 00:25:42.462 --> 00:25:44.364
  • FOUNTAIN, AND THEIRFATHER TO JOIN UP BUT HER
  • 00:25:44.430 --> 00:25:48.434
  • PARENTS ALSO KNEW THATOUT OF THEIR 25 CHILDREN,
  • 00:25:48.501 --> 00:25:53.473
  • SHE WAS DIFFERENT.
  • 00:25:53.539 --> 00:25:57.110
  • SHE STARTED SEEINGVISIONS EARLY,
  • 00:25:57.176 --> 00:26:00.146
  • AND BY SEVEN SHE HADA MAJOR VISION.
  • 00:26:00.213 --> 00:26:04.317
  • IN FACT, IT WAS SO STRONGTHAT SHE ENDED UP MOVING
  • 00:26:04.384 --> 00:26:09.322
  • INTO THE BASEMENT ANDDENYING HERSELF OF THE
  • 00:26:09.389 --> 00:26:13.426
  • THINGS THAT SHE THOUGHTGAVE PLEASURE IN THIS
  • 00:26:13.493 --> 00:26:17.830
  • WORLD BECAUSE SHE WANTEDTO FOCUS ON CHRIST, AND
  • 00:26:17.897 --> 00:26:20.667
  • SO IN THE BASEMENT OF HERHOUSE, HE PARENTS LET HER
  • 00:26:20.733 --> 00:26:23.736
  • SLEEP ON A BOARD WITHA LOG FOR A PILLOW.
  • 00:26:23.803 --> 00:26:29.342
  • SHE WENT THROUGH ASPECIAL PERIOD FROM 13 TO
  • 00:26:29.409 --> 00:26:32.011
  • 16 YEARS OF AGE WHERE SHEHAD HAD THIS VISION THAT
  • 00:26:32.078 --> 00:26:36.916
  • SHE WAS MARRIEDTO CHRIST.
  • 00:26:36.983 --> 00:26:40.787
  • AT 16, HER SISTER, ONE OFHER BEST FRIENDS, DIED IN
  • 00:26:40.853 --> 00:26:46.459
  • CHILDBIRTH, AND IT WAS ATRAUMATIC EXPERIENCE FOR
  • 00:26:46.526 --> 00:26:52.965
  • HER BECAUSE ALSO HERPARENTS WANTED TO BETROTH
  • 00:26:53.032 --> 00:26:57.670
  • HER TO HER SISTER'SHUSBAND, AND SHE SO
  • 00:26:57.737 --> 00:27:01.774
  • REFUSED, SHE WAS STILLGETTING OVER THE PAIN OF
  • 00:27:01.841 --> 00:27:04.043
  • LOSING HER SISTER THATSHE CUT HER HAIR OFF AND
  • 00:27:04.110 --> 00:27:08.114
  • JOINED THE THIRDDOMINICAN ORDER, AND BY
  • 00:27:08.181 --> 00:27:13.886
  • THIS TIME SHE ALREADYHAD A FOLLOWING, AND SHE
  • 00:27:13.953 --> 00:27:16.355
  • ALREADY WAS RESPECTEDFOR THE INTENSITY OF HER
  • 00:27:16.422 --> 00:27:19.525
  • RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE.
  • 00:27:19.592 --> 00:27:23.062
  • AND THERE STARTED TO RISEUP STORIES JUST LIKE IN
  • 00:27:23.129 --> 00:27:26.699
  • THE GOSPELS OF THESEMIRACLES HAPPENING AMONG
  • 00:27:26.766 --> 00:27:30.203
  • THESE PEOPLE THAT NO ONEELSE WANTED TO HELP.
  • 00:27:30.269 --> 00:27:35.208
  • IN FACT, WITHIN THREEOR FOUR YEARS AFTER HER
  • 00:27:35.274 --> 00:27:37.477
  • BIRTH, A THIRD OF ALLEUROPE HAD ALREADY DIED
  • 00:27:37.543 --> 00:27:40.279
  • WITH BLACK PLAGUE, SO NOWIT HITS AGAIN AND SHE
  • 00:27:40.346 --> 00:27:44.183
  • BECOMES A HERO TO THEPEOPLE, A LIVING SAINT
  • 00:27:44.250 --> 00:27:50.289
  • FOR WHAT SHE DID AMONGTHEM AND STARTED AN
  • 00:27:50.356 --> 00:27:53.192
  • INSTITUTION TO HELP THEMAND TO SYSTEMATIZE
  • 00:27:53.259 --> 00:27:56.963
  • WHAT SHE WAS DOING.
  • 00:27:57.029 --> 00:27:59.232
  • THAT NOT ONLY DREW THEATTENTION OF A LOT OF
  • 00:27:59.298 --> 00:28:00.867
  • PEOPLE, IT ALSOEMBOLDENED HER, AND SHE
  • 00:28:00.933 --> 00:28:03.836
  • WAS SO FRUSTRATED AT ALOT OF WHAT WAS GOING ON,
  • 00:28:03.903 --> 00:28:07.874
  • BOTH AGAINST MUSLIMS,AGAINST DIFFERENT
  • 00:28:07.940 --> 00:28:13.646
  • ECONOMIC SITUATIONSAND SO FORTH, THAT SHE
  • 00:28:13.713 --> 00:28:16.849
  • THOUGHT A LOT OF THEPROBLEM HAD TO DO WITH
  • 00:28:16.916 --> 00:28:20.253
  • THE POPE NOT BEING AT THESEAT OF SAINT PETER IN
  • 00:28:20.319 --> 00:28:23.890
  • ROME, SO SHE STARTEDWRITING LETTERS TO THE POPE.
  • 00:28:23.956 --> 00:28:28.528
  • HERE IS A WOMAN AT A TIMEWHEN WOMEN WEREN'T DOING
  • 00:28:28.594 --> 00:28:31.030
  • THIS, BUT SHE WAS SOFEISTY, AND SHE WOULD
  • 00:28:31.097 --> 00:28:34.200
  • PREACH TO CROWDS IN THECITY SQUARE, AND SHE HAD
  • 00:28:34.267 --> 00:28:37.537
  • SERVED AND STARED DEATHIN THE FACE MANY TIMES.
  • 00:28:37.603 --> 00:28:41.941
  • WE HAVE AROUND 400LETTERS THAT SHE WROTE,
  • 00:28:42.008 --> 00:28:46.245
  • AND SOME OF THOSE WERETO THE POPE AT AVIGNON.
  • 00:28:46.312 --> 00:28:51.117
  • SO INSTEAD OF BEING INROME, THE POPE IS ALL THE
  • 00:28:51.184 --> 00:28:56.455
  • WAY IN THIS LITTLETERRITORY OWNED BY THE
  • 00:28:56.522 --> 00:28:59.625
  • HOLY SEAT IN FRANCE,LONG WAY FROM WHERE SHE
  • 00:28:59.692 --> 00:29:03.629
  • BELIEVED THAT THE LEADEROF THE CHURCH SHOULD BE.
  • 00:29:03.696 --> 00:29:08.901
  • CATHERINE WRITES THIS TOPOPE GREGORY THE ELEVENTH...
  • 00:29:08.968 --> 00:29:13.840
  • CATHERINE WOULDACTUALLY GET AUDIENCE
  • 00:29:24.283 --> 00:29:26.052
  • FOR THE POPE, ANDSHE VISITED HIM.
  • 00:29:26.118 --> 00:29:28.621
  • IN FACT, SHORTLYAFTER SHE VISITED,
  • 00:29:28.688 --> 00:29:32.325
  • HE RETURNED TO ROME.
  • 00:29:32.391 --> 00:29:34.393
  • DURING THE LATTER PART OFHER LIFE, SHE HAD TRUSTED
  • 00:29:34.460 --> 00:29:38.598
  • TO HER SECRETARIES THESUPPORT STAFF AROUND HER
  • 00:29:38.664 --> 00:29:42.001
  • TO WRITE THE WORK THATBECAME KNOWN AS
  • 00:29:42.068 --> 00:29:45.404
  • THE DIALOGUE, WHICH ISREPUBLISHED EVERY COUPLE
  • 00:29:45.471 --> 00:29:48.407
  • OF YEARS TO THE PRESENT.
  • 00:29:48.474 --> 00:29:51.177
  • IT'S HARD FOR ME NOT TOREAD OR TALK MUCH ABOUT
  • 00:29:51.244 --> 00:29:55.248
  • CATHERINE SIENA BEFORETHINKING OF HER VISION OF
  • 00:29:55.314 --> 00:30:01.354
  • CHRIST ON THE CROSS.
  • 00:30:01.420 --> 00:30:03.456
  • AND WHEN SHE LOOKED UP TOTHE CRUCIFIXION IN THIS
  • 00:30:03.522 --> 00:30:05.691
  • VISION, SHE DIDN'T SEEA SUFFERING CHRIST.
  • 00:30:05.758 --> 00:30:12.064
  • SHE DIDN'T SEE NAILSHOLDING HIM TO THE WOOD.
  • 00:30:12.131 --> 00:30:15.935
  • SHE SAW STAIRSTEPS TO HIS HEART.
  • 00:30:16.002 --> 00:30:18.504
  • - MY SON'S NAILED FEETARE A STAIR BY WHICH YOU
  • 00:30:18.571 --> 00:30:21.641
  • CAN CLIMB TO HIS SIDE.
  • 00:30:21.707 --> 00:30:23.776
  • WHAT YOU WILL SEEREVEALED, HIS INMOST HEART.
  • 00:30:23.843 --> 00:30:27.914
  • FOR WHEN THE SOUL ISLOOKED WITH THE MINDS EYE
  • 00:30:27.980 --> 00:30:30.416
  • INTO MY SON'S OPEN HEART,SHE BEGINS TO FEEL THE
  • 00:30:30.483 --> 00:30:33.786
  • LOVE OF HER OWN HEARTAND IS CONSUMMATE
  • 00:30:33.853 --> 00:30:36.255
  • IN UNSPEAKABLE LOVE.
  • 00:30:36.322 --> 00:30:38.991
  • - AND WHEN SHE DIEDAT AGE 33, SAME AGE AS
  • 00:30:39.058 --> 00:30:41.527
  • JESUS, THERE WAS SUCHAPPRECIATION FOR HER AND
  • 00:30:41.594 --> 00:30:45.298
  • SUCH STRONG ACCOUNTS OFMIRACLES ASSOCIATED WITH
  • 00:30:45.364 --> 00:30:48.434
  • HER IN THE VARIOUSVISIONS SHE HAD THAT WHEN
  • 00:30:48.501 --> 00:30:52.838
  • SHE DIED AND HER BODY WASENTERED IN A CHURCH IN
  • 00:30:52.905 --> 00:30:56.142
  • ROME THROUGH THE PAPALCEREMONY, IT'S ALSO
  • 00:30:56.208 --> 00:31:01.147
  • ALLEGED THAT HER HEADIS IN THE CHURCH OF
  • 00:31:01.213 --> 00:31:03.449
  • SAN D MENICO ABOVE HERHOUSE IN SIENA.
  • 00:31:03.516 --> 00:31:07.019
  • SO FROM THE VERY TIMETHAT SHE DIED, SHE BECAME
  • 00:31:07.086 --> 00:31:11.590
  • PART OF THE FABRIC OF THEHERITAGE OF THE CHURCH,
  • 00:31:11.657 --> 00:31:14.994
  • THAT GREAT TAPESTRY THATREACHES THE PRESENT.
  • 00:31:15.061 --> 00:31:18.397
  • TWENTY YEARS AFTERCATHERINE DIES,
  • 00:31:18.464 --> 00:31:22.902
  • GUTENBERG IS BORN.
  • 00:31:22.969 --> 00:31:27.173
  • SO IT'S FITTING THAT ONEOF THE MOST IMPORTANT
  • 00:31:27.239 --> 00:31:29.642
  • INVENTIONS IN ALL OFHISTORY THAT CHANGED THE
  • 00:31:29.709 --> 00:31:33.412
  • WORLD AND WOULDAFFECT LUTHER AND THE
  • 00:31:33.479 --> 00:31:35.581
  • REFORMATION AND THEACCESS TO THOUGHTS
  • 00:31:35.648 --> 00:31:37.616
  • THROUGH THE PRINTEDPAGE STARTED WITH
  • 00:31:37.683 --> 00:31:39.852
  • THE PRINTED WORD OFTHE VERY GOD THAT
  • 00:31:39.919 --> 00:31:43.322
  • SHE GAVE HER LIFE TO.
  • 00:31:43.389 --> 00:31:45.591
  • - ONE OF THE MOSTREVOLUTIONARY INVENTIONS
  • 00:31:45.658 --> 00:31:47.326
  • IN HISTORY, GUTENBERG'SPRESS, USHERED IN A NEW ERA.
  • 00:31:47.393 --> 00:31:52.565
  • - GUTENBERG, WE KNOWNOTHING ABOUT HIS RELIGION.
  • 00:31:52.631 --> 00:31:55.234
  • WE KNOW HE WAS A PRINTER.
  • 00:31:55.301 --> 00:31:57.203
  • HE HAD INVENTEDMOVABLE TYPE.
  • 00:31:57.269 --> 00:32:01.007
  • HE KNEW HOW TO PRINT,AND HE HAD BEEN IN THE
  • 00:32:01.073 --> 00:32:04.543
  • BUSINESS OF PRINTINGPAPAL INDULGENCES BECAUSE
  • 00:32:04.610 --> 00:32:07.480
  • GOOD BUSINESS YOU COULDSET THEM UP, THEY'RE A
  • 00:32:07.546 --> 00:32:10.483
  • PAGE LONG, YOU CAN SELLTHEM FOR A GOOD PRICE.
  • 00:32:10.549 --> 00:32:13.719
  • AND THEN THE PROSPECT OFA BIBLE AROSE, SO THE
  • 00:32:13.786 --> 00:32:19.792
  • TECHNOLOGY HE USED WHICHWAS BASED ON THE WINE
  • 00:32:19.859 --> 00:32:23.129
  • PRESS OR THE OLIVE PRESS,IT'S AN ADAPTION OF THAT,
  • 00:32:23.195 --> 00:32:27.066
  • ENABLED HIM TO PRINTAN ENTIRE VULGATE.
  • 00:32:27.133 --> 00:32:31.637
  • AND THE FIRST WASVERY EXPENSIVE.
  • 00:32:31.704 --> 00:32:35.808
  • HE WENT BROKE AND ALL THEREST OF IT, BUT HE SHOWED
  • 00:32:35.875 --> 00:32:41.447
  • THAT IT COULD BE DONE.
  • 00:32:41.514 --> 00:32:43.382
  • AND NOT A LOT HAPPENEDUNTIL THE TECHNOLOGY GOT
  • 00:32:43.449 --> 00:32:48.187
  • CHEAPER, BECAUSE THEFIRST TIME IT COST THE
  • 00:32:48.254 --> 00:32:51.424
  • EARTH, THEN THEY STARTEDPRINTING SMALLER BOOKS,
  • 00:32:51.490 --> 00:32:54.126
  • AND WHEN THEREFORMERS CAME ALONG,
  • 00:32:54.193 --> 00:32:56.862
  • THEY SAW THEIR CHANCE.
  • 00:32:56.929 --> 00:32:58.831
  • THEY SAW THAT THEY COULDDO VERNACULAR BIBLES,
  • 00:32:58.898 --> 00:33:02.435
  • AND ONCE YOU GET INTOVERNACULAR BIBLES,
  • 00:33:02.501 --> 00:33:05.071
  • YOU CAN PRINT TENS OFTHOUSANDS OF THEM USING
  • 00:33:05.137 --> 00:33:07.173
  • HIS TECHNOLOGY, BUT ITWAS THAT BIBLE THAT
  • 00:33:07.239 --> 00:33:09.608
  • OPENED THE DOOR TO THEREFORMATION, WHICH HE
  • 00:33:09.675 --> 00:33:12.645
  • DIED LONG BEFOREIT STARTED.
  • 00:33:12.711 --> 00:33:15.481
  • - WILLIAM TYNDALE, AYOUNG STUDENT OF THEOLOGY
  • 00:33:15.548 --> 00:33:17.516
  • AT OXFORD, PROPOSED WHATMANY BELIEVED TO BE THE
  • 00:33:17.583 --> 00:33:20.286
  • GREATEST THREAT IN THEHISTORY OF THE CHURCH, A
  • 00:33:20.352 --> 00:33:22.488
  • SERIES OF EUROPEANREFORMATIONS, HIS DREAM
  • 00:33:22.555 --> 00:33:25.124
  • OF TRANSLATING THE BIBLEINTO ENGLISH, A DREAM
  • 00:33:25.191 --> 00:33:27.560
  • OPPOSED BY BOTH KINGHENRY THE EIGHTH AND
  • 00:33:27.626 --> 00:33:30.029
  • CHURCH LAW, PAVED THE WAYFOR LUTHER, CALVIN AND KNOX.
  • 00:33:30.096 --> 00:33:34.366
  • - WILLIAM TYNDALE WASBORN ON THE BORDERS OF
  • 00:33:34.433 --> 00:33:36.936
  • WALES, POSSIBLY IN MODERNDAY GLOUCESTERSHIRE.
  • 00:33:37.002 --> 00:33:40.573
  • HE CAME UP HERE TO OXFORDAS A THEOLOGICAL STUDENT
  • 00:33:40.639 --> 00:33:46.979
  • BUT WAS REALLY FRUSTRATEDBY THE LACK OF ENGAGEMENT
  • 00:33:47.046 --> 00:33:52.251
  • WITH THE SCRIPTURES INTHE THEOLOGICAL TRAINING
  • 00:33:52.318 --> 00:33:54.720
  • COURSES AT OXFORDIN THOSE DAYS.
  • 00:33:54.787 --> 00:33:57.223
  • SO HE MIGRATED FROMOXFORD UP TO CAMBRIDGE,
  • 00:33:57.289 --> 00:34:00.126
  • BUT HE HAD THISPARTICULAR DESIRE TO GET
  • 00:34:00.192 --> 00:34:02.761
  • THE BIBLE INTO THELANGUAGE OF THE PEOPLE,
  • 00:34:02.828 --> 00:34:06.265
  • LANGUAGES THAT WEREACTUALLY SPOKEN.
  • 00:34:06.332 --> 00:34:09.101
  • NOT JUST FROM LATIN INTOENGLISH BUT ACTUALLY FROM
  • 00:34:09.168 --> 00:34:13.706
  • HEBREW AND GREEK, THEORIGINAL LANGUAGES OF THE
  • 00:34:13.772 --> 00:34:15.808
  • SCRIPTURES INTO ENGLISH.
  • 00:34:15.875 --> 00:34:17.710
  • SO A VERY NOVELTHING TO DO.
  • 00:34:17.776 --> 00:34:20.146
  • AND ONE OF THE CHURCHMENAT THE TIME SAID TO HIM,
  • 00:34:20.212 --> 00:34:23.582
  • YOU'RE WASTING YOUREFFORTS. WHY BOTHER?
  • 00:34:23.649 --> 00:34:28.187
  • AND TYNDALE ANNOUNCED...
  • 00:34:28.254 --> 00:34:30.756
  • BIBLE TRANSLATION IN ENGLANDWAS ILLEGAL IN TYNDALE'S DAY,
  • 00:34:50.643 --> 00:34:54.547
  • SO HE HAS TO GO TO THECONTINENT AND SET UP HIS
  • 00:34:54.613 --> 00:34:58.984
  • PRINTING PRESS THERE.
  • 00:34:59.051 --> 00:35:01.720
  • - HE WENT TO HAMBURG,GERMANY IN 1524, AND THEN
  • 00:35:01.787 --> 00:35:04.623
  • WITTENBERG WHERE MARTINLUTHER HAD CONFRONTED THE
  • 00:35:04.690 --> 00:35:07.026
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
  • 00:35:07.092 --> 00:35:09.195
  • TYNDALE WROTE TO HISFRIEND JOHN FRITH OF HOW
  • 00:35:09.261 --> 00:35:11.530
  • CAREFULLY AND DILIGENTLY HETREATED THIS RESPONSIBILITY.
  • 00:35:11.597 --> 00:35:15.100
  • AND TYNDALE'S NEWTESTAMENT ARRIVES ON THE
  • 00:35:35.287 --> 00:35:38.257
  • SHORES 1526, THE FIRSTNEW TESTAMENT TRANSLATED
  • 00:35:38.324 --> 00:35:43.462
  • FROM THE GREEK INTOENGLISH, NOT AS YOU WOULD
  • 00:35:43.529 --> 00:35:45.631
  • GET A PULPIT BIBLE, GIANTBIBLES, BUT DELIBERATELY
  • 00:35:45.698 --> 00:35:49.568
  • TINY LITTLE BIBLES, THINPAPER, SMALL PRINT,
  • 00:35:49.635 --> 00:35:53.138
  • DESIGNED FOR SMUGGLING.
  • 00:35:53.205 --> 00:35:55.574
  • - TYNDALE SPENT THE RESTOF HIS LIFE FIGHTING TO
  • 00:35:55.641 --> 00:35:58.143
  • BRING THE BIBLE TO HISPEOPLE AND EVENTUALLY
  • 00:35:58.210 --> 00:36:00.646
  • GAVE HIS LIFEFOR THE CAUSE.
  • 00:36:00.713 --> 00:36:04.116
  • - TYNDALE WAS WORKING INTHE SPANISH NETHERLANDS,
  • 00:36:04.183 --> 00:36:07.119
  • WHICH WAS A CATHOLICNATION AT THAT POINT,
  • 00:36:07.186 --> 00:36:13.058
  • AND HE WAS BETRAYEDBY A FALSE FRIEND.
  • 00:36:13.125 --> 00:36:16.428
  • HE INFILTRATED TYNDALE'SCIRCLE, BETRAYED HIM FOR
  • 00:36:16.495 --> 00:36:18.998
  • THE AUTHORITIES, AND HEWAS EXECUTED OUTSIDE
  • 00:36:19.064 --> 00:36:23.002
  • BRUSSELS, FIRST GARROTEDAT THE STAKE, AND THEN
  • 00:36:23.068 --> 00:36:27.439
  • WHEN HE DIED HISBODY WAS BURNED.
  • 00:36:27.506 --> 00:36:30.242
  • WE KNOW VERY LITTLEABOUT THE DETAILS OF HIS
  • 00:36:30.309 --> 00:36:31.844
  • MARTYRDOM BECAUSE ITWASN'T IN ENGLAND.
  • 00:36:31.910 --> 00:36:34.980
  • THERE WEREN'T MANYENGLISH WITNESSES TO IT,
  • 00:36:35.047 --> 00:36:36.949
  • BUT THERE IS ONE LINE INFOXE'S BOOK OF MARTYRS OF
  • 00:36:37.016 --> 00:36:40.919
  • TYNDALE'S FINAL WORDSWHICH WERE A PRAYER.
  • 00:36:40.986 --> 00:36:44.256
  • AND JUST A FEW YEARSLATER, REMARKABLY
  • 00:36:48.894 --> 00:36:50.829
  • THAT'S WHAT HAPPENS.
  • 00:36:50.896 --> 00:36:52.831
  • - THERE WERE A SERIESOF REFORMATIONS AROUND
  • 00:36:52.898 --> 00:36:55.734
  • EUROPE AND THEY WEREN'TALL THE SAME, BUT THE
  • 00:36:55.801 --> 00:36:59.204
  • THING THEY HAD INCOMMON WAS A CHALLENGE
  • 00:36:59.271 --> 00:37:03.075
  • TO PAPAL AUTHORITY.
  • 00:37:03.142 --> 00:37:06.478
  • SO IN GERMANY FOREXAMPLE, LUTHER RESENTED
  • 00:37:06.545 --> 00:37:11.050
  • THE POWER OF THE PAPACY,HE RESENTED THE POWER OF
  • 00:37:11.116 --> 00:37:16.422
  • THE BISHOPS, AND IN ENGLANDHENRY THE EIGHTH
  • 00:37:16.488 --> 00:37:22.428
  • FOR POLITICAL REASONS, HEWISHED TO INCREASE HIS
  • 00:37:22.494 --> 00:37:26.532
  • ROYAL POWERS, ALSORESENTED THE PAPACY.
  • 00:37:26.598 --> 00:37:29.601
  • HE WANTED TO BETHE ENGLISH POPE.
  • 00:37:29.668 --> 00:37:31.437
  • - HENRY THE EIGHTH INAN ATTEMPT TO ESTABLISH
  • 00:37:31.503 --> 00:37:37.076
  • HIMSELF AS THE LEADER OFENGLAND DURING A TIME OF
  • 00:37:37.142 --> 00:37:41.080
  • REBELLIOUS THAT HESELF-IMPOSED, HE WOULD
  • 00:37:41.146 --> 00:37:44.883
  • CHANGE HIS RELIGIOUSPOSITIONS, ALTHOUGH FOR
  • 00:37:44.950 --> 00:37:47.786
  • YEARS HENRY THE EIGHTHPERSECUTED AND DIDN'T
  • 00:37:47.853 --> 00:37:55.494
  • TOLERATE PEOPLE THATDIFFERED FROM HIS
  • 00:37:55.561 --> 00:37:57.696
  • RELIGIOUS VIEWS,ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO WERE
  • 00:37:57.763 --> 00:38:01.767
  • INSISTING ON THEENGLISH BIBLE.
  • 00:38:01.834 --> 00:38:04.703
  • HE WOULD ALSO BE ONE TOMANDATE THAT THE BIBLE BE
  • 00:38:04.770 --> 00:38:08.107
  • PUT IN ENGLISH IN THEFRONT OF ALL THE CHURCHES
  • 00:38:08.173 --> 00:38:12.344
  • AND AN ENGLISH BIBLE THATBENEFITED FROM THE WORKS
  • 00:38:12.411 --> 00:38:15.481
  • OF SOME OF THE VERY PEOPLETHAT HE HAD PERSECUTED.
  • 00:38:15.547 --> 00:38:19.318
  • - MUCH OF TYNDALE'STRANSLATION IS AUTHORIZED
  • 00:38:19.385 --> 00:38:22.855
  • BY THE KING FORDISTRIBUTION IN EVERY
  • 00:38:22.921 --> 00:38:24.790
  • PARISH CHURCH IN THECOUNTRY, PERHAPS PART OF
  • 00:38:24.857 --> 00:38:27.559
  • AN ANSWER TO TYNDALE'SDYING PRAYER.
  • 00:38:27.626 --> 00:38:30.863
  • - HIS TRANSLATIONS SETTHE TONE FOR ALL ENGLISH
  • 00:38:30.929 --> 00:38:36.068
  • TRANSLATIONS UP TOTHE PRESENT DAY.
  • 00:38:36.135 --> 00:38:39.004
  • THEY'RE ALL -- THE WAY APASSAGE FEELS, IF YOU READ
  • 00:38:39.071 --> 00:38:44.543
  • AN ENGLISH BIBLE,IS TYNDALE.
  • 00:38:44.610 --> 00:38:47.546
  • THE VOCABULARY, THE SENTENCELENGTH, MANY OF THE
  • 00:38:47.613 --> 00:38:51.316
  • EXPRESSIONS COMEDIRECTLY FROM TYNDALE.
  • 00:38:51.383 --> 00:38:55.020
  • HE'S UNDOUBTEDLY THEGREATEST TRANSLATOR IN THE
  • 00:38:55.087 --> 00:38:59.191
  • HISTORY OF ENGLISH.
  • 00:38:59.258 --> 00:39:00.726
  • - TYNDALE'S WORK WOULDCHANGE THE COURSE OF
  • 00:39:00.793 --> 00:39:02.861
  • CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:39:02.928 --> 00:39:04.296
  • NO LONGER WITH THESCRIPTURES BE CHAINED TO
  • 00:39:04.363 --> 00:39:07.232
  • PULPITS BUT PLACED IN THEHANDS OF THE PEOPLE, IN
  • 00:39:07.299 --> 00:39:10.035
  • THEIR HOME, INTHEIR LANGUAGE.
  • 00:39:10.102 --> 00:39:12.771
  • AND NOW, NEARLY FIVECENTURIES LATER, WE HAVE
  • 00:39:12.838 --> 00:39:16.475
  • MORE THAN 900 ENGLISHTRANSLATIONS OF THE NEW
  • 00:39:16.542 --> 00:39:18.844
  • TESTAMENT.
  • 00:39:18.911 --> 00:39:20.846
  • LITTLE DID TYNDALE KNOW THATHIS SACRIFICE WOULD LEAD TO
  • 00:39:20.913 --> 00:39:23.482
  • SUCH A LEGACY.
  • 00:39:23.549 --> 00:39:25.451
  • HIS FINAL PRAYER MOMENTSBEFORE HIS DEATH WASN'T FOR
  • 00:39:25.517 --> 00:39:28.921
  • HIS OWN SAKE, BUT FOR THEHEART OF HENRY THE 8TH.
  • 00:39:28.987 --> 00:39:31.757
  • IT WAS A PLEA THAT ANOTHERRADICAL REFORMER HAD BEEN
  • 00:39:31.824 --> 00:39:34.993
  • PRAYING FOR HIS OWN PEOPLE,A GERMAN MONK
  • 00:39:35.060 --> 00:39:37.629
  • NAMED MARTIN LUTHER.
  • 00:39:37.696 --> 00:39:39.565
  • - THE 16TH CENTURYREFORMATION OF COURSE HAD
  • 00:39:39.631 --> 00:39:42.901
  • ORIGINS, AND IT ISN'T GOODENOUGH TO SAY THAT ITS
  • 00:39:42.968 --> 00:39:46.672
  • ORIGIN WAS THE FACT THATTHE CHURCH WAS CORRUPT AND
  • 00:39:46.738 --> 00:39:49.741
  • NEEDED TO BE REFORMED.
  • 00:39:49.808 --> 00:39:51.610
  • YOU NEED TO SEE THE FEWGENERATIONS BEFORE LUTHER AS
  • 00:39:51.677 --> 00:39:57.516
  • A TIME OF EXTRAORDINARYSPIRITUAL INTENSITY.
  • 00:39:57.583 --> 00:40:01.019
  • THE CHURCH WAS NOT,IN NO SENSE, IN DECAY.
  • 00:40:01.086 --> 00:40:03.722
  • AND SO SOMEONE LIKE LUTHERWAS COMING INTO A SITUATION
  • 00:40:03.789 --> 00:40:07.759
  • WHERE EVERYONE WAS EXPECTINGSOMETHING TO HAPPEN.
  • 00:40:07.826 --> 00:40:10.996
  • THE ATMOSPHERE OF CRISIS INEUROPE WAS ALREADY THERE
  • 00:40:11.063 --> 00:40:17.369
  • BECAUSE EUROPE WAS BEINGPRESSED ON BY THE ISLAMIC
  • 00:40:17.436 --> 00:40:20.906
  • MONARCHY, THE OTTOMAN TURKS.
  • 00:40:20.973 --> 00:40:23.141
  • IT LOOKED AS IF THEWORLD MIGHT END.
  • 00:40:23.208 --> 00:40:25.544
  • - 1454 WAS THEPRINTING AT GUTENBERG.
  • 00:40:25.611 --> 00:40:28.714
  • 1453 IS THE FALL OFCONSTANTINOPLE TO
  • 00:40:28.780 --> 00:40:32.084
  • THE OTTOMANS.
  • 00:40:32.150 --> 00:40:34.653
  • AND SO FOR ALL OF THESEYEARS, IT SERVED AS A
  • 00:40:34.720 --> 00:40:37.222
  • BEACON, AS A STRONGHOLD.
  • 00:40:37.289 --> 00:40:39.491
  • IT SEEMED IMPREGNABLE, ACHRISTIAN STRONGHOLD IN THE
  • 00:40:39.558 --> 00:40:43.161
  • EAST AND, AT ONE TIME,THE SEAT OF POWER
  • 00:40:43.228 --> 00:40:45.731
  • FOR CHRISTENDOM.
  • 00:40:45.797 --> 00:40:47.332
  • - IT FELL THE YEAR BEFORETHE VERY INSTRUMENT WAS BORN
  • 00:40:47.399 --> 00:40:52.337
  • THAT HELPED LUTHERSPREAD HIS GOSPEL.
  • 00:40:52.404 --> 00:40:54.907
  • - YOU'D BE LOOKING FORSOMEONE WHO WAS THE PROPHET
  • 00:40:54.973 --> 00:40:57.376
  • OF ISLAM, THE LAST DAYS.
  • 00:40:57.442 --> 00:40:59.211
  • MANY WOULD LOOK TO THE POPE,BUT POPES REALLY WEREN'T UP
  • 00:40:59.278 --> 00:41:02.314
  • TO THE JOB, WHEREAS THISRATHER UNEXPECTED, RANDOM,
  • 00:41:02.381 --> 00:41:06.451
  • SURPRISING UNIVERSITYLECTURER, ON THE FRINGES OF
  • 00:41:06.518 --> 00:41:10.222
  • GERMANY, HAD A MESSAGE WHICHCLEARLY RESONATED WITH
  • 00:41:10.289 --> 00:41:13.859
  • PEOPLE BECAUSE IT WAS ABOUTTHE MOST IMPORTANT THING
  • 00:41:13.926 --> 00:41:16.628
  • THEY HAD TO THINKABOUT, DEATH.
  • 00:41:16.695 --> 00:41:20.132
  • - AND THAT'S WHERE HESTUDYING SCRIPTURE, AND
  • 00:41:20.198 --> 00:41:22.968
  • THERE COMES A FAMOUS EPISODEOF HIS READING OF ROMANS
  • 00:41:23.035 --> 00:41:25.304
  • 1:17 ABOUT THE JUST WILLLIVE BY FAITH AND SO ON.
  • 00:41:25.370 --> 00:41:29.007
  • WE USED TO GET THEIMPRESSION THAT HE WAS JUST
  • 00:41:29.074 --> 00:41:32.344
  • READING, OH, LOOKWHAT I FOUND.
  • 00:41:32.411 --> 00:41:33.912
  • BUT HE STRUGGLED WITH IT.
  • 00:41:33.979 --> 00:41:35.547
  • IT WAS A LONG STRUGGLE,THE WAY HE SAYS IT.
  • 00:41:35.614 --> 00:41:37.249
  • AND YOU CAN SEE THATSTRUGGLE IN LECTURES THAT
  • 00:41:37.316 --> 00:41:40.085
  • HE'S GIVEN AT THAT TIME, BUTEVENTUALLY, HE COMES TO THE
  • 00:41:40.152 --> 00:41:43.055
  • CONCLUSION THAT BEING JUSTDOESN'T MEAN BEING JUST.
  • 00:41:43.121 --> 00:41:48.961
  • BEING JUST MEANS BEINGDECLARED JUST BY GOD.
  • 00:41:49.027 --> 00:41:52.331
  • - AND LUTHER SAID TO THEM,AS AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO HAD
  • 00:41:52.397 --> 00:41:57.869
  • SAID A THOUSAND YEARSBEFORE, YOU CAN DO NOTHING
  • 00:41:57.936 --> 00:42:02.107
  • ABOUT YOUR AFTERLIFE.
  • 00:42:02.174 --> 00:42:04.042
  • YOU CANNOT DECIDE YOUR FATE.
  • 00:42:04.109 --> 00:42:05.911
  • IT IS IN THE HANDS OF GOD.
  • 00:42:05.978 --> 00:42:07.746
  • NOW, THE PROBLEM WAS THATTHE CHURCH HAD DRIFTED AWAY
  • 00:42:07.813 --> 00:42:12.951
  • FROM THIS AUGUSTINIANTEACHING TO GIVE PEOPLE THE
  • 00:42:13.018 --> 00:42:16.054
  • IMPRESSION THEY COULDDO THINGS ABOUT THEIR
  • 00:42:16.121 --> 00:42:18.523
  • AFTERLIFE. THEY COULDSAY PRAYERS.
  • 00:42:18.590 --> 00:42:22.494
  • THEY COULD ALSO BUY PRAYERSFROM OTHER PEOPLE, WHICH
  • 00:42:22.561 --> 00:42:25.530
  • WOULD INFLUENCE THE DECISIONOF GOD IN THE AFTERLIFE.
  • 00:42:25.597 --> 00:42:28.433
  • LUTHER THOUGHT THIS WAS ACHEAT, AND, IN FACT, IT JUST
  • 00:42:28.500 --> 00:42:31.770
  • DOESN'T ACCORD WITH EITHERTHE MESSAGE IN PAUL'S
  • 00:42:31.837 --> 00:42:36.408
  • EPISTLES TO THEROMANS AND GALATIANS.
  • 00:42:36.475 --> 00:42:39.177
  • IT DOESN'T ACCORD WITHTHIS GREAT WESTERN LATIN
  • 00:42:39.244 --> 00:42:42.114
  • THEOLOGIAN AUGUSTINE EITHER.
  • 00:42:42.180 --> 00:42:43.982
  • AND IN MANY WAYS, ALL LUTHERDID WAS TO REPEAT WHAT
  • 00:42:44.049 --> 00:42:47.085
  • AUGUSTINE HAD SAID BEFORE,AND IT SOUNDED STARTLINGLY
  • 00:42:47.152 --> 00:42:51.256
  • NOVEL BECAUSE PEOPLE HADNOT UNDERSTOOD IT
  • 00:42:51.323 --> 00:42:53.525
  • OR HAD FORGOTTEN IT.
  • 00:42:53.592 --> 00:42:55.093
  • - BUT IT CAME TO A HEADWHEN THE MAGNIFICENT DOME
  • 00:43:06.104 --> 00:43:11.476
  • ON SAINT PETER'SBASILICA IN ROME.
  • 00:43:11.543 --> 00:43:14.079
  • THE PROBLEM WAS PAYING FORIT, SO A DEAL WAS STRUCK.
  • 00:43:14.146 --> 00:43:18.216
  • INDULGENCES WERE BEING SOLDIN GERMANY, AND WHERE THE
  • 00:43:18.283 --> 00:43:23.221
  • PAPACY GOT A CUT SO THEYCOULD BUILD THE DOME.
  • 00:43:23.288 --> 00:43:25.857
  • I LIKE THE DOME.
  • 00:43:25.924 --> 00:43:27.693
  • - AND THE INTERESTING THINGIS THAT PEOPLE DON'T USUALLY
  • 00:43:27.759 --> 00:43:32.130
  • REALIZE THE PRICE THATTHE CATHOLIC CHURCH PAID FOR
  • 00:43:32.197 --> 00:43:35.333
  • SAINT PETER'S ISTHE REFORMATION.
  • 00:43:35.400 --> 00:43:38.003
  • - LUTHER WAS GETTING VERYANGRY ABOUT WHAT HE SAW AS
  • 00:43:38.070 --> 00:43:40.772
  • ABUSES OF THE DOCTRINE OFTHE AFTER LIFE, AND HE
  • 00:43:40.839 --> 00:43:43.642
  • WANTED TO SPREAD HISMESSAGE, WHICH HE REGARDED
  • 00:43:43.709 --> 00:43:48.213
  • AS GOOD NEWS, THAT YOU AND ICAN DO NOTHING, BUT WHAT WE
  • 00:43:48.280 --> 00:43:51.750
  • CAN DO IS RELY ON GODWHO CAN DO EVERYTHING.
  • 00:43:51.817 --> 00:43:56.722
  • - THIS GOOD NEWS TELLS USHOW GOD MAKES US
  • 00:43:56.788 --> 00:43:58.790
  • RIGHT IN HIS SIGHT.
  • 00:43:58.857 --> 00:44:00.625
  • THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED FROMSTART TO FINISH BY FAITH.
  • 00:44:00.692 --> 00:44:04.096
  • AS THE SCRIPTURES SAY, ITIS THROUGH FAITH THAT A
  • 00:44:04.162 --> 00:44:07.466
  • RIGHTEOUS PERSON HAS LIFE.
  • 00:44:07.532 --> 00:44:09.568
  • - WHAT HE CERTAINLY DIDDO WAS PUBLICIZE THESE 95
  • 00:44:09.634 --> 00:44:12.871
  • THESES REMARKABLY QUICKLY.
  • 00:44:12.938 --> 00:44:14.840
  • GO AND SAY LOOK AT THE DOORWHICH SUCCEEDED THE DOOR,
  • 00:44:14.906 --> 00:44:18.443
  • AND IT'S A GOOD SYMBOL OF WHATTURNED OUT
  • 00:44:18.510 --> 00:44:21.713
  • TO BE A REVOLUTION.
  • 00:44:21.780 --> 00:44:23.548
  • - WHILE THE REFORMATIONDISRUPTED THE KNOWN CHURCH,
  • 00:44:23.615 --> 00:44:26.017
  • IN SPAIN, ANOTHER MONARCHHAD THREATENED THE
  • 00:44:26.084 --> 00:44:29.020
  • ESTABLISHED THINKING INA VERY DIFFERENT WAY.
  • 00:44:29.087 --> 00:44:32.424
  • ISABELLA OF CASTILLEWAS NOT ONE TO SETTLE.
  • 00:44:32.491 --> 00:44:36.762
  • DESPITE BEING A WOMAN ANDTHIRD IN LINE TO THE THRONE,
  • 00:44:36.828 --> 00:44:40.398
  • SHE REFUSED TO PLAY ALONGWITH SOCIETY'S RULES.
  • 00:44:40.465 --> 00:44:43.802
  • INSTEAD, SHE CHOSE TO FOCUSHER EFFORTS ON EDUCATION,
  • 00:44:43.869 --> 00:44:48.406
  • AND IN DOING SO, WOULDPROVOKE AN ACADEMIC
  • 00:44:48.473 --> 00:44:51.176
  • REVOLUTION AND SET ANEW STANDARD
  • 00:44:51.243 --> 00:44:53.812
  • FOR FEMALE MONARCHS.
  • 00:44:53.879 --> 00:44:55.747
  • AS SHE SAW IT, WOMEN WEREJUST AS FIT TO RULE AS MEN,
  • 00:44:55.814 --> 00:44:58.817
  • AND SHE WOULD PROVE THIS TOBE TRUE SOON AFTER MARRYING
  • 00:44:58.884 --> 00:45:03.488
  • FERDINAND THE SECONDOF ARAGON IN 1469.
  • 00:45:03.555 --> 00:45:07.959
  • - ISABELLA THE FIRST OFCASTILLE, CASTILLE IS THE
  • 00:45:08.026 --> 00:45:12.130
  • MAJOR PART OF THE LAND OFSPAIN THAT IS SPAIN TODAY,
  • 00:45:12.197 --> 00:45:15.333
  • AND SHE MARRIED FERDINANDTHE SECOND, WHO WAS OVER THE
  • 00:45:15.400 --> 00:45:18.870
  • TERRITORY OF ARAGON.
  • 00:45:18.937 --> 00:45:20.972
  • AND TOGETHER, THE POPEDUBBED THEM THE
  • 00:45:21.039 --> 00:45:23.575
  • CATHOLIC MONARCHS.
  • 00:45:23.642 --> 00:45:25.477
  • SO EVEN THOUGH THERE WEREUNIQUE RELATIONS, THEY WERE
  • 00:45:25.544 --> 00:45:29.047
  • DEVOUTLY CATHOLIC.
  • 00:45:29.114 --> 00:45:30.982
  • JUST AS THE GUTENBERG PRESSHELPED IT PERPETUATE THE
  • 00:45:31.049 --> 00:45:36.321
  • TEACHINGS OR THE THOUGHTS OFCATHERINE OF SIENNA TO HER
  • 00:45:36.388 --> 00:45:40.492
  • WORLD AND THEN BEYOND, WEHAVE THE SAME THING THROUGH
  • 00:45:40.559 --> 00:45:44.529
  • GUTENBERG WITH THE LIFE ANDTHE RULE OF ISABELLA THE
  • 00:45:44.596 --> 00:45:48.633
  • FIRST, PERHAPS ONE OF THEMOST FAMOUS OF THE MONARCHS
  • 00:45:48.700 --> 00:45:52.037
  • OF HER TIME AND A WOMANMONARCH WHO STARTED A
  • 00:45:52.103 --> 00:45:55.340
  • REVOLUTION IN A LOT OF WAYS.
  • 00:45:55.407 --> 00:45:58.109
  • SHE HAD FOUR DAUGHTERS AND ASON, AND SHE WAS DETERMINED
  • 00:45:58.176 --> 00:46:02.347
  • THAT HER DAUGHTERSESPECIALLY WOULD BE EDUCATED
  • 00:46:02.414 --> 00:46:07.285
  • BECAUSE SHE WAS FRUSTRATEDABOUT HER OWN UPBRINGING.
  • 00:46:07.352 --> 00:46:09.721
  • AND SHE WAS ESPECIALLYCONCERNED THAT HER DAUGHTERS
  • 00:46:09.788 --> 00:46:13.258
  • LEARN LATIN, A NECESSARYLANGUAGE FOR THE EDUCATED
  • 00:46:13.325 --> 00:46:17.829
  • CLASS AND FOR CERTAIN POSTS.
  • 00:46:17.896 --> 00:46:20.498
  • AND AS HISTORY TELLS US, THEINTEREST IN EDUCATING HER
  • 00:46:20.565 --> 00:46:24.069
  • DAUGHTERS CERTAINLYDIDN'T GO IN VAIN.
  • 00:46:24.135 --> 00:46:27.606
  • CATHERINE OF ARAGON BECAMEHENRY THE 8TH'S FIRST
  • 00:46:27.672 --> 00:46:30.342
  • WIFE AND BELOVEDQUEEN OF ENGLAND.
  • 00:46:30.408 --> 00:46:32.978
  • MARY TUDOR, THEGRANDDAUGHTER OF ISABELLA,
  • 00:46:33.044 --> 00:46:37.649
  • IT WAS A REIGN WHERE SHE WASTRYING TO REESTABLISH THE
  • 00:46:37.716 --> 00:46:41.119
  • CATHOLIC FOUNDATIONS, ANDHAD SHE LIVED AS LONG AS HER
  • 00:46:41.186 --> 00:46:45.690
  • SISTER ELIZABETH, WE'DHAVE A DIFFERENT ENGLAND.
  • 00:46:45.757 --> 00:46:49.194
  • BUT THAT CATHOLICSTINT WAS SHORT LIVED.
  • 00:46:49.261 --> 00:46:52.631
  • AFTER MARY DIED, HER SISTER,ELIZABETH, WOULD
  • 00:46:52.697 --> 00:46:56.668
  • RULE FROM 1558 TO 1603.
  • 00:46:56.735 --> 00:47:00.906
  • SHE DEVELOPED THEGREAT COMPROMISE.
  • 00:47:00.972 --> 00:47:04.276
  • IT'S NOT A NEGATIVE THING.
  • 00:47:04.342 --> 00:47:06.378
  • IT WAS A POSITIVE WHERE SHEWANTED ONE CHURCH, AND SHE
  • 00:47:06.444 --> 00:47:10.148
  • WANTED IT DEVELOPED WHEREPEOPLE OF DIFFERENT
  • 00:47:10.215 --> 00:47:14.286
  • TRADITIONS COULDFEEL WELCOME.
  • 00:47:14.352 --> 00:47:16.955
  • AND IT CEMENTEDENGLAND AS A PEOPLE.
  • 00:47:17.022 --> 00:47:21.860
  • AND THROUGHOUT THIS TIME,FERDINAND AND ISABELLA ALSO
  • 00:47:21.927 --> 00:47:26.564
  • STRUGGLED WITH THE REMNANTSOF THE MUSLIM
  • 00:47:26.631 --> 00:47:30.135
  • OUT POST IN GRANADA.
  • 00:47:30.201 --> 00:47:32.304
  • AND FINALLY IN1492, THEY TOOK IT.
  • 00:47:32.370 --> 00:47:37.842
  • DIDN'T END IMMEDIATE ISSUES,BUT IT RESOLVED A LOT
  • 00:47:37.909 --> 00:47:42.447
  • OF THE TENSION AND ALOT OF THE FEAR.
  • 00:47:42.514 --> 00:47:45.884
  • BECAUSE OF SOME UP RISINGSTHAT STILL TOOK PLACE IN
  • 00:47:45.951 --> 00:47:49.754
  • GRANADA, THEY ISSUED THEEDICT OF EXPULSION
  • 00:47:49.821 --> 00:47:53.191
  • THAT SAME YEAR.
  • 00:47:53.258 --> 00:47:54.993
  • - TOGETHER, THEY UNITEDSPAIN AND RECLAIMED IBERIA
  • 00:47:55.060 --> 00:47:58.630
  • IN THE NAME OF THE CROWN OFCASTILLE AND
  • 00:47:58.697 --> 00:48:01.466
  • THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.
  • 00:48:01.533 --> 00:48:03.101
  • BUT AS ISABELLA GREW MOREZEALOUS IN HER FAITH, SO DID
  • 00:48:03.168 --> 00:48:07.238
  • HER THEORY TOWARD ANYONESHE DEEMED A HERETIC.
  • 00:48:07.305 --> 00:48:10.075
  • UNDER HER REGIME, SPAINWOULD FACE THE MOST
  • 00:48:10.141 --> 00:48:12.744
  • SUCCESSFUL AND MASSCONVERSION IN HISTORY, THE
  • 00:48:12.811 --> 00:48:15.847
  • SPANISH INQUISITION.
  • 00:48:15.914 --> 00:48:19.084
  • - THE EDICT OF EXPULSIONHAS A PRETTY THORNY SIDE TO IT.
  • 00:48:19.150 --> 00:48:23.355
  • WELL, THERE WERE JEWS ANDMUSLIMS STILL LIVING THERE,
  • 00:48:23.421 --> 00:48:28.727
  • AND THE SPANISH INQUISITIONWAS STARTED IN THE 70S, AND
  • 00:48:28.793 --> 00:48:34.632
  • IT BECAME FULL FORCE HEREBECAUSE THEY WANTED TO
  • 00:48:34.699 --> 00:48:38.503
  • REMOVE THE JEWS AND THEMUSLIMS IF THEY DIDN'T CONVERT.
  • 00:48:38.570 --> 00:48:44.009
  • SO THEY COULD STILL PRACTICETHEIR BELIEF UP UNTIL THAT
  • 00:48:44.075 --> 00:48:48.246
  • POINT, BUT THENTHEY HAD TO LEAVE.
  • 00:48:48.313 --> 00:48:50.515
  • AND WE KNOW THAT THE RECORDSAY THAT BETWEEN 87.000 AND
  • 00:48:50.582 --> 00:48:55.453
  • 150.000 PEOPLE WOULD BETRADE DURING THOSE REAL
  • 00:48:55.520 --> 00:48:59.657
  • HEAVY YEARS OFTHE INQUISITION.
  • 00:48:59.724 --> 00:49:02.093
  • A LOT OF IT HAPPENED RIGHTAFTER THE FALL OF GRANADA.
  • 00:49:02.160 --> 00:49:06.164
  • - WE'LL COME BACK TOFERDINAND AND ISABELLA
  • 00:49:06.231 --> 00:49:08.066
  • SHORTLY, BUT FIRST I WANTYOU TO MEET ONE OF THE MOST
  • 00:49:08.133 --> 00:49:10.702
  • FAMOUS FIGURES IN SPANISHHISTORY, A WOMAN WHOSE LIFE
  • 00:49:10.769 --> 00:49:13.605
  • WAS DEEPLY AFFECTED BY THEINQUISITION, TERESA OF AVILA.
  • 00:49:13.671 --> 00:49:18.877
  • - TERESA IS AN INTERESTINGSTORY FOR MANY REASONS.
  • 00:49:18.943 --> 00:49:22.280
  • HER GRANDFATHER WAS A JEWWHO WAS BAPTIZED, AND THE
  • 00:49:22.347 --> 00:49:28.386
  • FAMILY LIVED IN TOLEDO, ANDIT WAS DISCOVERED THAT HE
  • 00:49:28.453 --> 00:49:32.724
  • WAS STILLPRACTICING JUDAISM.
  • 00:49:32.791 --> 00:49:35.093
  • AND SO HE WAS FORCED TOBE PENITENT AND TO GO TO
  • 00:49:35.160 --> 00:49:39.731
  • SEVERAL CHURCHES ON HISKNEES AND WEARING A THING
  • 00:49:39.798 --> 00:49:43.234
  • THAT HAS THE CROSS ON IT.
  • 00:49:43.301 --> 00:49:45.770
  • AND HE WAS SO HUMILIATEDTHAT AFTER HE WAS RESTORED
  • 00:49:45.837 --> 00:49:50.542
  • TO THE CHURCH, THEY LEFTTOLEDO AND MOVED TO AVILA.
  • 00:49:50.608 --> 00:49:56.114
  • WHERE THEY MOVED IN THE CITYWAS AT THE VERY EDGE OF THE
  • 00:49:56.181 --> 00:49:59.217
  • FORMER JEWISH BORDER, BUT BYTHE TIME TERESA WAS BORN,
  • 00:49:59.284 --> 00:50:04.089
  • SHE WAS A DEVOUT CATHOLIC,AND I THINK THE JEWISH
  • 00:50:04.155 --> 00:50:09.194
  • BACKGROUND WAS PUSHED BACK,BUT I DON'T THINK IT WAS
  • 00:50:09.260 --> 00:50:14.699
  • THERE IN THE FAMILY ANYMORE.
  • 00:50:14.766 --> 00:50:17.502
  • BUT IT DID MEAN THAT SHEWAS ALWAYS UNDER A CLOUD.
  • 00:50:17.569 --> 00:50:22.574
  • HER WRITINGS WERE ALWAYS BEEXAMINED BY THE INQUISITION.
  • 00:50:22.640 --> 00:50:28.480
  • HER MOTHER DIED WHILE SHEWAS I YOUNG GIRL, PROBABLY
  • 00:50:28.546 --> 00:50:31.983
  • 10 OR 11, WHENHER MOTHER DIED.
  • 00:50:32.050 --> 00:50:34.486
  • HER MOTHER WAS MUCH YOUNGERTHAN HER FATHER, AND TERESA
  • 00:50:34.552 --> 00:50:39.624
  • REALLY FELT BEREFTWHEN HER MOTHER DIED.
  • 00:50:39.691 --> 00:50:43.027
  • SHE RAN TO THE CATHEDRAL ANDKNELT BEFORE THE STATUE OF
  • 00:50:43.094 --> 00:50:47.098
  • MARY AND ASKED MARYTO BE HER MOTHER.
  • 00:50:47.165 --> 00:50:50.401
  • AND SHE DECIDED THAT SHEREALLY WANTED TO BE A NUN,
  • 00:50:50.468 --> 00:50:53.238
  • AND SO SHE RAN AWAY FROMHOME, WHICH WASN'T FAR.
  • 00:50:53.304 --> 00:50:55.807
  • I THINK SHE HADTO WALK A MILE.
  • 00:50:55.874 --> 00:50:57.942
  • I THINK HER BROTHER, ONE OFHER BROTHERS ACCOMPANIED
  • 00:50:58.009 --> 00:51:00.512
  • HER, TO THE MONASTERY OF THEINCARNATION, AND A CARMELITE
  • 00:51:00.578 --> 00:51:04.816
  • CONVENT IN AVILA.
  • 00:51:04.883 --> 00:51:08.353
  • HER FATHER WAS VERY MUCHOPPOSED TO HER BEING A NUN,
  • 00:51:08.419 --> 00:51:11.456
  • AND SHE'D BEEN THERE I THINKMORE THAN A YEAR BEFORE HE
  • 00:51:11.523 --> 00:51:14.125
  • FINALLY AGREED TO IT.
  • 00:51:14.192 --> 00:51:16.027
  • AND SUNDAY AFTERNOONS, THEYHAD CONVERSATIONS WITH
  • 00:51:16.094 --> 00:51:18.863
  • PEOPLE FROM THE VILLAGE INTHE CITY OF AVILA WOULD COME
  • 00:51:18.930 --> 00:51:21.799
  • IN, AND THERESA WAS A GREATFAVORITE BECAUSE SHE WAS
  • 00:51:21.866 --> 00:51:24.102
  • SUCH A WITTY PERSON.
  • 00:51:24.169 --> 00:51:26.104
  • SO THAT WAS HER LIFE IN THECONVENT, UNTIL SHE HAD A
  • 00:51:26.171 --> 00:51:32.110
  • SERIOUS ILLNESS, WEDON'T KNOW WHAT IT WAS.
  • 00:51:32.177 --> 00:51:35.847
  • BUT SHE WENT TO AN UNCLE'SOUT IN THE COUNTRY TO
  • 00:51:35.914 --> 00:51:40.885
  • RECOVER, AND WHILE THERE,SHE STARTED READING VERY
  • 00:51:40.952 --> 00:51:44.756
  • PIOUS BOOKS ON PRAYER.
  • 00:51:44.822 --> 00:51:48.526
  • AND SHE REALLY DECIDED THATHER LIFE AS IT HAD BEEN IN
  • 00:51:48.593 --> 00:51:53.665
  • THE CONVENT WAS NOT WHAT THELIFE OF A NUN SHOULD BE.
  • 00:51:53.731 --> 00:51:57.302
  • AND SHE WENT BACK TO THECONVENT REALLY WITH THE
  • 00:51:57.368 --> 00:52:02.473
  • SENSE THAT SHE HADBEEN CONVERTED AGAIN.
  • 00:52:02.540 --> 00:52:05.376
  • AND THEN IN 1559, THEINQUISITION FOR THE FIRST
  • 00:52:05.443 --> 00:52:11.649
  • TIME TURNED ITS GUNSON THE PROTESTANTS.
  • 00:52:11.716 --> 00:52:14.219
  • IT HAD BEEN MAINLYCRYPTOJEWS, AND
  • 00:52:14.285 --> 00:52:18.122
  • NOW IT WAS PROTESTANTS.
  • 00:52:18.189 --> 00:52:20.792
  • 1559, IT FORBID ANYRELIGIOUS WRITING IN SPANISH.
  • 00:52:20.858 --> 00:52:29.267
  • IT ALL HAD TO BE IN LATINBECAUSE ONLY EXPERTS THEN
  • 00:52:29.334 --> 00:52:31.736
  • COULD DEAL WITH IT.
  • 00:52:31.803 --> 00:52:33.538
  • SO ALL OF HER BOOKS WERETAKEN FROM HER, AND SHE WAS
  • 00:52:33.605 --> 00:52:37.375
  • REALLY IN DESPAIR.
  • 00:52:37.442 --> 00:52:39.210
  • HER BOOKS WERE GONE, AND SHEWAS WALKING UP A STAIRCASE
  • 00:52:39.277 --> 00:52:44.482
  • IN THE CONVENT WHEN SHEHAD THIS VISION OF JESUS.
  • 00:52:44.549 --> 00:52:52.156
  • NOW, WHAT SHE MEANS BY AVISION IS THAT SHE KNOWS
  • 00:52:52.223 --> 00:52:56.160
  • THAT NO ONE ELSESAW IT OR HEARD IT.
  • 00:52:56.227 --> 00:52:58.429
  • IT WAS INTERNAL TO HER, BUTSHE SAW IT ON THE STAIRS,
  • 00:52:58.496 --> 00:53:02.367
  • THERE WAS JESUS, AND HESAID, DO NOT BE AFRAID.
  • 00:53:02.433 --> 00:53:07.872
  • I WILL BE TO YOUA LIVING BOOK.
  • 00:53:07.939 --> 00:53:12.477
  • THE CHURCH WAS TAKING HERBOOKS AWAY, AND NOW SHE WAS
  • 00:53:12.543 --> 00:53:15.013
  • GOING TO HAVE VISIONS.
  • 00:53:15.079 --> 00:53:17.015
  • I MEAN, IT WAS REALLY ANINTERESTING WAY OF PUTTING IT.
  • 00:53:17.081 --> 00:53:20.685
  • IT WAS THE LOSS OF HERBOOKS, AND JESUS SAYS,
  • 00:53:20.752 --> 00:53:24.222
  • I WILL BE TO YOUA LIVING BOOK.
  • 00:53:24.289 --> 00:53:25.957
  • DO NOT WORRY.
  • 00:53:26.024 --> 00:53:27.592
  • SHE WRITES A BOOK, ONE OF MYFAVORITES IS THE INTERIOR
  • 00:53:27.659 --> 00:53:33.197
  • CASTLE, WHERE SHE GOESTHROUGH THE STAGES OF THE
  • 00:53:33.264 --> 00:53:37.402
  • PIOUS LIFE, RELIGIOUS LIFE.
  • 00:53:37.468 --> 00:53:39.871
  • AND SHE SAYS THAT THE FIRSTTHING IS JUST EVEN TO GO IN
  • 00:53:39.937 --> 00:53:45.243
  • THE DOOR OF THE CASTLE,WHICH IS REALLY THE SELF.
  • 00:53:45.310 --> 00:53:48.713
  • - NOW LET US RETURN TOOUR BEAUTIFUL AND CHARMING
  • 00:53:48.780 --> 00:53:52.984
  • CASTLE AND DISCOVERHOW TO ENTER IT.
  • 00:53:53.051 --> 00:53:55.386
  • THIS APPEARS INCONGRUOUS.
  • 00:53:55.453 --> 00:53:57.622
  • IF THIS CASTLE IS THE SOUL,CLEARLY NO ONE CAN HAVE TO
  • 00:53:57.689 --> 00:54:01.092
  • ENTER IT FOR IT ISTHE PERSON HIMSELF.
  • 00:54:01.159 --> 00:54:04.295
  • ONE MIGHT AS WELL DARESOMEONE TO GO INTO A
  • 00:54:04.362 --> 00:54:06.497
  • ROOM, HE'S ALREADY IN.
  • 00:54:06.564 --> 00:54:09.100
  • THERE ARE, HOWEVER, VERYDIFFERENT WAYS OF BEING
  • 00:54:09.167 --> 00:54:12.103
  • IN THIS CASTLE.
  • 00:54:12.170 --> 00:54:13.771
  • MANY SOULS LIVE IN THECOURTYARD OF THE BUILDING
  • 00:54:13.838 --> 00:54:17.141
  • WHERE THE SENTINELS STANDNEITHER CARING TO ENTER
  • 00:54:17.208 --> 00:54:20.178
  • FARTHER, NOT TO KNOWWHO DWELLS IN THAT MOST
  • 00:54:20.244 --> 00:54:23.648
  • DELIGHTFUL PLACE, WHAT ISIN IT, AND WHAT
  • 00:54:23.715 --> 00:54:26.984
  • ROOMS IT CONTAINS.
  • 00:54:27.051 --> 00:54:32.623
  • - TERESA, AFTER 1559, DIDNOT HAVE ACCESS TO PIOUS
  • 00:54:34.759 --> 00:54:40.565
  • BOOKS IN SPANISH ORTHEOLOGICAL BOOKS.
  • 00:54:40.631 --> 00:54:44.369
  • I DON'T KNOW THAT SHE RELIEDON BOOKS, BUT SHE HAD SOME
  • 00:54:44.435 --> 00:54:48.539
  • OF THE BEST THEOLOGIANS FROMTHE UNIVERSITY OF SALAMANCA
  • 00:54:48.606 --> 00:54:50.808
  • AS HER CONFESSORS.
  • 00:54:50.875 --> 00:54:52.710
  • SHE WENT THROUGH CONFESSORS.
  • 00:54:52.777 --> 00:54:54.746
  • SHE HAD MORE THAN90 CONFESSORS IN HER
  • 00:54:54.812 --> 00:54:57.648
  • LIFETIME, AND SOME OF THEM,SHE SAID, THEY ARE SUCH
  • 00:54:57.715 --> 00:54:59.951
  • SCARED MEN, THAT THEY'REAFRAID THAT IF I SAY
  • 00:55:00.017 --> 00:55:02.387
  • ANYTHING THAT'S OUT OFORDER, THEY'RE GOING
  • 00:55:02.453 --> 00:55:04.155
  • TO RUN TO THE BISHOP.
  • 00:55:04.222 --> 00:55:06.224
  • AND THEN SHE FINALLY FOUNDJOHN OF THE CROSS WHO SAID,
  • 00:55:06.290 --> 00:55:10.561
  • I LEARNED EVERYTHINGABOUT PRAYER FROM TERESA.
  • 00:55:10.628 --> 00:55:14.232
  • SAINT TERESA OF AVILA WASTHE FIRST WOMAN TO BE NAMED
  • 00:55:14.298 --> 00:55:17.802
  • BY THE CATHOLIC CHURCH ASA DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH.
  • 00:55:17.869 --> 00:55:20.405
  • - NOW WE RETURN TO THESPANISH THRONE WHERE
  • 00:55:20.471 --> 00:55:23.007
  • ISABELLA STANDS READY TOCHANGE THE COURSE OF HUMAN
  • 00:55:23.074 --> 00:55:25.576
  • HISTORY WITH AVENTURE OF HER OWN.
  • 00:55:25.643 --> 00:55:28.813
  • FOR SEVEN YEARS, THE ITALIANEXPLORER CHRISTOFARO COLOMBO
  • 00:55:28.880 --> 00:55:33.885
  • CAMPAIGNED FOR A VOYAGEBOUND WESTWARD
  • 00:55:33.951 --> 00:55:36.287
  • ACROSS THE ATLANTIC.
  • 00:55:36.354 --> 00:55:38.256
  • AND FOR SEVEN YEARS, HISPROPOSAL WAS REJECTED, THAT
  • 00:55:38.322 --> 00:55:41.526
  • IS UNTIL HE CAUGHT THEEAR OF QUEEN ISABELLA.
  • 00:55:41.592 --> 00:55:44.595
  • - COLUMBUS WAS AN AMBITIOUSMAN WHO WANTED TO ESTABLISH
  • 00:55:44.662 --> 00:55:49.400
  • A REPUTATION, ANDHE WANTED WEALTH.
  • 00:55:49.467 --> 00:55:52.937
  • HE WANTED TO FIND A DYNASTY.
  • 00:55:53.004 --> 00:55:54.839
  • PART OF THE PACKAGE WASCHRISTIANITY, AND HE HAD A
  • 00:55:54.906 --> 00:55:58.109
  • STRONG SENSE OF DESTINY ANDTHAT WHAT HE WAS DOING WAS
  • 00:55:58.176 --> 00:56:01.412
  • SPREADING THE GOSPEL.
  • 00:56:01.479 --> 00:56:03.548
  • THIS WAS HANDY AS A WAYOF SELLING THE IDEA TO AN
  • 00:56:03.614 --> 00:56:07.418
  • EXTREMELY DEVOUT PAIR OFMONARCHS, THE MONARCHS OF
  • 00:56:07.485 --> 00:56:11.122
  • ARAGON AND CASTILLE,FERDINAND AND ISABELLA.
  • 00:56:11.189 --> 00:56:14.292
  • - ISABELLA WAS EAGER TOEXPAND HER EMPIRE AND AGREED
  • 00:56:14.358 --> 00:56:17.595
  • TO SPONSOR HIS EXPEDITION.
  • 00:56:17.662 --> 00:56:20.198
  • SHE ORDERED THE CITY OFPALOS TO GIVE HIM THREE
  • 00:56:20.264 --> 00:56:23.634
  • SHIPS, THE NINA, THE PINTA,AND LATER ADDED
  • 00:56:23.701 --> 00:56:26.604
  • THE SANTA MARIA.
  • 00:56:26.671 --> 00:56:29.006
  • - COLUMBUS' MISTAKE WASTHAT HE KNEW IT WAS ROUND,
  • 00:56:29.073 --> 00:56:32.376
  • BUT HE DIDN'T KNOWHOW BIG IT WAS.
  • 00:56:32.443 --> 00:56:34.979
  • HE THOUGHT THAT ASIA WASMUCH SMALLER THAN IT IS.
  • 00:56:35.046 --> 00:56:39.417
  • HE DIDN'T KNOW THERE WAS APACIFIC OCEAN, AND SO HIS
  • 00:56:39.484 --> 00:56:42.453
  • WORLD WAS ABOUT A THIRDAS BIG AS IT REALLY WAS.
  • 00:56:42.520 --> 00:56:46.757
  • SO HE WAS CONVINCED WAS ALLHE HAD TO DO WAS JUST GO
  • 00:56:46.824 --> 00:56:49.494
  • WEST, AND HE WOULD ARRIVE ATTHE INDIES, WHICH WAS THE
  • 00:56:49.560 --> 00:56:52.129
  • FAR EAST, WHICH WAS ALREADYTHERE WAS TRADE BOTH BY LAND
  • 00:56:52.196 --> 00:56:56.868
  • AROUND THE SILK ROAD ANDALSO AROUND THE SOUTH
  • 00:56:56.934 --> 00:56:59.737
  • OF THE AFRICA.
  • 00:56:59.804 --> 00:57:02.006
  • THE PORTUGUESE WEREGOING THAT WAY.
  • 00:57:02.073 --> 00:57:04.408
  • - THE FATEFUL EVENT OF 1492OF THE SAILING OF COLUMBUS
  • 00:57:04.475 --> 00:57:08.179
  • FROM PALOS WASN'TA SUDDEN DECISION.
  • 00:57:08.246 --> 00:57:12.750
  • IN FACT, FOR AROUND SEVENYEARS, HE KEPT COMING TO THE
  • 00:57:12.817 --> 00:57:16.120
  • COURT AND TRYING TO SHOWA WAY TO GET AROUND THE
  • 00:57:16.187 --> 00:57:20.124
  • TURKISH BLOCKADES. HE HAD TO GETTHE SPICES.
  • 00:57:20.191 --> 00:57:25.229
  • - MOST SPICES WERE, ANDSOME OF THEM STILL ARE,
  • 00:57:25.296 --> 00:57:28.799
  • WORTH MORE THAN GOLD BYWEIGHT, AND SO IT WAS A VERY
  • 00:57:28.866 --> 00:57:33.070
  • PROFITABLE COMMERCE THAT HADBEEN INTERRUPTED AND BEEN
  • 00:57:33.137 --> 00:57:36.207
  • MADE VERY DIFFICULT, AND HEFELT, HEY, IF WE CAN FIND A
  • 00:57:36.274 --> 00:57:38.776
  • CHEAP WAY TO GET OVER THEREAND BACK, WE CAN
  • 00:57:38.843 --> 00:57:41.078
  • REALLY MAKE A KILLING.
  • 00:57:41.145 --> 00:57:43.047
  • - AND AFTER FIVE WEEKS ANDA REBELLION AND MUCH TOLD
  • 00:57:43.114 --> 00:57:45.750
  • STORY IN TEXTBOOKS,SUDDENLY, SOMEONE YELLS, "LAND!"
  • 00:57:45.816 --> 00:57:51.789
  • AND IT WASN'T LONG BEFOREHE STEPS ASHORE IN THE NEW
  • 00:57:51.856 --> 00:57:57.161
  • WORLD, AND HE NAMES THEFIRST CITY "HOLY CITY"
  • 00:57:57.228 --> 00:58:02.600
  • OR SAN SALVADOR.
  • 00:58:02.667 --> 00:58:04.602
  • AND THEN, FITTINGLY, THENEXT TWO FERDINAND
  • 00:58:04.669 --> 00:58:08.906
  • AND ISABELLA.
  • 00:58:08.973 --> 00:58:10.741
  • - WHAT COULD BE MORESURPRISING THAN FINDING A
  • 00:58:10.808 --> 00:58:13.411
  • NEW CONTINENT NOT DESCRIBEDIN THE BIBLE IN ANY EXPLICIT
  • 00:58:13.477 --> 00:58:17.648
  • WAY, AND FINDING PEOPLES WHOSIMPLY HAD NO CONTACT WITH
  • 00:58:17.715 --> 00:58:21.752
  • THE WORLD THEY KNEW AT ALL?
  • 00:58:21.819 --> 00:58:23.754
  • THIS MUST BE A SYMBOL OF ANEW GRACE FROM GOD, A SET OF
  • 00:58:23.821 --> 00:58:29.060
  • PEOPLE WHO COULD BEBROUGHT TO FAITH.
  • 00:58:29.126 --> 00:58:32.129
  • - AS COLUMBUS SET SAIL, HECARRIED THE CHURCH WITH HIM.
  • 00:58:32.196 --> 00:58:36.500
  • NO ONE COULD HAVE PREDICTEDWHAT WOULD COME NEXT.
  • 00:58:36.567 --> 00:58:39.737
  • WOULD CHRISTIANITY CONTINUETO THRIVE, OR WOULD IT RUN
  • 00:58:39.804 --> 00:58:43.107
  • AGROUND ON THE SHORESOF THE NEW WORLD?
  • 00:58:43.174 --> 00:58:45.943
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:58:46.010 --> 00:59:13.804

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