Part 1: From the Cradle of Christianity | TBN

Part 1: From the Cradle of Christianity

Watch Part 1: From the Cradle of Christianity
January 13, 2020
1:00:04

Journey with us to the birthplace of Christianity, Jerusalem, in Part 1 of Inexplicable: How Christianity Spread to the Ends of the Earth. The series is narrated by Golden Globe ® nominee Dennis Haysbert.

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Part 1: From the Cradle of Christianity

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  • - DENNIS HAYSBERT: IT HAD
  • 00:01:05.040 --> 00:01:05.230
  • BEEN 40 DAYS SINCE JESUS
  • 00:01:05.230 --> 00:01:06.200
  • WAS CRUCIFIED.
  • 00:01:06.200 --> 00:01:08.040
  • ACCORDING TO THE GOSPELS,
  • 00:01:08.040 --> 00:01:10.200
  • WHEN JESUS ROSE FROM THE
  • 00:01:10.200 --> 00:01:13.050
  • GRAVE, HE SHOWED HIMSELF
  • 00:01:13.050 --> 00:01:14.140
  • FIRST TO THE WOMEN WHO HAD
  • 00:01:14.140 --> 00:01:15.230
  • VISITED HIS TOMB, AND THEN
  • 00:01:15.230 --> 00:01:17.000
  • TO THE DIFFERENT GROUPS OF
  • 00:01:17.000 --> 00:01:18.180
  • HIS DISCIPLES OVER TIME.
  • 00:01:23.080 --> 00:01:26.080
  • NOW HE WAS LEADING THEM UP
  • 00:01:26.080 --> 00:01:27.020
  • THE MOUNT OF OLIVES.
  • 00:01:30.170 --> 00:01:33.170
  • THEREFORE, WHEN THEY HAD
  • 00:01:33.170 --> 00:01:34.280
  • COME TOGETHER, THEY ASKED
  • 00:01:34.280 --> 00:01:36.250
  • HIM, SAYING, "WILL YOU AT
  • 00:01:36.250 --> 00:01:38.230
  • THIS TIME RESTORE THE
  • 00:01:38.230 --> 00:01:40.120
  • - DENNIS: AND HE SAID TO
  • 00:01:47.130 --> 00:01:48.070
  • THEM, "IT IS NOT FOR YOU
  • 00:01:48.070 --> 00:01:49.010
  • TO KNOW THE TIME OR THE
  • 00:01:49.010 --> 00:01:50.010
  • SEASONS WHICH THE FATHER
  • 00:01:50.010 --> 00:01:50.210
  • HAS PUT IN HIS OWN
  • 00:01:50.210 --> 00:01:51.210
  • AUTHORITY, BUT YOU SHALL
  • 00:01:51.210 --> 00:01:52.210
  • RECEIVE POWER WHEN THE
  • 00:01:52.210 --> 00:01:53.270
  • HOLY SPIRIT HAS COME UPON
  • 00:01:53.270 --> 00:01:54.210
  • YOU, AND YOU SHALL BE
  • 00:01:54.210 --> 00:01:56.200
  • WITNESSES TO ME IN
  • 00:01:56.200 --> 00:01:58.110
  • JERUSALEM AND ALL JUDEA
  • 00:01:58.110 --> 00:02:00.040
  • AND SAMARIA, AND TO THE
  • 00:02:00.040 --> 00:02:01.170
  • NOW, WHEN HE HAD SPOKEN THESE
  • 00:02:07.070 --> 00:02:09.250
  • THINGS, WHILE THEY
  • 00:02:09.250 --> 00:02:10.120
  • - DENNIS: AND A CLOUD
  • 00:02:36.200 --> 00:02:37.070
  • RECEIVED HIM OUT OF THEIR
  • 00:02:37.070 --> 00:02:37.280
  • - DENNIS: WITHIN THE NEXT
  • 00:02:47.180 --> 00:02:48.070
  • 100 YEARS, THE NEW
  • 00:02:48.070 --> 00:02:48.290
  • TESTAMENT WOULD BE
  • 00:02:48.290 --> 00:02:50.000
  • WRITTEN, A SMALL
  • 00:02:50.000 --> 00:02:51.060
  • COLLECTION OF BOOKS THAT
  • 00:02:51.060 --> 00:02:52.090
  • WOULD FOREVER ALTER THE
  • 00:02:52.090 --> 00:02:54.210
  • COURSE OF HUMAN HISTORY,
  • 00:02:54.210 --> 00:02:56.110
  • AND CENTURY BY CENTURY,
  • 00:02:56.110 --> 00:02:57.290
  • CHRISTIANITY WOULD BECOME,
  • 00:02:57.290 --> 00:02:59.030
  • AS THE PEW RESEARCH
  • 00:02:59.030 --> 00:03:01.090
  • CENTER CONCLUDED IN 2012,
  • 00:03:01.090 --> 00:03:03.040
  • "THE ONLY RELIGION IN THE
  • 00:03:03.040 --> 00:03:04.070
  • WORLD WITH A MAJOR
  • 00:03:04.070 --> 00:03:05.110
  • PRESENCE ON EVERY
  • 00:03:05.110 --> 00:03:06.220
  • CONTINENT."
  • 00:03:06.220 --> 00:03:08.120
  • HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?
  • 00:03:08.120 --> 00:03:09.230
  • I'M DENNIS HAYSBERT.
  • 00:03:09.230 --> 00:03:11.240
  • AND IN THIS DOCUMENTARY
  • 00:03:11.240 --> 00:03:12.150
  • SERIES, WE ARE GOING TO
  • 00:03:12.150 --> 00:03:13.180
  • EXPLORE THAT VERY QUESTION.
  • 00:03:14.060 --> 00:03:17.060
  • WELCOME TO "INEXPLICABLE:
  • 00:03:17.060 --> 00:03:17.280
  • HOW CHRISTIANITY SPREAD
  • 00:03:17.280 --> 00:03:19.130
  • - JERRY PATTENGALE: IF
  • 00:03:39.030 --> 00:03:39.260
  • YOU THINK OF THE APOSTLES,
  • 00:03:39.260 --> 00:03:40.290
  • WHAT THEY HAD WITNESSED,
  • 00:03:41.100 --> 00:03:44.100
  • THERE WAS EVERY REASON TO
  • 00:03:44.100 --> 00:03:45.020
  • THINK THAT SOMETHING
  • 00:03:45.020 --> 00:03:46.000
  • RADICAL WAS GOING TO
  • 00:03:46.000 --> 00:03:47.110
  • HAPPEN POLITICALLY.
  • 00:03:48.080 --> 00:03:51.080
  • THEY WERE UNDER ROMAN
  • 00:03:51.080 --> 00:03:52.010
  • OPPRESSION.
  • 00:03:52.010 --> 00:03:53.050
  • JESUS, HE'S RISEN FROM THE
  • 00:03:53.050 --> 00:03:54.160
  • DEAD.
  • 00:03:54.160 --> 00:03:55.200
  • SO IT'S ONLY NATURAL THAT
  • 00:03:55.200 --> 00:03:56.170
  • THEY WOULD'VE THOUGHT THAT
  • 00:03:56.170 --> 00:03:58.080
  • THERE WOULD BE A KINGDOM
  • 00:03:58.080 --> 00:03:59.050
  • - JERRY: AND SO, INSTEAD
  • 00:04:07.270 --> 00:04:08.230
  • OF ESTABLISHING A KINGDOM,
  • 00:04:08.230 --> 00:04:09.130
  • - DENNIS: BEFORE JESUS
  • 00:04:12.150 --> 00:04:13.030
  • HAD ASCENDED TO HEAVEN, HE
  • 00:04:13.030 --> 00:04:14.070
  • COMMANDED HIS DISCIPLES
  • 00:04:14.070 --> 00:04:15.140
  • NOT TO DEPART FROM
  • 00:04:15.140 --> 00:04:16.240
  • JERUSALEM, BUT TO WAIT FOR
  • 00:04:16.240 --> 00:04:18.290
  • THE PROMISE OF THE FATHER,
  • 00:04:18.290 --> 00:04:20.070
  • WHICH HE SAID,
  • 00:04:20.070 --> 00:04:21.240
  • "YOU HAVE HEARD FROM ME,
  • 00:04:21.240 --> 00:04:23.050
  • FOR JOHN TRULY BAPTIZED
  • 00:04:23.050 --> 00:04:25.190
  • WITH WATER,
  • 00:04:25.190 --> 00:04:27.100
  • BUT YOU SHALL BE BAPTIZED
  • 00:04:27.100 --> 00:04:28.200
  • WITH THE HOLY SPIRIT,
  • 00:04:28.200 --> 00:04:30.070
  • - JERRY: PENTECOST
  • 00:04:37.120 --> 00:04:38.070
  • LITERALLY MEANS 50TH.
  • 00:04:38.070 --> 00:04:39.100
  • IT'S THE 50TH DAY AFTER
  • 00:04:39.100 --> 00:04:40.260
  • PASSOVER AND THE FIRST
  • 00:04:40.260 --> 00:04:42.060
  • HARVEST, AND PASSOVER
  • 00:04:42.060 --> 00:04:43.280
  • COMES OUT OF THE BOOKS IN
  • 00:04:43.280 --> 00:04:45.140
  • THE OLD TESTAMENT,
  • 00:04:45.140 --> 00:04:46.140
  • ESPECIALLY EXODUS, WHERE
  • 00:04:46.140 --> 00:04:48.080
  • IT'S THE TENTH AND FINAL
  • 00:04:48.080 --> 00:04:49.200
  • PLAGUE, AND THEY ARE
  • 00:04:49.200 --> 00:04:51.060
  • PASSED OVER, AND THE
  • 00:04:51.060 --> 00:04:53.060
  • OLDEST BORN IS NOT KILLED.
  • 00:04:53.060 --> 00:04:55.070
  • PENTECOST WAS A
  • 00:04:55.070 --> 00:04:56.130
  • BUSTLING TIME.
  • 00:04:56.130 --> 00:04:57.280
  • THE BIBLE RECORDS, YOU
  • 00:04:57.280 --> 00:04:58.240
  • KNOW, THE VARIOUS
  • 00:04:58.240 --> 00:05:00.040
  • COUNTRIES.
  • 00:05:00.040 --> 00:05:01.140
  • THERE'S A LITANY OF
  • 00:05:01.140 --> 00:05:02.080
  • COUNTRIES WHERE THEY'RE
  • 00:05:02.080 --> 00:05:03.140
  • FROM, YOU KNOW, THE
  • 00:05:03.140 --> 00:05:04.110
  • PARTHIANS AND THE
  • 00:05:04.110 --> 00:05:05.230
  • ELAMITES, YOU HAVE PEOPLE
  • 00:05:05.230 --> 00:05:07.200
  • FROM ASIA, YOU HAVE THE
  • 00:05:07.200 --> 00:05:08.150
  • CRETANS, MANY OF THEM
  • 00:05:08.150 --> 00:05:10.170
  • SPEAKING DIFFERENT
  • 00:05:10.170 --> 00:05:12.000
  • LANGUAGES, AND THEY
  • 00:05:12.000 --> 00:05:12.240
  • CERTAINLY WOULD'VE BEEN
  • 00:05:13.240 --> 00:05:16.240
  • FAMILIAR WITH THE FACT
  • 00:05:16.240 --> 00:05:18.210
  • THAT THERE WERE THREE
  • 00:05:18.210 --> 00:05:19.100
  • CRIMINALS CRUCIFIED.
  • 00:05:19.100 --> 00:05:21.120
  • MANY OF THEM WOULD'VE
  • 00:05:21.290 --> 00:05:24.290
  • CAUGHT WIND.
  • 00:05:24.290 --> 00:05:25.150
  • IT'S BEEN RUMORED,
  • 00:05:25.150 --> 00:05:26.000
  • "JESUS, HE'S MISSING.
  • 00:05:26.000 --> 00:05:26.260
  • HE'S NO LONGER IN THE TOMB."
  • 00:05:26.260 --> 00:05:28.230
  • AND THERE'S A BIG SCANDAL,
  • 00:05:28.230 --> 00:05:31.080
  • OR PEOPLE SAID THAT THEY'VE
  • 00:05:31.080 --> 00:05:32.260
  • SEEN HIM, AND IT WAS
  • 00:05:32.260 --> 00:05:34.190
  • THE JUICIEST STORY
  • 00:05:34.190 --> 00:05:36.240
  • FOR THEM WHETHER THEY
  • 00:05:36.240 --> 00:05:38.110
  • - DENNIS: WHEN THE DAY OF
  • 00:05:41.290 --> 00:05:42.270
  • PENTECOST HAD FULLY COME,
  • 00:05:42.270 --> 00:05:43.190
  • THEY WERE ALL WITH ONE
  • 00:05:43.190 --> 00:05:44.120
  • ACCORD IN ONE PLACE.
  • 00:05:44.120 --> 00:05:46.240
  • AND SUDDENLY THERE CAME A
  • 00:05:46.240 --> 00:05:48.170
  • SOUND FROM HEAVEN, AS A
  • 00:05:48.170 --> 00:05:50.180
  • RUSHING MIGHTY WIND, AND
  • 00:05:50.180 --> 00:05:51.230
  • IT FILLED THE WHOLE HOUSE
  • 00:05:51.230 --> 00:05:54.050
  • WHERE THEY WERE SITTING.
  • 00:05:58.030 --> 00:06:01.050
  • THEN THERE APPEARED TO
  • 00:06:01.050 --> 00:06:01.220
  • THEM DIVIDED TONGUES, AS A
  • 00:06:01.220 --> 00:06:02.110
  • FIRE, AND ONE SAT UPON
  • 00:06:02.110 --> 00:06:03.290
  • EACH OF THEM.
  • 00:06:06.270 --> 00:06:09.270
  • THEY WERE ALL FILLED WITH
  • 00:06:09.270 --> 00:06:11.200
  • THE HOLY SPIRIT AND BEGAN
  • 00:06:11.200 --> 00:06:12.170
  • TO SPEAK WITH OTHER
  • 00:06:12.170 --> 00:06:14.160
  • TONGUES, AS THE SPIRIT
  • 00:06:14.160 --> 00:06:15.130
  • GAVE THEM UTTERANCE.
  • 00:06:15.130 --> 00:06:16.290
  • AND THERE WERE DWELLING IN
  • 00:06:16.290 --> 00:06:17.210
  • JERUSALEM JEWS, DEVOUT
  • 00:06:17.210 --> 00:06:19.250
  • MEN, FROM EVERY NATION
  • 00:06:19.250 --> 00:06:20.260
  • UNDER HEAVEN.
  • 00:06:20.260 --> 00:06:23.060
  • AND WHEN THIS SOUND
  • 00:06:23.060 --> 00:06:23.230
  • OCCURRED, THE MULTITUDE
  • 00:06:23.230 --> 00:06:24.260
  • CAME TOGETHER, AND WERE
  • 00:06:24.260 --> 00:06:26.040
  • CONFUSED, BECAUSE EVERYONE
  • 00:06:26.040 --> 00:06:27.120
  • HEARD THEM SPEAK IN HIS
  • 00:06:27.120 --> 00:06:28.290
  • OWN LANGUAGE.
  • 00:06:29.080 --> 00:06:32.080
  • THEN THEY WERE ALL AMAZED
  • 00:06:32.080 --> 00:06:33.140
  • AND MARVELED, SAYING TO
  • 00:06:33.140 --> 00:06:35.010
  • ONE ANOTHER, "LOOK, ARE
  • 00:06:35.010 --> 00:06:36.030
  • NOT ALL THESE WHO
  • 00:06:36.030 --> 00:06:37.120
  • SPEAK GALILEANS?
  • 00:06:37.120 --> 00:06:39.160
  • AND HOW IS IT THAT EACH OF
  • 00:06:39.160 --> 00:06:40.220
  • US HEARS OUR OWN LANGUAGE
  • 00:06:40.220 --> 00:06:42.070
  • IN WHICH WE WERE BORN?"
  • 00:06:42.070 --> 00:06:44.030
  • - JUSTO L. GONZALEZ:
  • 00:06:44.030 --> 00:06:46.270
  • PENTECOST, ááGOD, ááTHE
  • 00:06:46.270 --> 00:06:48.220
  • ááSPIRIT,
  • 00:06:48.220 --> 00:06:49.290
  • WANTED TO DO WAS TO MAKE
  • 00:06:49.290 --> 00:06:50.250
  • EVERYBODY UNDERSTAND.
  • 00:06:50.250 --> 00:06:51.120
  • THE SPIRIT HAVE TWO
  • 00:06:51.120 --> 00:06:53.000
  • CHOICES: ONE CHOICE WOULD
  • 00:06:53.000 --> 00:06:54.000
  • BE TO MAKE EVERYBODY
  • 00:06:54.000 --> 00:06:54.170
  • UNDERSTAND THE LANGUAGE OF
  • 00:06:54.170 --> 00:06:55.100
  • THE APOSTLES.
  • 00:06:55.100 --> 00:06:56.030
  • THE OTHER CHOICE WAS TO
  • 00:06:56.030 --> 00:06:56.250
  • HAVE EVERYBODY UNDERSTAND
  • 00:06:56.250 --> 00:06:57.220
  • - JUSTO: AND THE SPIRIT
  • 00:07:03.010 --> 00:07:03.220
  • CHOOSES THE SECOND ONE,
  • 00:07:03.220 --> 00:07:04.150
  • AND I THINK THAT'S NORMAL
  • 00:07:04.150 --> 00:07:05.120
  • THING FOR CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:07:05.120 --> 00:07:06.210
  • BECAUSE PART OF WHAT
  • 00:07:06.210 --> 00:07:07.270
  • HAPPENS IS THAT FROM THE
  • 00:07:07.270 --> 00:07:08.240
  • VERY BEGINNING,
  • 00:07:08.240 --> 00:07:09.220
  • CHRISTIANITY HAS BEEN
  • 00:07:09.220 --> 00:07:10.140
  • TRANSLATABLE.
  • 00:07:10.140 --> 00:07:12.130
  • WHEN I HAVE A BIBLE IN
  • 00:07:12.130 --> 00:07:13.000
  • SPANISH, I DON'T SAY TO
  • 00:07:13.000 --> 00:07:14.080
  • MYSELF, "THIS IS
  • 00:07:14.080 --> 00:07:16.040
  • TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE."
  • 00:07:16.090 --> 00:07:19.090
  • WELL, THERE'S SOMETHING ABOUT
  • 00:07:21.130 --> 00:07:22.040
  • IT THAT MAKES IT ADAPTABLE
  • 00:07:22.040 --> 00:07:23.050
  • TO DIFFERENT CULTURES.
  • 00:07:23.050 --> 00:07:26.010
  • 00:07:26.010 --> 00:07:27.100
  • - DENNIS: THE REST OF
  • 00:07:27.100 --> 00:07:27.270
  • ACTS CHAPTER 2, REPORTS
  • 00:07:27.270 --> 00:07:28.210
  • HOW PETER SPOKE BOLDLY TO
  • 00:07:28.210 --> 00:07:30.010
  • THE CROWD IN THE FIRST
  • 00:07:30.010 --> 00:07:31.160
  • PUBLIC PROCLAMATION OF THE
  • 00:07:31.250 --> 00:07:34.250
  • GOSPEL AND THAT 3.000
  • 00:07:34.250 --> 00:07:35.240
  • SOULS WERE ADDED TO
  • 00:07:35.240 --> 00:07:36.190
  • JESUS'S FOLLOWERS THAT DAY.
  • 00:07:36.260 --> 00:07:39.260
  • - DIARMAID MACCULLOCH:
  • 00:07:39.260 --> 00:07:40.140
  • THEY FOUND SOMETHING
  • 00:07:40.140 --> 00:07:41.010
  • EXTRAORDINARY AND NEW,
  • 00:07:41.010 --> 00:07:43.240
  • WHICH WAS THAT PROPHECIES
  • 00:07:43.240 --> 00:07:44.140
  • WHICH THE JEWS AMONG THEM
  • 00:07:44.140 --> 00:07:46.270
  • HAD HEARD FROM CHILDHOOD
  • 00:07:46.270 --> 00:07:48.060
  • HAD NOW BEEN FULFILLED IN
  • 00:07:48.060 --> 00:07:50.090
  • A TOTALLY UNEXPECTED WAY
  • 00:07:50.090 --> 00:07:52.030
  • IN A PERSON WHO HAD LEFT
  • 00:07:52.030 --> 00:07:53.270
  • SAYINGS WHICH THEY WOULD
  • 00:07:54.140 --> 00:07:57.140
  • SPREAD THROUGH THE REST OF
  • 00:07:57.140 --> 00:07:59.080
  • THE WORLD, AND SO QUICKLY,
  • 00:07:59.080 --> 00:08:00.050
  • THEY GOT THE SENSE THAT
  • 00:08:00.050 --> 00:08:01.130
  • THIS WAS NOT JUST A
  • 00:08:01.130 --> 00:08:02.090
  • MESSAGE FOR THEIR JEWISH PAST.
  • 00:08:02.210 --> 00:08:05.210
  • IT WAS A MESSAGE FOR ALL
  • 00:08:05.210 --> 00:08:06.120
  • PEOPLE ANYWHERE.
  • 00:08:06.140 --> 00:08:09.140
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:08:09.140 --> 00:08:12.070
  • - JERRY: JUST AS THE
  • 00:08:12.070 --> 00:08:12.240
  • UPPER ROOM AND THE
  • 00:08:12.240 --> 00:08:13.200
  • OUTPOURING OF THE HOLY
  • 00:08:13.200 --> 00:08:15.110
  • SPIRIT SIGNIFIES A MAJOR
  • 00:08:15.110 --> 00:08:16.240
  • MOMENT IN THE SPREAD OF
  • 00:08:16.240 --> 00:08:18.090
  • CHRISTIANITY, SO DOES PETER,
  • 00:08:18.090 --> 00:08:20.200
  • GOING TO THE HOUSE OF CORNELIUS,
  • 00:08:20.200 --> 00:08:21.210
  • A NON-JEWISH FAMILY.
  • 00:08:22.090 --> 00:08:25.090
  • THAT WAS FORBIDDEN IN
  • 00:08:25.090 --> 00:08:26.000
  • JEWISH PRACTICE.
  • 00:08:26.280 --> 00:08:29.280
  • NOT ONLY DID THEY BELIEVE
  • 00:08:29.280 --> 00:08:30.280
  • IN THE FIRST GENTILE
  • 00:08:30.280 --> 00:08:33.030
  • CONVERTS WE KNOW OF,
  • 00:08:33.030 --> 00:08:34.050
  • THERE MAY BEEN OTHERS.
  • 00:08:34.050 --> 00:08:35.080
  • IT WAS THE FIRST RECORDED.
  • 00:08:36.140 --> 00:08:39.140
  • WHEN HE'S WITH THE
  • 00:08:39.140 --> 00:08:41.120
  • DISCIPLES AGAIN,
  • 00:08:41.120 --> 00:08:42.130
  • SOME THINK THAT HE BLEW IT,
  • 00:08:42.130 --> 00:08:43.030
  • HE WENT OFF THE RAILS A
  • 00:08:43.030 --> 00:08:44.110
  • BIT-- WERE QUESTIONING IT,
  • 00:08:45.260 --> 00:08:48.260
  • AND SO YOU SEE THIS TENSION.
  • 00:08:48.260 --> 00:08:51.030
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:08:51.030 --> 00:08:53.160
  • - JERRY: UP UNTIL THIS
  • 00:08:53.160 --> 00:08:54.040
  • POINT, ONLY JEWS COULD
  • 00:08:54.040 --> 00:08:55.040
  • BECOME CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:08:55.150 --> 00:08:58.150
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:08:58.150 --> 00:09:00.150
  • - NARRATOR AS PETER:
  • 00:09:00.150 --> 00:09:02.090
  • "AS I BEGAN TO SPEAK, THE
  • 00:09:02.090 --> 00:09:03.050
  • HOLY SPIRIT FELL ON THEM,
  • 00:09:03.050 --> 00:09:05.110
  • JUST AS ON US, AT THE
  • 00:09:05.110 --> 00:09:06.010
  • BEGINNING."
  • 00:09:06.070 --> 00:09:09.070
  • "AND I REMEMBERED THE WORD OF
  • 00:09:09.070 --> 00:09:10.010
  • THE LORD, HOW HE SAID,
  • 00:09:10.010 --> 00:09:11.050
  • 'JOHN BAPTIZED WITH WATER,
  • 00:09:11.050 --> 00:09:12.240
  • BUT YOU WILL BE BAPTIZED
  • 00:09:12.240 --> 00:09:14.200
  • WITH THE HOLY SPIRIT.'
  • 00:09:15.040 --> 00:09:18.040
  • IF THEN GOD GAVE THE SAME
  • 00:09:18.040 --> 00:09:19.090
  • GIFT TO THEM AS HE GAVE TO
  • 00:09:19.090 --> 00:09:21.050
  • US WHEN WE BELIEVED IN THE
  • 00:09:21.050 --> 00:09:22.110
  • LORD JESUS CHRIST, WHO WAS
  • 00:09:22.110 --> 00:09:23.220
  • I, THAT I COULD STAND IN
  • 00:09:23.220 --> 00:09:25.040
  • - JERRY: AROUND A.D. 49-50,
  • 00:09:38.090 --> 00:09:39.270
  • WE KNOW THERE'S A GATHERING
  • 00:09:39.270 --> 00:09:41.040
  • IN JERUSALEM ABOUT WHAT
  • 00:09:41.040 --> 00:09:42.110
  • GENTILE CONVERTS
  • 00:09:42.110 --> 00:09:43.170
  • NEED TO DO.
  • 00:09:43.170 --> 00:09:45.020
  • JAMES SUMS IT UP, IF YOU
  • 00:09:45.020 --> 00:09:46.070
  • WILL, TO SAY THAT GENTILE
  • 00:09:46.070 --> 00:09:47.260
  • CONVERTS DON'T NEED TO GO
  • 00:09:47.260 --> 00:09:49.010
  • THROUGH ALL THE RITUALS OF
  • 00:09:49.010 --> 00:09:51.000
  • THE JEWS.
  • 00:09:51.000 --> 00:09:53.090
  • - JUSTO: I THINK JESUS
  • 00:09:53.090 --> 00:09:53.270
  • ALWAYS SHOWED COMPASSION
  • 00:09:53.270 --> 00:09:55.000
  • FOR ALL, BUT ESPECIALLY
  • 00:09:55.120 --> 00:09:58.120
  • FOR THOSE PEOPLE THAT
  • 00:09:58.120 --> 00:09:59.090
  • NOBODY CARED FOR.
  • 00:09:59.090 --> 00:10:00.200
  • - CATHERINE GUNSALUS
  • 00:10:00.200 --> 00:10:01.250
  • GONZALEZ: I THINK IT WAS
  • 00:10:01.250 --> 00:10:02.130
  • ALONG WITH HIS INCLUSION
  • 00:10:02.130 --> 00:10:03.150
  • OF OTHERS, SEEING PEOPLE
  • 00:10:03.150 --> 00:10:04.030
  • THAT THE REST OF SOCIETY
  • 00:10:04.030 --> 00:10:05.050
  • DID NOT SEE AS FULLY
  • 00:10:05.050 --> 00:10:06.080
  • HUMAN, SEEING THEM AS
  • 00:10:06.080 --> 00:10:07.190
  • FULLY HUMAN, WHETHER IT
  • 00:10:07.190 --> 00:10:09.070
  • WAS LEPERS, WHETHER IT WAS
  • 00:10:09.070 --> 00:10:11.050
  • THE BLIND, WHETHER IT WAS
  • 00:10:11.050 --> 00:10:12.190
  • CHILDREN, AND,
  • 00:10:12.190 --> 00:10:14.030
  • UNFORTUNATELY, WOMEN FELL
  • 00:10:14.030 --> 00:10:14.250
  • IN THAT CATEGORY.
  • 00:10:14.250 --> 00:10:16.090
  • WHAT PEOPLE HAVE DONE
  • 00:10:16.090 --> 00:10:18.180
  • ABOUT STATISTICS IN THE
  • 00:10:18.180 --> 00:10:19.160
  • EARLY CHURCH IS PROBABLY
  • 00:10:19.160 --> 00:10:21.010
  • - JUSTO: WE HAVE NOT
  • 00:10:26.030 --> 00:10:26.290
  • LEARNED HOW TO SEE WHAT
  • 00:10:26.290 --> 00:10:27.240
  • THE GOSPEL SAY ABOUT WOMEN
  • 00:10:27.240 --> 00:10:28.190
  • UNTIL VERY RECENTLY
  • 00:10:28.190 --> 00:10:29.130
  • BECAUSE MOST
  • 00:10:29.130 --> 00:10:31.180
  • INTERPRETATION WAS ALL BY
  • 00:10:31.180 --> 00:10:32.240
  • MEN, AND THAT'S WHY THE
  • 00:10:32.240 --> 00:10:34.100
  • CHILDREN ARE SO IMPORTANT.
  • 00:10:34.100 --> 00:10:35.100
  • WE TEND TO THINK THAT THE
  • 00:10:35.100 --> 00:10:36.140
  • CHILDREN AREN'T
  • 00:10:36.140 --> 00:10:37.030
  • IMPORTANT IN THE GOSPELS
  • 00:10:37.030 --> 00:10:37.280
  • BECAUSE THEY'RE LITTLE--
  • 00:10:37.280 --> 00:10:39.200
  • YOU KNOW, THEY'RE SO CUTE.
  • 00:10:39.200 --> 00:10:40.190
  • AND SO, NO, IT'S BECAUSE
  • 00:10:40.190 --> 00:10:41.120
  • THEY'RE CONSIDERED NOBODY.
  • 00:10:41.120 --> 00:10:42.190
  • AND THE SAME THING
  • 00:10:42.190 --> 00:10:45.020
  • - CATHERINE: IN THE EARLY
  • 00:10:49.130 --> 00:10:50.020
  • CHURCH, SO MUCH OF MISSION
  • 00:10:50.020 --> 00:10:51.110
  • WAS IN THE LIFESTYLE.
  • 00:10:51.110 --> 00:10:54.050
  • IT WAS THE SENSE OF
  • 00:10:54.050 --> 00:10:56.020
  • SECURITY AND JOY IN PEOPLE
  • 00:10:56.020 --> 00:10:56.210
  • THAT YOU DIDN'T EXPECT
  • 00:10:56.210 --> 00:10:57.210
  • THAT, THEN, SOMEONE COULD
  • 00:10:57.210 --> 00:10:58.150
  • SAY, "I WANT WHAT YOU
  • 00:10:58.150 --> 00:11:00.090
  • HAVE, SO HOW DO I GET IT?"
  • 00:11:00.090 --> 00:11:02.150
  • IT'S THAT KIND OF MISSION
  • 00:11:02.150 --> 00:11:03.250
  • WHICH IS PEOPLE ASKING YOU
  • 00:11:03.250 --> 00:11:05.230
  • ABOUT CHRISTIANITY, AND I
  • 00:11:05.230 --> 00:11:07.020
  • THINK THAT'S WHAT HELPED
  • 00:11:07.030 --> 00:11:10.030
  • THE EARLY CHURCH GROW RAPIDLY.
  • 00:11:10.160 --> 00:11:13.160
  • - JERRY: FOR MANY OF THE
  • 00:11:13.160 --> 00:11:14.100
  • CHRISTIANS, THEY WOULD ALL
  • 00:11:14.100 --> 00:11:15.080
  • GATHER SOMEPLACE EACH
  • 00:11:15.080 --> 00:11:15.260
  • MORNING AND HAVE
  • 00:11:15.260 --> 00:11:16.250
  • COMMUNION, SO IT WAS IN
  • 00:11:16.250 --> 00:11:18.140
  • DIFFERENT HOUSES.
  • 00:11:19.280 --> 00:11:22.280
  • - JUSTO: WHEN YOU'RE
  • 00:11:22.280 --> 00:11:23.150
  • TALKING ABOUT JESUS BEING
  • 00:11:23.150 --> 00:11:24.110
  • INCLUSIVE, I THINK WE ALSO HAVE
  • 00:11:24.110 --> 00:11:26.060
  • TO TALK ABOUT THE FINAL
  • 00:11:26.060 --> 00:11:27.040
  • INCLUSIVITY OF HIS LAST
  • 00:11:27.040 --> 00:11:28.140
  • MESSAGE FOR THE DISCIPLES,
  • 00:11:28.140 --> 00:11:30.070
  • "GO YE THEREFORE," BUT
  • 00:11:30.070 --> 00:11:32.010
  • "THEREFORE" REQUIRES
  • 00:11:32.010 --> 00:11:33.000
  • SOMETHING BEFORE THAT.
  • 00:11:33.000 --> 00:11:35.040
  • AND HE SAYS, "ALL POWER IS
  • 00:11:35.040 --> 00:11:36.060
  • GIVEN TO ME IN HEAVEN AND
  • 00:11:36.060 --> 00:11:37.110
  • OF EARTH," WHICH MEANS
  • 00:11:37.110 --> 00:11:39.110
  • JESUS IS NOT TELLING THE
  • 00:11:39.110 --> 00:11:40.280
  • DISCIPLES,
  • 00:11:40.280 --> 00:11:42.140
  • "GO AND TAKE ME PLACES."
  • 00:11:42.140 --> 00:11:43.280
  • JESUS IS TELLING
  • 00:11:43.280 --> 00:11:45.010
  • THE DISCIPLES,
  • 00:11:45.010 --> 00:11:46.110
  • "I'M ALREADY THERE, SO GO AND
  • 00:11:46.110 --> 00:11:47.130
  • - DIARMAID: IN THE BOOK
  • 00:12:01.150 --> 00:12:02.030
  • OF ACTS OF THE APOSTLES,
  • 00:12:02.030 --> 00:12:02.270
  • PHILIP HAS AN ENCOUNTER
  • 00:12:02.270 --> 00:12:03.150
  • WITH AN ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH.
  • 00:12:03.150 --> 00:12:04.260
  • HE WAS THE MOST EXOTIC
  • 00:12:04.260 --> 00:12:06.210
  • PERSON A JEW COULD
  • 00:12:06.210 --> 00:12:09.170
  • CONCEIVE OF, AND HERE IS A
  • 00:12:09.170 --> 00:12:11.270
  • CONVERSATION BETWEEN ONE
  • 00:12:11.270 --> 00:12:14.010
  • OF THE VERY FIRST APOSTLES
  • 00:12:14.010 --> 00:12:15.010
  • AND THIS FIGURE WHO IS
  • 00:12:15.010 --> 00:12:16.230
  • FULL OF CURIOSITY.
  • 00:12:16.230 --> 00:12:18.120
  • SOMEHOW, HE HAS PICKED UP
  • 00:12:18.120 --> 00:12:20.200
  • THE HEBREW SCRIPTURES,
  • 00:12:20.200 --> 00:12:22.040
  • WHICH HAVE PROPHECIES IN THEM.
  • 00:12:22.110 --> 00:12:25.110
  • HE TALKS TO THE STRANGER,
  • 00:12:25.110 --> 00:12:26.180
  • AND THE REST IS HISTORY.
  • 00:12:26.180 --> 00:12:28.120
  • IT'S SET TO DIRECTION.
  • 00:12:28.120 --> 00:12:30.110
  • HERE WAS A MESSAGE FOR THE
  • 00:12:30.110 --> 00:12:31.150
  • - JOYCE FRANCOIS: QUITE
  • 00:12:36.080 --> 00:12:36.260
  • BIBLICALLY, THE GREAT
  • 00:12:36.260 --> 00:12:38.100
  • ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH IN THE
  • 00:12:38.100 --> 00:12:39.080
  • NEW TESTAMENT, PUSHED
  • 00:12:39.080 --> 00:12:40.080
  • CHRISTIANITY INTO NORTH
  • 00:12:40.080 --> 00:12:41.240
  • AFRICA BEFORE PAUL STARTED
  • 00:12:41.240 --> 00:12:43.070
  • - JOYCE: I WOULD TAKE THAT
  • 00:12:50.220 --> 00:12:51.140
  • - JOYCE: NORTH OF AFRICA
  • 00:12:55.080 --> 00:12:55.270
  • HAD CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:12:55.270 --> 00:12:56.180
  • IN FACT, THE GREAT
  • 00:12:56.180 --> 00:12:57.040
  • CHRISTIAN SCHOLARS,
  • 00:12:57.040 --> 00:12:57.290
  • ORIGEN, TERTULLIAN,
  • 00:12:57.290 --> 00:12:58.230
  • CLEMENT, THEY WERE ALL
  • 00:12:58.230 --> 00:12:59.130
  • - DIARMAID: THESE PEOPLE
  • 00:13:05.160 --> 00:13:06.050
  • WHO WERE TRADERS WHO MOVED
  • 00:13:06.050 --> 00:13:07.260
  • NATURALLY ALONG TRADE
  • 00:13:07.260 --> 00:13:09.170
  • ROUTES-- AND THAT'S
  • 00:13:09.170 --> 00:13:10.190
  • CLEARLY TRUE IN THE EARLY
  • 00:13:10.190 --> 00:13:12.170
  • CHURCH IN ETHIOPIA BECAUSE
  • 00:13:12.170 --> 00:13:13.280
  • ITS CHRISTIANITY IS REALLY
  • 00:13:13.280 --> 00:13:15.060
  • FROM ACROSS THE RED SEA.
  • 00:13:16.020 --> 00:13:19.020
  • IT'S NOT FROM THE NORTH.
  • 00:13:19.020 --> 00:13:19.270
  • IT'S FROM SYRIAC SOURCES,
  • 00:13:19.270 --> 00:13:22.260
  • ARAB SOURCES.
  • 00:13:22.260 --> 00:13:24.210
  • YOU CAN SEE THE TRADE
  • 00:13:24.210 --> 00:13:25.130
  • ROUTES ALREADY THERE.
  • 00:13:25.130 --> 00:13:26.250
  • YOU CAN SEE IT IN THE
  • 00:13:26.250 --> 00:13:27.120
  • DISTRIBUTION OF COINS,
  • 00:13:27.120 --> 00:13:28.180
  • - MICHAEL HOLMES:
  • 00:13:33.140 --> 00:13:34.100
  • LITERACY IS FAIRLY LOW,
  • 00:13:34.100 --> 00:13:35.100
  • AND SO INFORMATION SPREAD
  • 00:13:35.100 --> 00:13:36.090
  • ORALLY.
  • 00:13:36.090 --> 00:13:38.150
  • THERE'S EVIDENCE OF THE
  • 00:13:38.150 --> 00:13:39.070
  • GOSPEL REACHING INDIA.
  • 00:13:39.070 --> 00:13:41.030
  • THERE'S EVIDENCE OF THE
  • 00:13:41.030 --> 00:13:41.270
  • GOSPEL FOLLOWING A SILK
  • 00:13:41.270 --> 00:13:43.130
  • ROAD, ALL THE WAY TO
  • 00:13:43.130 --> 00:13:44.060
  • WESTERN CHINA, BUT WE HAVE
  • 00:13:44.060 --> 00:13:45.090
  • THE EVIDENCE OF WHERE IT
  • 00:13:45.090 --> 00:13:46.120
  • REACHED WITHOUT HAVING
  • 00:13:46.120 --> 00:13:47.270
  • MUCH ABOUT THE EVIDENCE OF
  • 00:13:47.270 --> 00:13:49.230
  • HOW OR WHERE IT STARTED OR
  • 00:13:49.230 --> 00:13:51.210
  • HOW IT MOVED ALONG THE WAY.
  • 00:13:51.210 --> 00:13:53.030
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:13:53.110 --> 00:13:56.110
  • - JONATHAN KIRKPATRICK:
  • 00:13:56.110 --> 00:13:56.290
  • WE KNOW MOST ABOUT PAUL'S
  • 00:13:56.290 --> 00:13:57.270
  • MISSION.
  • 00:13:57.270 --> 00:13:58.270
  • WE KNOW HE WAS EXTREMELY
  • 00:13:58.270 --> 00:13:59.260
  • PERSUASIVE.
  • 00:13:59.260 --> 00:14:01.200
  • HE WAS A MAN WHO WAS A
  • 00:14:01.200 --> 00:14:02.170
  • CONVERT, SO HE PERSECUTED
  • 00:14:02.170 --> 00:14:04.080
  • THE FLEDGLING CHRISTIAN
  • 00:14:04.080 --> 00:14:06.100
  • FAITH, AND HE'D HAD A
  • 00:14:06.100 --> 00:14:07.010
  • GREAT CHANGE OF MIND, AND
  • 00:14:07.010 --> 00:14:08.280
  • OFTEN PEOPLE LIKE THAT ARE
  • 00:14:08.280 --> 00:14:09.240
  • THE MOST CONVINCING.
  • 00:14:09.240 --> 00:14:10.280
  • HE TRAVELED GREATLY.
  • 00:14:10.280 --> 00:14:13.140
  • WE'VE GOT TO REMEMBER THAT
  • 00:14:13.140 --> 00:14:14.090
  • PALESTINE WAS IN THE
  • 00:14:14.090 --> 00:14:15.040
  • CONTEXT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
  • 00:14:15.040 --> 00:14:16.160
  • PEOPLE WERE MOVING
  • 00:14:16.160 --> 00:14:18.030
  • THROUGHOUT THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
  • 00:14:18.030 --> 00:14:19.060
  • THE JEWS, FOR SEVERAL
  • 00:14:19.060 --> 00:14:20.090
  • CENTURIES, HAD BEEN MOVING
  • 00:14:20.090 --> 00:14:21.040
  • ALL OVER.
  • 00:14:21.040 --> 00:14:22.200
  • THERE WAS A COMMUNITY OF
  • 00:14:22.200 --> 00:14:23.090
  • JEWS IN ROME.
  • 00:14:23.090 --> 00:14:24.060
  • THERE WAS A BIG COMMUNITY
  • 00:14:24.060 --> 00:14:25.090
  • OF JEWS IN ALEXANDRIA, AND
  • 00:14:25.090 --> 00:14:26.250
  • PAUL WAS LATCHING ON TO
  • 00:14:26.250 --> 00:14:28.050
  • THAT NETWORK WHEN HE TRAVELED.
  • 00:14:28.050 --> 00:14:30.030
  • HE WOULD GO TO THE
  • 00:14:30.030 --> 00:14:33.020
  • - MICHAEL: CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:14:40.100 --> 00:14:40.280
  • EMERGED FROM JUDAISM.
  • 00:14:40.280 --> 00:14:41.280
  • IT WAS BORN WITH
  • 00:14:41.280 --> 00:14:43.010
  • SCRIPTURES, THE JEWISH
  • 00:14:43.010 --> 00:14:43.200
  • SCRIPTURES, AS ITS SACRED
  • 00:14:43.200 --> 00:14:45.150
  • WRITINGS, AND THEY READ
  • 00:14:45.150 --> 00:14:47.220
  • THEM AS PART OF THEIR SERVICES.
  • 00:14:47.220 --> 00:14:48.260
  • HE ALSO TOLD THE STORY
  • 00:14:48.260 --> 00:14:50.160
  • OF JESUS.
  • 00:14:50.160 --> 00:14:53.020
  • EVENTUALLY, THOSE STORIES
  • 00:14:53.020 --> 00:14:53.260
  • ABOUT JESUS GOT WRITTEN
  • 00:14:53.260 --> 00:14:55.000
  • DOWN IN GOSPELS, WRITTEN
  • 00:14:55.000 --> 00:14:56.050
  • BOOKS THAT GOT READ EVERY
  • 00:14:56.050 --> 00:14:57.170
  • SUNDAY, JUST LIKE THE
  • 00:14:57.170 --> 00:14:58.250
  • JEWISH SCRIPTURES.
  • 00:14:58.250 --> 00:15:00.260
  • YOU ALSO HAD LETTERS FROM
  • 00:15:00.260 --> 00:15:01.260
  • EARLY CHRISTIAN LEADERS
  • 00:15:01.260 --> 00:15:03.050
  • LIKE PAUL OR PETER OR
  • 00:15:03.050 --> 00:15:04.180
  • JOHN, AND YOU HAD THOSE IN
  • 00:15:04.180 --> 00:15:07.120
  • WRITTEN FORM, AND THEY GOT
  • 00:15:07.120 --> 00:15:08.220
  • READ IN THE SERVICES LIKE
  • 00:15:08.220 --> 00:15:10.020
  • - JONATHAN: ONE THING TO
  • 00:15:15.270 --> 00:15:16.180
  • SAY ABOUT PAGAN RELIGION,
  • 00:15:16.180 --> 00:15:17.280
  • AS WE CALL IT AT THIS
  • 00:15:17.280 --> 00:15:19.040
  • TIME, IS THAT IT WAS OFTEN
  • 00:15:19.040 --> 00:15:20.110
  • VERY LOCAL, SO THERE WAS A
  • 00:15:20.110 --> 00:15:21.190
  • STRONG SENSE OF ETHNIC
  • 00:15:21.190 --> 00:15:23.130
  • IDENTITY WHERE PEOPLE FROM
  • 00:15:23.130 --> 00:15:24.210
  • A PARTICULAR TOWN OR A
  • 00:15:24.210 --> 00:15:25.220
  • PARTICULAR REGION WOULD
  • 00:15:25.220 --> 00:15:27.070
  • HAVE THEIR OWN PARTICULAR
  • 00:15:27.070 --> 00:15:28.030
  • GODS, AND I THINK PEOPLE
  • 00:15:28.030 --> 00:15:30.050
  • WHO'D MOVED AROUND THE
  • 00:15:30.050 --> 00:15:31.100
  • ROMAN EMPIRE MAY WELL HAVE
  • 00:15:31.100 --> 00:15:33.030
  • FELT DISLOCATED.
  • 00:15:33.030 --> 00:15:34.110
  • THEY WOULDN'T NECESSARILY
  • 00:15:34.110 --> 00:15:35.060
  • BE ATTACHED TO THE LOCAL
  • 00:15:35.060 --> 00:15:36.290
  • RELIGIOUS TRADITION, AND
  • 00:15:36.290 --> 00:15:38.010
  • CHRISTIANITY PROVIDED A
  • 00:15:38.010 --> 00:15:39.130
  • SENSE OF ALLEGIANCE TO A
  • 00:15:39.130 --> 00:15:41.190
  • GOD WHO IS UNIVERSAL.
  • 00:15:41.190 --> 00:15:42.290
  • HE WASN'T THE GOD JUST OF
  • 00:15:42.290 --> 00:15:44.260
  • EPHESUS OR THE GOD JUST OF
  • 00:15:44.260 --> 00:15:46.080
  • CORINTH, OR THE GOD JUST
  • 00:15:46.080 --> 00:15:47.280
  • OF ALEXANDRIA.
  • 00:15:47.280 --> 00:15:48.250
  • WHEN PAUL WENT AROUND, HE
  • 00:15:48.250 --> 00:15:50.150
  • WAS ABLE TO SAY THAT THE
  • 00:15:50.150 --> 00:15:51.270
  • GOD HE WAS PREACHING WAS A
  • 00:15:51.270 --> 00:15:53.160
  • CREATOR GOD, A SAVIOR GOD,
  • 00:15:53.160 --> 00:15:55.260
  • A RULER GOD THROUGHOUT THE
  • 00:15:55.260 --> 00:15:57.280
  • WORLD, AND THAT WAS A
  • 00:15:57.280 --> 00:15:59.030
  • MESSAGE THAT CLEARLY FOUND
  • 00:15:59.030 --> 00:16:00.040
  • AN AUDIENCE.
  • 00:16:00.040 --> 00:16:03.000
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:16:03.030 --> 00:16:06.030
  • - DAVID L. RIGGS: PAUL, WHEN
  • 00:16:06.030 --> 00:16:07.040
  • HE IS WRITING ABOUT GRACE
  • 00:16:07.040 --> 00:16:09.100
  • IN EVERYDAY LIFE WAS
  • 00:16:09.100 --> 00:16:10.110
  • VERY COMMON.
  • 00:16:10.110 --> 00:16:11.240
  • IT WAS ONE THAT PEOPLE
  • 00:16:11.240 --> 00:16:13.020
  • USED TO DESCRIBE THE
  • 00:16:13.020 --> 00:16:14.030
  • RELATIONSHIPS THAT PEOPLE
  • 00:16:14.030 --> 00:16:15.120
  • HAD WITH THEIR PATRONS,
  • 00:16:15.120 --> 00:16:16.190
  • A FAVOR THAT THAT
  • 00:16:16.190 --> 00:16:18.150
  • PATRON BESTOWED.
  • 00:16:18.150 --> 00:16:20.120
  • THE CLIENT THEN WOULD
  • 00:16:20.120 --> 00:16:23.040
  • RECIPROCATE BY FINDING
  • 00:16:23.040 --> 00:16:24.050
  • WAYS TO EXPRESS GRATITUDE.
  • 00:16:24.050 --> 00:16:25.280
  • SO WHEN YOU HAVE PAUL
  • 00:16:25.280 --> 00:16:26.150
  • USING THIS TERM, AND THEN
  • 00:16:26.150 --> 00:16:27.100
  • YOU HAVE CHRISTIANS LIKE
  • 00:16:27.100 --> 00:16:28.210
  • TERTULLIAN AND CYPRIAN AND
  • 00:16:28.210 --> 00:16:29.160
  • OTHERS IN NORTH AFRICA,
  • 00:16:29.160 --> 00:16:31.160
  • TAKING UP THIS CONCEPT,
  • 00:16:31.160 --> 00:16:32.150
  • IT'S ONE THAT THEY'RE
  • 00:16:32.150 --> 00:16:33.180
  • GIVING A PARTICULAR
  • 00:16:33.180 --> 00:16:34.290
  • CHRISTIAN COMPLEXION TO,
  • 00:16:34.290 --> 00:16:36.220
  • STARTING WITH CREATION.
  • 00:16:36.220 --> 00:16:38.060
  • SO GOD CREATES AS THIS
  • 00:16:38.060 --> 00:16:39.220
  • INVITATION, AS THIS GIFT
  • 00:16:39.220 --> 00:16:41.290
  • THAT INVITES US INTO THIS
  • 00:16:41.290 --> 00:16:44.030
  • GRACE RELATIONSHIP, AND
  • 00:16:44.030 --> 00:16:45.270
  • THEN THEY SEE THE
  • 00:16:45.270 --> 00:16:46.280
  • INCARNATION AND THE WORK
  • 00:16:46.280 --> 00:16:48.000
  • OF CHRIST AS A WAY TO DRAW
  • 00:16:48.000 --> 00:16:49.180
  • US BACK INTO THIS GRACE
  • 00:16:49.180 --> 00:16:51.140
  • RELATIONSHIP, AND THEN
  • 00:16:51.140 --> 00:16:53.120
  • THEY SEE PENTECOST AND THE
  • 00:16:53.120 --> 00:16:54.030
  • OUTPOURING OF THE
  • 00:16:54.030 --> 00:16:55.120
  • HOLY SPIRIT ON THE CHURCH AS
  • 00:16:55.120 --> 00:16:57.290
  • FAVOR THAT'S POURED OUT ON
  • 00:16:57.290 --> 00:16:59.220
  • THE COMMUNITY THAT MAKES
  • 00:16:59.220 --> 00:17:00.240
  • IT A COMMUNITY OF GRACE
  • 00:17:00.240 --> 00:17:02.080
  • THAT THEN MEANS THEY'RE
  • 00:17:02.080 --> 00:17:03.290
  • EMPOWERED BY THE HOLY
  • 00:17:03.290 --> 00:17:04.210
  • SPIRIT TO GIVE BACK.
  • 00:17:04.210 --> 00:17:07.210
  • TO BE AN INGRATE, TO BE
  • 00:17:07.210 --> 00:17:09.070
  • SOMEBODY THAT DID NOT
  • 00:17:09.070 --> 00:17:10.020
  • RECIPROCATE GRACE, WAS ONE
  • 00:17:10.020 --> 00:17:11.000
  • OF THE BIGGEST SINS
  • 00:17:11.000 --> 00:17:12.030
  • ACCORDING TO SENECA IN THE
  • 00:17:12.030 --> 00:17:13.150
  • ROMAN WORLD.
  • 00:17:15.190 --> 00:17:18.190
  • - NARRATOR: "GOD GAVE US
  • 00:17:18.190 --> 00:17:19.080
  • A SPIRIT NOT OF FEAR BUT
  • 00:17:19.080 --> 00:17:20.190
  • OF POWER AND LOVE AND
  • 00:17:20.190 --> 00:17:23.070
  • SELF-CONTROL.
  • 00:17:24.040 --> 00:17:27.040
  • THEREFORE DO NOT BE
  • 00:17:27.040 --> 00:17:28.010
  • ASHAMED OF THE TESTIMONY
  • 00:17:28.010 --> 00:17:29.080
  • ABOUT OUR LORD, NOR OF ME
  • 00:17:29.110 --> 00:17:32.110
  • HIS PRISONER, BUT SHARE IN
  • 00:17:32.110 --> 00:17:33.120
  • THE SUFFERING FOR THE
  • 00:17:33.120 --> 00:17:35.140
  • GOSPEL BY THE POWER OF
  • 00:17:35.140 --> 00:17:38.130
  • GOD, WHO SAVED US AND
  • 00:17:38.130 --> 00:17:40.210
  • CALLED US TO A HOLY
  • 00:17:40.210 --> 00:17:42.250
  • CALLING, NOT BECAUSE OF
  • 00:17:45.070 --> 00:17:48.070
  • OUR WORKS BUT BECAUSE OF
  • 00:17:48.070 --> 00:17:49.060
  • HIS OWN PURPOSE AND GRACE,
  • 00:17:49.060 --> 00:17:50.030
  • WHICH HE GAVE US IN CHRIST
  • 00:17:50.030 --> 00:17:53.020
  • JESUS BEFORE THE AGES
  • 00:17:53.020 --> 00:17:55.020
  • - STANLEY P. ROSENBERG:
  • 00:18:03.010 --> 00:18:03.240
  • ROMAN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
  • 00:18:03.240 --> 00:18:04.130
  • TURNS ON THE NOTION OF THE
  • 00:18:04.130 --> 00:18:05.020
  • "PAX DEORUM,"
  • 00:18:05.020 --> 00:18:06.270
  • THE "PEACE OF THE GODS."
  • 00:18:06.270 --> 00:18:07.150
  • CONSTANTLY IN ANCIENT WORLD,
  • 00:18:07.150 --> 00:18:09.000
  • YOU'RE PLAYING OFF OF THE
  • 00:18:09.000 --> 00:18:09.240
  • CAPRICE OF ONE GOD OFF ANOTHER,
  • 00:18:09.240 --> 00:18:11.070
  • SO IT FLOODS.
  • 00:18:11.070 --> 00:18:12.280
  • WHY IS IT FLOODED?
  • 00:18:12.280 --> 00:18:14.030
  • WELL, PERHAPS YOU HAVE
  • 00:18:14.030 --> 00:18:14.220
  • ANGERED THE GOD OF THE
  • 00:18:14.220 --> 00:18:16.120
  • RAIN OR THE GOD OF THE RIVER.
  • 00:18:16.120 --> 00:18:18.130
  • WHY HAVE YOU DONE THAT?
  • 00:18:18.130 --> 00:18:20.050
  • WELL, PERHAPS YOU'VE GIVEN
  • 00:18:20.050 --> 00:18:20.270
  • TOO MUCH ATTENTION TO THE
  • 00:18:20.270 --> 00:18:21.180
  • GOD OF THE WHEAT.
  • 00:18:21.180 --> 00:18:22.260
  • AND IF SOMETHING IS GOING
  • 00:18:22.260 --> 00:18:23.280
  • WRONG, WELL, SOMEBODY IS
  • 00:18:23.280 --> 00:18:25.180
  • NOT HONORING THE GODS
  • 00:18:25.180 --> 00:18:26.250
  • CORRECTLY, AND THAT WAS
  • 00:18:26.250 --> 00:18:28.050
  • PART OF THE BASIS FOR THE
  • 00:18:28.050 --> 00:18:29.010
  • - DAVID: AND SO, IN A
  • 00:18:32.220 --> 00:18:33.090
  • SENSE, THE BIGGEST FACTOR
  • 00:18:33.090 --> 00:18:35.160
  • AGAINST CHRISTIANITY WAS
  • 00:18:35.160 --> 00:18:36.260
  • NOT THE DESIRE TO WORSHIP
  • 00:18:36.260 --> 00:18:37.290
  • JESUS CHRIST.
  • 00:18:37.290 --> 00:18:39.010
  • THAT WASN'T THAT BIG A
  • 00:18:39.010 --> 00:18:40.100
  • DEAL, BUT IT WAS THEIR
  • 00:18:40.100 --> 00:18:42.240
  • REFUSAL TO WORSHIP THE
  • 00:18:42.240 --> 00:18:43.260
  • GODS ON WHOSE POWER IT WAS
  • 00:18:43.260 --> 00:18:45.260
  • ASSUMED THAT THE
  • 00:18:45.260 --> 00:18:47.200
  • PROSPERITY AND PEACE OF
  • 00:18:47.200 --> 00:18:49.000
  • THE EMPIRE RESTED.
  • 00:18:49.000 --> 00:18:50.210
  • - JERRY: PERHAPS MOST
  • 00:18:50.210 --> 00:18:52.260
  • SENSATIONALIZED STORIES IN
  • 00:18:52.260 --> 00:18:54.180
  • THE HISTORY OF THE EARLY
  • 00:18:54.180 --> 00:18:55.200
  • CHURCHES' EXPANSION IS THE
  • 00:18:55.200 --> 00:18:57.090
  • FIRE OF ROME IN A.D. 64.
  • 00:18:57.090 --> 00:18:58.230
  • IN MANY OF THE ACCOUNTS,
  • 00:18:58.230 --> 00:19:01.100
  • NERO PLACED THE BLAME ON
  • 00:19:01.100 --> 00:19:02.220
  • THESE MEN THAT FOLLOWED
  • 00:19:02.220 --> 00:19:04.140
  • THIS NEW, MISCHIEVOUS
  • 00:19:04.140 --> 00:19:05.220
  • SUPERSTITION, THE
  • 00:19:05.220 --> 00:19:07.020
  • CHRISTIANS, PAUL AND
  • 00:19:07.020 --> 00:19:08.170
  • PETER WERE PUT TO DEATH AT
  • 00:19:08.170 --> 00:19:10.240
  • - NARRATOR: "I'M ALREADY
  • 00:19:15.130 --> 00:19:16.020
  • BEING POURED OUT AS A
  • 00:19:16.020 --> 00:19:17.110
  • DRINK OFFERING, AND THE
  • 00:19:17.110 --> 00:19:18.080
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:19:29.100 --> 00:19:32.100
  • - JONATHAN: WE'RE TOLD BY
  • 00:19:32.100 --> 00:19:32.290
  • THE ROMAN HISTORIAN
  • 00:19:32.290 --> 00:19:33.290
  • TACITUS, THERE MAY HAVE
  • 00:19:33.290 --> 00:19:34.170
  • BEEN POLITICAL MOTIVATIONS
  • 00:19:34.170 --> 00:19:35.110
  • FOR NERO TO SCAPEGOAT
  • 00:19:35.110 --> 00:19:36.120
  • CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:19:36.120 --> 00:19:37.280
  • - JERRY: TACITUS, HE
  • 00:19:37.280 --> 00:19:38.280
  • GIVES US THE ACCOUNT OF
  • 00:19:38.280 --> 00:19:41.010
  • THE HORRIFIC TORTURES THAT
  • 00:19:41.010 --> 00:19:42.260
  • THESE CHRISTIANS AFTER THE
  • 00:19:42.260 --> 00:19:43.200
  • - NARRATOR: I KNOW THAT
  • 00:19:50.010 --> 00:19:50.290
  • THE PUTTING OFF OF MY BODY
  • 00:19:50.290 --> 00:19:52.080
  • WILL BE SOON, AS THE LORD
  • 00:19:52.080 --> 00:19:55.030
  • JESUS CHRIST HAS MADE
  • 00:19:55.030 --> 00:19:55.270
  • CLEAR TO ME.
  • 00:19:55.270 --> 00:19:58.140
  • AND I WILL MAKE EVERY
  • 00:19:58.140 --> 00:20:00.160
  • EFFORT TO SEE THAT, AFTER
  • 00:20:00.160 --> 00:20:01.290
  • MY DEPARTURE, YOU WILL
  • 00:20:01.290 --> 00:20:03.040
  • ALWAYS BE ABLE TO REMEMBER
  • 00:20:03.040 --> 00:20:04.000
  • THESE THINGS."
  • 00:20:04.260 --> 00:20:07.260
  • - JERRY: ONE OF THE THINGS
  • 00:20:07.260 --> 00:20:08.160
  • ABOUT SAINT PETER IS
  • 00:20:08.160 --> 00:20:09.150
  • THAT WE HAVE TWO LETTERS
  • 00:20:09.150 --> 00:20:10.040
  • WRITTEN FROM ROME.
  • 00:20:10.040 --> 00:20:12.190
  • HE'S WRITING THIS RIGHT
  • 00:20:12.190 --> 00:20:13.130
  • BEFORE HIS EXECUTION,
  • 00:20:13.130 --> 00:20:15.000
  • 2 PETER.
  • 00:20:15.000 --> 00:20:17.250
  • - NARRATOR: "WE WERE WITH
  • 00:20:17.250 --> 00:20:18.140
  • HIM ON THE HOLY MOUNTAIN.
  • 00:20:18.140 --> 00:20:19.230
  • AND WE HAVE THE PROPHETIC
  • 00:20:19.230 --> 00:20:21.210
  • WORD MORE FULLY CONFIRMED,
  • 00:20:21.210 --> 00:20:23.210
  • TO WHICH YOU WILL DO WELL
  • 00:20:23.210 --> 00:20:26.040
  • TO PAY ATTENTION TO AS A
  • 00:20:26.040 --> 00:20:27.030
  • LAMP SHINING IN A DARK
  • 00:20:27.030 --> 00:20:28.190
  • PLACE, UNTIL THE DAY DAWNS
  • 00:20:28.190 --> 00:20:30.010
  • AND THE MORNING STAR RISES
  • 00:20:30.010 --> 00:20:31.240
  • IN YOUR HEARTS."
  • 00:20:31.240 --> 00:20:33.180
  • "GROW, BELOVED, IN THE GRACE
  • 00:20:34.030 --> 00:20:37.030
  • AND KNOWLEDGE OF OUR LORD
  • 00:20:37.030 --> 00:20:38.170
  • AND SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST.
  • 00:20:38.170 --> 00:20:40.270
  • TO HIM BE THE GLORY BOTH
  • 00:20:40.270 --> 00:20:42.200
  • NOW AND TO THE DAY OF
  • 00:20:42.200 --> 00:20:44.020
  • ETERNITY."
  • 00:20:45.180 --> 00:20:48.180
  • - JERRY: THE TRADITION
  • 00:20:48.180 --> 00:20:49.160
  • OF PETER'S DEATH
  • 00:20:49.160 --> 00:20:51.080
  • IS THAT HE DIDN'T WANNA
  • 00:20:51.080 --> 00:20:52.140
  • DIE IN THE SAME WAY AS HIS
  • 00:20:52.140 --> 00:20:53.140
  • CHRIST, THAT HE WASN'T
  • 00:20:53.140 --> 00:20:54.260
  • - JERRY: -- SO HE WAS
  • 00:21:06.100 --> 00:21:06.290
  • - JERRY: THERE WAS A
  • 00:21:27.150 --> 00:21:28.020
  • TRACK WITH AN OBELISK AT
  • 00:21:28.020 --> 00:21:28.280
  • THE END THAT THINK
  • 00:21:28.280 --> 00:21:30.160
  • CALIGULA HAD ACTUALLY
  • 00:21:30.160 --> 00:21:32.000
  • BROUGHT TO ROME.
  • 00:21:32.000 --> 00:21:32.280
  • IN ONE OF THE ACCOUNTS, HE
  • 00:21:32.280 --> 00:21:34.100
  • DIES IN THE SHADOW OF THAT
  • 00:21:34.100 --> 00:21:36.010
  • OBELISK.
  • 00:21:36.010 --> 00:21:37.070
  • THE OBELISK IS IN THE
  • 00:21:37.070 --> 00:21:37.240
  • MIDDLE OF ST. PETER'S
  • 00:21:37.240 --> 00:21:38.240
  • - JERRY: EUSEBIUS RECORDS
  • 00:21:44.070 --> 00:21:44.260
  • THESE EARLY TRADITIONS,
  • 00:21:44.260 --> 00:21:45.200
  • TERTULLIAN.
  • 00:21:45.200 --> 00:21:46.200
  • THERE BECOMES A CONSENSUS
  • 00:21:46.200 --> 00:21:49.060
  • AMONG ONE LARGE GROUP OF
  • 00:21:49.090 --> 00:21:52.090
  • CHRISTIANS THAT HE WOULD
  • 00:21:52.090 --> 00:21:53.010
  • BE THE FIRST OFFICIAL
  • 00:21:53.010 --> 00:21:54.180
  • - JERRY: NERO DIED IN 68,
  • 00:22:18.220 --> 00:22:19.130
  • AND THERE WAS THE YEAR OF
  • 00:22:19.240 --> 00:22:22.240
  • THE FOUR GENERALS.
  • 00:22:22.240 --> 00:22:24.140
  • IT WAS PANDEMONIUM.
  • 00:22:24.140 --> 00:22:25.090
  • SO VESPASIAN TAKES OVER IN
  • 00:22:25.090 --> 00:22:26.190
  • 69, AND HE WILL SERVE
  • 00:22:26.190 --> 00:22:28.140
  • UNTIL 71, THEN HIS SON
  • 00:22:28.140 --> 00:22:30.120
  • TITUS WILL TAKE OVER.
  • 00:22:30.120 --> 00:22:32.020
  • VESPASIAN IN ON THE THRONE
  • 00:22:32.020 --> 00:22:34.280
  • WHEN JERUSALEM IS SACKED.
  • 00:22:34.280 --> 00:22:36.240
  • HE SENDS TITUS.
  • 00:22:36.240 --> 00:22:39.100
  • ARCH OF TITUS HAS A
  • 00:22:40.050 --> 00:22:43.050
  • PICTURE OF THE GREAT
  • 00:22:43.050 --> 00:22:44.290
  • MENORAH BEING CARRIED OUT
  • 00:22:44.290 --> 00:22:45.220
  • BY TITUS FROM THE TEMPLE.
  • 00:22:46.070 --> 00:22:49.070
  • - JONATHAN: THE JEWS
  • 00:22:49.070 --> 00:22:50.180
  • DECIDED TO REBEL AGAINST
  • 00:22:50.180 --> 00:22:52.120
  • ROMAN RULE IN A.D. 66,
  • 00:22:52.120 --> 00:22:54.260
  • AND THE UPSHOT OF THAT
  • 00:22:54.260 --> 00:22:55.250
  • WAS THE DESTRUCTION OF THE
  • 00:22:55.250 --> 00:22:56.210
  • - JONATHAN: THE JEWS WERE
  • 00:23:05.000 --> 00:23:05.210
  • LEFT WITHOUT A STATE,
  • 00:23:05.210 --> 00:23:06.100
  • WITHOUT POLITICAL POWER,
  • 00:23:06.100 --> 00:23:06.290
  • AND THEY HAD TO REFORM
  • 00:23:06.290 --> 00:23:07.220
  • THEMSELVES.
  • 00:23:08.080 --> 00:23:11.080
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:23:11.080 --> 00:23:12.160
  • - JONATHAN: OF COURSE, IN
  • 00:23:12.160 --> 00:23:13.090
  • THE GOSPELS, WE READ OF
  • 00:23:13.090 --> 00:23:14.050
  • JESUS' PROPHECIES OF THE
  • 00:23:14.050 --> 00:23:15.010
  • DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE.
  • 00:23:15.010 --> 00:23:15.240
  • CHRISTIANS WITH A JEWISH
  • 00:23:15.240 --> 00:23:17.200
  • HERITAGE WOULD HAVE LOST
  • 00:23:17.200 --> 00:23:18.280
  • THAT CENTER, AND MANY
  • 00:23:18.280 --> 00:23:21.060
  • PEOPLE THINK THAT THE
  • 00:23:21.060 --> 00:23:23.030
  • CLOSE BOND BETWEEN JUDAISM
  • 00:23:23.030 --> 00:23:25.040
  • AND CHRISTIANITY WOULD
  • 00:23:25.040 --> 00:23:26.230
  • HAVE BEEN TORN ASUNDER BY
  • 00:23:26.230 --> 00:23:29.140
  • THE DESTRUCTION OF THE
  • 00:23:29.140 --> 00:23:30.070
  • - DAVID: DIDN'T MAKE A
  • 00:23:38.230 --> 00:23:39.110
  • LOT OF SENSE TO PAGANS
  • 00:23:39.110 --> 00:23:39.280
  • THAT CHRISTIANS WOULD BE
  • 00:23:39.280 --> 00:23:41.150
  • WILLING TO DIE FOR THE
  • 00:23:41.150 --> 00:23:42.230
  • SAKE OF REFUSING TO
  • 00:23:42.230 --> 00:23:43.260
  • - DAVID: TO STAND THEIR
  • 00:23:49.150 --> 00:23:50.130
  • GROUND IN THE FACE OF
  • 00:23:50.130 --> 00:23:51.110
  • DEATH WAS SOMETHING THAT
  • 00:23:51.110 --> 00:23:52.280
  • LEFT A PRETTY STARK
  • 00:23:52.280 --> 00:23:54.070
  • IMPRESSION DIRECTED AT THE
  • 00:23:54.070 --> 00:23:55.090
  • CROWD IN TERMS OF TALKING
  • 00:23:55.090 --> 00:23:56.240
  • - JERRY: AND WE HAVE
  • 00:24:02.070 --> 00:24:02.240
  • TRADITIONS THAT SHARE
  • 00:24:02.240 --> 00:24:03.160
  • ABOUT THE DEATHS OF ALL OF
  • 00:24:03.160 --> 00:24:04.280
  • THE APOSTLES AND WHERE
  • 00:24:04.280 --> 00:24:06.050
  • THEY WERE, AND SOME
  • 00:24:06.050 --> 00:24:07.130
  • APOSTLES HAVE MULTIPLE
  • 00:24:07.130 --> 00:24:08.270
  • - JERRY: PAUL STARTS IN
  • 00:24:13.090 --> 00:24:14.060
  • TARSUS AND ENDS UP
  • 00:24:14.060 --> 00:24:16.010
  • APPEALING TO CAESAR IN
  • 00:24:16.010 --> 00:24:18.210
  • CAESAREA AND ENDS UP DYING
  • 00:24:18.210 --> 00:24:19.190
  • IN ROME.
  • 00:24:19.190 --> 00:24:21.030
  • PETER STARTS AT CAPERNAUM.
  • 00:24:21.030 --> 00:24:23.270
  • HE ENDS UP DYING IN ROME;
  • 00:24:23.270 --> 00:24:26.050
  • THOMAS IN INDIA;
  • 00:24:26.050 --> 00:24:29.050
  • BARTHOLOMEW, WHO TRADITION
  • 00:24:29.050 --> 00:24:31.040
  • HAS WENT TO INDIA AND
  • 00:24:31.040 --> 00:24:32.170
  • ETHIOPIA AND SOUTHERN ARABIA.
  • 00:24:32.170 --> 00:24:34.210
  • IN THE "GOLDEN LEGEND,"
  • 00:24:34.290 --> 00:24:37.290
  • IT GIVES THE ACCOUNT THAT HE
  • 00:24:37.290 --> 00:24:38.260
  • WAS ACTUALLY FLAYED ALIVE
  • 00:24:38.260 --> 00:24:40.060
  • AND THEN BEHEADED.
  • 00:24:40.060 --> 00:24:41.130
  • JAMES THE ELDER, IN ACTS
  • 00:24:41.130 --> 00:24:42.230
  • 12, WAS KILLED BY HEROD BY
  • 00:24:42.230 --> 00:24:43.190
  • THE SWORD.
  • 00:24:43.190 --> 00:24:44.240
  • JAMES, THE BROTHER JESUS,
  • 00:24:45.100 --> 00:24:48.100
  • WAS RECORDED IN A.D. 170
  • 00:24:48.100 --> 00:24:49.050
  • TO HAVE BEEN PUSHED FROM
  • 00:24:49.050 --> 00:24:50.240
  • THE PINNACLE OF THE TEMPLE.
  • 00:24:51.000 --> 00:24:54.000
  • THEN HE'S BEATEN WITH RODS.
  • 00:24:54.000 --> 00:24:55.270
  • WE HAVE JUDE OR THADDAEUS
  • 00:24:55.270 --> 00:24:57.170
  • GOING TO ODESA.
  • 00:24:57.240 --> 00:25:00.260
  • THERE ARE VARYING ACCOUNTS
  • 00:25:00.260 --> 00:25:02.010
  • OF HOW HE DIED.
  • 00:25:02.010 --> 00:25:03.080
  • WE HAVE MATTHEW DYING IN
  • 00:25:03.080 --> 00:25:05.060
  • ETHIOPIA, ACCORDING TO
  • 00:25:05.060 --> 00:25:06.260
  • TRADITION.
  • 00:25:06.260 --> 00:25:08.110
  • DIED A HORRIFIC DEATH.
  • 00:25:08.110 --> 00:25:11.010
  • WITH MATTHIAS, ONE OF THE
  • 00:25:11.010 --> 00:25:12.140
  • PLACES THAT TRADITION HAS
  • 00:25:12.140 --> 00:25:13.230
  • HIM GOING TO IS BACK TO
  • 00:25:13.230 --> 00:25:16.110
  • DAMASCUS.
  • 00:25:16.110 --> 00:25:18.090
  • PHILIP, TRADITION HAS HIM
  • 00:25:18.090 --> 00:25:19.250
  • BEING MARTYRED IN PHRYGIA,
  • 00:25:19.250 --> 00:25:22.200
  • OR MODERN TURKEY.
  • 00:25:22.200 --> 00:25:24.120
  • WITH SIMON THE ZEALOT,
  • 00:25:24.120 --> 00:25:26.060
  • AFRICA, PERSIA, OR MODERN
  • 00:25:26.060 --> 00:25:28.270
  • IRAN, AND ENGLAND, AND
  • 00:25:28.270 --> 00:25:29.290
  • DYING A MARTYR'S DEATH AS WELL.
  • 00:25:30.140 --> 00:25:33.140
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:25:33.140 --> 00:25:34.170
  • - JERRY: WITH THE APOSTLE
  • 00:25:34.170 --> 00:25:35.170
  • JOHN, WE HAVE HIM ON THE
  • 00:25:35.170 --> 00:25:36.240
  • ISLAND OF PATMOS, WRITING
  • 00:25:36.240 --> 00:25:37.290
  • THE BOOK OF REVELATION,
  • 00:25:37.290 --> 00:25:40.030
  • THE ONLY ONE TO LIVE A
  • 00:25:40.030 --> 00:25:41.230
  • FULL LIFE.
  • 00:25:41.230 --> 00:25:44.120
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:25:44.220 --> 00:25:47.220
  • - MICHAEL: PEOPLE WANTED
  • 00:25:47.220 --> 00:25:49.030
  • TO GET MORE DOWN IN
  • 00:25:49.030 --> 00:25:50.030
  • WRITING, SO GOSPELS GOT
  • 00:25:50.030 --> 00:25:51.100
  • WRITTEN AROUND THE TIME
  • 00:25:51.100 --> 00:25:53.020
  • THAT THE FIRST GENERATION
  • 00:25:53.020 --> 00:25:54.090
  • OF EYEWITNESSES DIED OFF,
  • 00:25:54.090 --> 00:25:55.260
  • AND SO THE JEWISH
  • 00:25:56.110 --> 00:25:59.110
  • SCRIPTURE OFTEN REFERRED
  • 00:25:59.110 --> 00:26:01.070
  • TO IS THE LAW AND THE
  • 00:26:01.070 --> 00:26:03.110
  • PROPHETS, AND THEY HAD THE
  • 00:26:04.100 --> 00:26:07.100
  • CHRISTIAN WRITINGS, THE
  • 00:26:07.100 --> 00:26:08.050
  • GOSPEL AND THE APOSTLES.
  • 00:26:08.050 --> 00:26:08.260
  • THEY'RE ALL WRITTEN;
  • 00:26:08.260 --> 00:26:09.170
  • THEY'RE ALL AUTHORITATIVE.
  • 00:26:09.170 --> 00:26:10.060
  • PRETTY SOON YOU START
  • 00:26:10.060 --> 00:26:10.260
  • CALLIN' 'EM ALL SCRIPTURES.
  • 00:26:10.260 --> 00:26:12.020
  • INSTEAD OF SAYIN' THE
  • 00:26:12.020 --> 00:26:13.080
  • JEWISH SCRIPTURES AND THE
  • 00:26:13.080 --> 00:26:14.210
  • CHRISTIAN WRITINGS, THEY
  • 00:26:14.210 --> 00:26:15.090
  • ALL FUNCTION AND IT'S LIKE
  • 00:26:15.090 --> 00:26:16.130
  • YOU STARTED CALLING ALL OF
  • 00:26:16.130 --> 00:26:17.210
  • 'EM SCRIPTURE.
  • 00:26:17.210 --> 00:26:18.050
  • BUT NOBODY WAS WORRIED
  • 00:26:18.050 --> 00:26:18.250
  • ABOUT HOW MANY THERE WERE
  • 00:26:18.250 --> 00:26:19.210
  • BECAUSE BOOKS YOU GATHERED
  • 00:26:19.210 --> 00:26:20.210
  • AS YOU COULD.
  • 00:26:20.210 --> 00:26:23.050
  • YOU GOT ALL THE COPIES OF
  • 00:26:23.050 --> 00:26:23.240
  • BOOKS YOU COULD, AND ONE
  • 00:26:23.240 --> 00:26:24.120
  • CHURCH MIGHT HAVE MORE
  • 00:26:24.120 --> 00:26:24.290
  • THAN ANOTHER.
  • 00:26:24.290 --> 00:26:25.170
  • YOU JUST TRIED TO BUILD
  • 00:26:25.170 --> 00:26:26.140
  • YOUR COLLECTION.
  • 00:26:26.140 --> 00:26:27.250
  • EVENTUALLY, THEY STARTED
  • 00:26:27.250 --> 00:26:29.060
  • WORRYING ABOUT, JUST,
  • 00:26:29.060 --> 00:26:30.180
  • WHICH BOOKS DO BELONG IN
  • 00:26:30.180 --> 00:26:32.180
  • THIS COLLECTION, BUT THAT
  • 00:26:32.180 --> 00:26:33.200
  • WAS A 200-YEAR PROCESS.
  • 00:26:33.200 --> 00:26:35.030
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:26:36.000 --> 00:26:39.000
  • - JERRY: WE KNOW THAT THE
  • 00:26:39.000 --> 00:26:41.130
  • EARLY CHURCH VENERATED
  • 00:26:41.130 --> 00:26:43.170
  • ANYONE HAD CONTACT WITH
  • 00:26:43.170 --> 00:26:44.260
  • JESUS WHILE HE LIVED.
  • 00:26:44.260 --> 00:26:46.170
  • WE HAVE WRITINGS FROM THE
  • 00:26:46.170 --> 00:26:47.200
  • APOSTOLIC FATHERS,
  • 00:26:47.200 --> 00:26:49.250
  • AND THEY'RE CALLED THAT
  • 00:26:49.250 --> 00:26:50.170
  • BECAUSE THEY HAD A
  • 00:26:50.170 --> 00:26:51.140
  • CONNECTION TO THE APOSTLES
  • 00:26:51.140 --> 00:26:52.060
  • WHO HAD A CONNECTION
  • 00:26:52.060 --> 00:26:53.040
  • TO JESUS.
  • 00:26:53.110 --> 00:26:56.110
  • - MICHAEL: THE APOSTOLIC
  • 00:26:56.110 --> 00:26:57.000
  • FATHERS JUST STARTS
  • 00:26:57.000 --> 00:26:58.170
  • REVIVING LITERATURE, AND
  • 00:26:58.170 --> 00:26:59.190
  • THEY GOT PUT IN ONE
  • 00:26:59.190 --> 00:27:01.020
  • COLLECTION, AND IT'S
  • 00:27:01.020 --> 00:27:02.190
  • LETTERS, IT'S AN
  • 00:27:02.190 --> 00:27:05.010
  • APOCALYPSE, IT'S A
  • 00:27:05.010 --> 00:27:06.110
  • TEACHING DOCUMENT, IT'S
  • 00:27:06.110 --> 00:27:07.280
  • CHRISTIANS IN THAT
  • 00:27:07.280 --> 00:27:09.050
  • LATE-SECOND, EARLY-THIRD
  • 00:27:09.160 --> 00:27:12.160
  • GENERATION, SEEKING TO
  • 00:27:12.160 --> 00:27:13.090
  • COME TO TERMS WITH WHAT IT
  • 00:27:13.090 --> 00:27:14.130
  • MEANS TO BE A CHRISTIAN IN
  • 00:27:14.130 --> 00:27:15.020
  • AN OFTEN ALIEN CULTURE
  • 00:27:15.020 --> 00:27:16.130
  • WHEN YOU DON'T HAVE
  • 00:27:16.130 --> 00:27:17.210
  • APOSTLES TO TURN TO FOR
  • 00:27:17.210 --> 00:27:18.280
  • ANSWERS ANYMORE.
  • 00:27:19.010 --> 00:27:22.010
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:27:28.210 --> 00:27:31.210
  • - MICHAEL: IGNATIUS WAS A
  • 00:27:31.210 --> 00:27:33.110
  • BISHOP OF THE CHURCH IN
  • 00:27:33.110 --> 00:27:35.010
  • ANTIOCH IN SYRIA, THE SAME
  • 00:27:35.010 --> 00:27:36.080
  • CHURCH THAT PAUL USED AS
  • 00:27:36.080 --> 00:27:37.170
  • HIS MISSION BASE, PROBABLY
  • 00:27:37.170 --> 00:27:38.280
  • ABOUT 60 YEARS AFTER PAUL
  • 00:27:38.280 --> 00:27:40.170
  • WAS THERE.
  • 00:27:40.170 --> 00:27:42.070
  • THAT IGNATIUS WAS A BISHOP
  • 00:27:42.070 --> 00:27:43.230
  • TELLS US THERE US THERE'S
  • 00:27:43.230 --> 00:27:45.020
  • BEEN SOME CHANGE IN CHURCH
  • 00:27:45.020 --> 00:27:46.040
  • STRUCTURES ALONG THE WAY,
  • 00:27:46.040 --> 00:27:46.260
  • BUT HE'S BEING ESCORTED BY
  • 00:27:46.260 --> 00:27:48.030
  • A GROUP OF SOLDIERS TO
  • 00:27:48.030 --> 00:27:49.190
  • ROME TO BE PUT TO DEATH IN
  • 00:27:49.190 --> 00:27:51.030
  • THE ARENA, PROBABLY FED TO
  • 00:27:51.030 --> 00:27:52.060
  • THE LIONS, AND ON THE WAY,
  • 00:27:52.060 --> 00:27:54.070
  • HE WRITES SEVEN LETTERS,
  • 00:27:54.070 --> 00:27:55.160
  • AND THAT'S WHY WE KNOW HIM
  • 00:27:55.160 --> 00:27:57.000
  • SO WELL.
  • 00:27:57.000 --> 00:27:58.270
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:28:02.070 --> 00:28:05.070
  • - MICHAEL: ONE AREA HE'S
  • 00:28:05.070 --> 00:28:07.160
  • JUST DEALING WITH IS WHAT
  • 00:28:07.160 --> 00:28:09.090
  • DO YOU DO WHEN DIFFERENT
  • 00:28:09.090 --> 00:28:09.280
  • OPINIONS COME UP ABOUT
  • 00:28:09.280 --> 00:28:10.250
  • JESUS IN THE CHURCH?
  • 00:28:10.250 --> 00:28:13.110
  • EVERYBODY'S HEARING THE
  • 00:28:13.110 --> 00:28:14.100
  • GOSPEL, BUT NOT EVERYONE
  • 00:28:14.100 --> 00:28:15.140
  • INTERPRETS THE SAME WAY.
  • 00:28:15.140 --> 00:28:17.060
  • WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN THERE
  • 00:28:17.060 --> 00:28:18.020
  • ARE DIFFERENCES OF OPINION?
  • 00:28:18.020 --> 00:28:19.020
  • AND IGNATIUS' ANSWER IS
  • 00:28:19.140 --> 00:28:22.140
  • "FOLLOW THE BISHOP.
  • 00:28:22.140 --> 00:28:24.020
  • WHATEVER THE BISHOP
  • 00:28:24.020 --> 00:28:25.070
  • BELIEVES, THAT'S WHAT YOU
  • 00:28:25.070 --> 00:28:26.100
  • SHOULD BELIEVE, AND IF YOU
  • 00:28:26.100 --> 00:28:29.040
  • CAN KEEP THE BISHOPS IN
  • 00:28:29.040 --> 00:28:30.080
  • LINE, THEN YOU KEEP THE
  • 00:28:30.080 --> 00:28:32.110
  • CHURCHES IN LINE."
  • 00:28:32.190 --> 00:28:35.190
  • SO IGNATIUS DEVELOPS A VERY
  • 00:28:35.190 --> 00:28:36.100
  • DEVELOPED CHURCH STRUCTURE
  • 00:28:36.100 --> 00:28:37.120
  • COMPARED TO PAUL, AND
  • 00:28:37.120 --> 00:28:37.290
  • EVENTUALLY THE CHURCH WILL
  • 00:28:37.290 --> 00:28:38.190
  • DEVELOP ALONG THE LINES
  • 00:28:38.190 --> 00:28:39.210
  • THAT IGNATIUS SKETCHES
  • 00:28:39.210 --> 00:28:40.240
  • OUT, THOUGH HE ENCOUNTERED
  • 00:28:40.240 --> 00:28:42.060
  • A FAIR AMOUNT OF CONFLICT
  • 00:28:42.060 --> 00:28:43.120
  • OR DEBATE OVER THAT IN HIS DAY.
  • 00:28:43.120 --> 00:28:45.120
  • - DENNIS: IGNATIUS, LIKE
  • 00:28:45.120 --> 00:28:47.230
  • MANY OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES,
  • 00:28:47.230 --> 00:28:49.080
  • WAS INDEED PUT TO DEATH
  • 00:28:49.080 --> 00:28:50.250
  • IN THE ARENA IN A.D. 117.
  • 00:28:50.250 --> 00:28:52.120
  • WE DON'T KNOW EXACTLY WHY.
  • 00:28:52.120 --> 00:28:53.180
  • WE DO KNOW FROM HIS
  • 00:28:53.180 --> 00:28:55.040
  • LETTERS THAT HE BELIEVED
  • 00:28:55.040 --> 00:28:57.060
  • HIS MARTYRDOM TO BE A
  • 00:28:57.060 --> 00:28:58.110
  • PRIVILEGE.
  • 00:28:58.110 --> 00:28:59.160
  • "I AM GOD'S WHEAT,"
  • 00:28:59.160 --> 00:29:00.200
  • HE WROTE, "TO BE GROUND BY
  • 00:29:00.200 --> 00:29:02.020
  • THE TEETH OF BEASTS SO
  • 00:29:02.020 --> 00:29:03.180
  • THAT I MAY BE OFFERED AS
  • 00:29:03.180 --> 00:29:05.180
  • PURE BREAD OF CHRIST."
  • 00:29:05.180 --> 00:29:08.020
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:29:08.020 --> 00:29:10.240
  • - MICHAEL: THE MARTYRS
  • 00:29:10.240 --> 00:29:11.120
  • WERE HELD IN HIGH ESTEEM
  • 00:29:11.120 --> 00:29:13.010
  • BECAUSE THEY HAD PAID THE
  • 00:29:13.010 --> 00:29:15.180
  • FULL PRICE FOR JESUS.
  • 00:29:15.180 --> 00:29:16.070
  • THERE WAS A SENSE, AND IT
  • 00:29:16.070 --> 00:29:17.120
  • WAS A HEROIC FORM OF
  • 00:29:17.120 --> 00:29:19.120
  • DISCIPLESHIP, NOT
  • 00:29:19.120 --> 00:29:20.080
  • SOMETHING TO BE CHASED
  • 00:29:20.080 --> 00:29:22.020
  • AFTER SO THAT PEOPLE COULD
  • 00:29:22.020 --> 00:29:23.030
  • TALK ABOUT YOU.
  • 00:29:23.030 --> 00:29:24.040
  • IF GOD CALLED YOU TO THAT,
  • 00:29:24.040 --> 00:29:26.080
  • THAT WAS YOUR PERSONAL
  • 00:29:26.080 --> 00:29:28.150
  • - JUSTO: IN THEIR OWN
  • 00:29:32.220 --> 00:29:33.090
  • SUFFERING, THEY WERE
  • 00:29:33.090 --> 00:29:34.190
  • JOINING JESUS IN HIS
  • 00:29:34.190 --> 00:29:35.050
  • SUFFERINGS.
  • 00:29:35.050 --> 00:29:36.070
  • THEY WERE NOT JUST
  • 00:29:36.070 --> 00:29:37.090
  • SUFFERING FOR A CAUSE.
  • 00:29:37.090 --> 00:29:38.030
  • THEY'RE SUFFERING WITH
  • 00:29:38.030 --> 00:29:39.190
  • SOMEBODY WHOM THEY LOVE
  • 00:29:39.190 --> 00:29:40.280
  • AND WHO HAS SUFFERED FOR
  • 00:29:40.280 --> 00:29:42.000
  • THEM, AND SO THEY'RE
  • 00:29:42.000 --> 00:29:43.050
  • - DAVID: YOU HAVE IN THE
  • 00:29:53.000 --> 00:29:54.130
  • YEAR 203, A SERIES OF
  • 00:29:54.130 --> 00:29:56.100
  • WEATHER CATASTROPHES THAT
  • 00:29:56.100 --> 00:29:58.080
  • LEAD TO A REALLY BAD
  • 00:29:58.080 --> 00:30:00.090
  • HARVEST, AND THIS IS ONE
  • 00:30:00.090 --> 00:30:02.090
  • OF THOSE CASES WHERE
  • 00:30:02.090 --> 00:30:04.230
  • PAGANS START TRYING TO
  • 00:30:04.230 --> 00:30:06.010
  • FIGURE OUT WHY ARE THE
  • 00:30:06.010 --> 00:30:07.040
  • GODS NOT PROVIDING THE
  • 00:30:07.040 --> 00:30:07.210
  • PROSPERITY THEY TYPICALLY
  • 00:30:07.210 --> 00:30:09.180
  • DO, AND THAT OFTEN THEN
  • 00:30:09.180 --> 00:30:10.170
  • BECOMES FERTILE GROUND FOR
  • 00:30:10.170 --> 00:30:12.020
  • PERSECUTION.
  • 00:30:12.020 --> 00:30:13.240
  • IT BECOMES THE ATHEISTS,
  • 00:30:13.240 --> 00:30:15.060
  • THE CHRISTIANS, WHO DON'T
  • 00:30:15.060 --> 00:30:16.090
  • BELIEVE IN THE GODS AND
  • 00:30:16.090 --> 00:30:17.090
  • DON'T WORSHIP THEM, WHO
  • 00:30:17.090 --> 00:30:18.220
  • ARE CREATING THE PROBLEM,
  • 00:30:18.220 --> 00:30:19.260
  • AND SO TRYING TO FORCE
  • 00:30:19.260 --> 00:30:21.100
  • THEM TO WORSHIP THE GODS
  • 00:30:21.100 --> 00:30:22.110
  • - JUSTO: PERPETUA WAS A
  • 00:30:28.120 --> 00:30:29.000
  • FAIRLY WELL-TO-DO WOMAN.
  • 00:30:29.000 --> 00:30:29.290
  • IT WAS FORBIDDEN FOR
  • 00:30:29.290 --> 00:30:32.100
  • PEOPLE TO CONVERT TO
  • 00:30:32.100 --> 00:30:33.040
  • CHRISTIANITY AT THAT
  • 00:30:33.040 --> 00:30:34.120
  • POINT, AND SHE DID, AND SO
  • 00:30:34.120 --> 00:30:36.200
  • DID HER COMPANION
  • 00:30:36.200 --> 00:30:38.110
  • SERVANTS.
  • 00:30:38.110 --> 00:30:40.230
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:30:40.230 --> 00:30:42.080
  • - MICHAEL: AND WE KNOW OF
  • 00:30:42.080 --> 00:30:42.270
  • HER IN PARTICULAR BECAUSE
  • 00:30:42.270 --> 00:30:43.240
  • SHE LEFT SOME DIARIES BEHIND.
  • 00:30:43.240 --> 00:30:45.140
  • - JUSTO: IT'S PROBABLY
  • 00:30:45.140 --> 00:30:46.100
  • VERY FIRST INTIMATE
  • 00:30:46.260 --> 00:30:49.260
  • RELIGIOUS DIARY THAT WE
  • 00:30:49.260 --> 00:30:52.020
  • HAVE OF A CHRISTIAN.
  • 00:30:53.190 --> 00:30:56.190
  • - FEMALE NARRATOR
  • 00:30:56.190 --> 00:30:57.250
  • (PERPETUA):
  • 00:30:57.250 --> 00:30:59.040
  • MY FATHER, OUT OF LOVE FOR ME,
  • 00:30:59.040 --> 00:31:00.050
  • WAS TRYING TO DISSUADE ME
  • 00:31:00.050 --> 00:31:01.000
  • AND SHAKE MY RESOLUTION.
  • 00:31:01.150 --> 00:31:04.150
  • I TRIED TO COMFORT HIM, SAYING,
  • 00:31:04.150 --> 00:31:05.100
  • "IT WILL ALL HAPPEN IN THE
  • 00:31:05.100 --> 00:31:06.220
  • PRISONERS' STOCK AS GOD WILLS.
  • 00:31:07.150 --> 00:31:10.150
  • FOR YOU MAY BE SURE THAT
  • 00:31:10.150 --> 00:31:12.160
  • WE ARE NOT LEFT TO
  • 00:31:12.160 --> 00:31:14.110
  • OURSELVES BUT ARE ALL IN
  • 00:31:14.240 --> 00:31:17.240
  • - MICHAEL: IN THE ROMAN
  • 00:31:23.070 --> 00:31:23.250
  • EMPIRE, THE FATHER WAS
  • 00:31:23.250 --> 00:31:24.290
  • ABSOLUTE OVER THE FAMILY,
  • 00:31:24.290 --> 00:31:26.250
  • AND FOR A DAUGHTER TO
  • 00:31:26.250 --> 00:31:28.240
  • DISOBEY DAD'S ORDERS TO
  • 00:31:28.240 --> 00:31:30.020
  • NOT DO THIS, THAT WAS A
  • 00:31:30.020 --> 00:31:31.210
  • - NARRATOR (PERPETUA):
  • 00:31:36.030 --> 00:31:36.210
  • HILARIANUS, THE GOVERNOR,
  • 00:31:36.210 --> 00:31:37.220
  • SAID TO ME, "HAVE PITY ON
  • 00:31:37.220 --> 00:31:38.250
  • YOUR FATHER'S GRAY HEAD.
  • 00:31:38.250 --> 00:31:40.150
  • HAVE PITY ON YOUR INFANT SON.
  • 00:31:40.150 --> 00:31:41.280
  • OFFER THE SACRIFICE FOR
  • 00:31:41.280 --> 00:31:44.080
  • THE WELFARE OF THE EMPERORS."
  • 00:31:44.080 --> 00:31:46.080
  • "I WILL NOT,"
  • 00:31:46.080 --> 00:31:47.170
  • I RETORTED.
  • 00:31:47.170 --> 00:31:48.060
  • "ARE YOU A CHRISTIAN?"
  • 00:31:48.060 --> 00:31:50.120
  • SAID HILARIANUS.
  • 00:31:51.120 --> 00:31:54.120
  • AND I SAID, "YES, I AM."
  • 00:31:56.200 --> 00:31:59.200
  • 00:32:02.070 --> 00:32:05.070
  • - JUSTO: WITHOUT DENYING
  • 00:32:23.130 --> 00:32:26.130
  • THE PAIN, SHE'S ALSO
  • 00:32:26.180 --> 00:32:29.180
  • CONSTANTLY SPEAKING OF THE
  • 00:32:29.180 --> 00:32:31.000
  • VICTORY AND JOY 'CAUSE
  • 00:32:31.000 --> 00:32:32.250
  • IT'S THAT COMBINATION THAT
  • 00:32:32.250 --> 00:32:34.020
  • I FIND FASCINATING, AND
  • 00:32:34.110 --> 00:32:37.110
  • THAT'S THE STORY OF MOST
  • 00:32:37.110 --> 00:32:38.180
  • OF THE EARLY MARTYRS, BY
  • 00:32:38.180 --> 00:32:39.180
  • THE WAY.
  • 00:32:39.180 --> 00:32:42.080
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:32:42.080 --> 00:32:44.080
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:32:44.080 --> 00:32:47.020
  • - DAVID: RATHER THAN
  • 00:32:47.020 --> 00:32:47.190
  • ACCEPTING THAT ACCUSATION
  • 00:32:47.190 --> 00:32:49.180
  • OF ATHEISM, THEY SAID,
  • 00:32:49.180 --> 00:32:50.080
  • "NO, WE ACTUALLY WORSHIP
  • 00:32:50.080 --> 00:32:51.040
  • THE ONLY TRUE GOD, AND
  • 00:32:51.040 --> 00:32:52.160
  • THAT'S THE GOD THAT WE
  • 00:32:52.160 --> 00:32:55.150
  • PRAY TO ON BEHALF OF THE
  • 00:32:55.150 --> 00:32:57.170
  • - JERRY: BY THE TIME OF
  • 00:33:08.000 --> 00:33:10.260
  • TERTULLIAN'S DEATH IN A.D. 225,
  • 00:33:12.120 --> 00:33:15.120
  • THERE WERE OVER 70
  • 00:33:15.120 --> 00:33:15.290
  • BISHOPS IN CARTHAGE.
  • 00:33:15.290 --> 00:33:17.090
  • BY A.D. 313, WITH THE
  • 00:33:17.090 --> 00:33:19.000
  • EDICT OF MILAN, THERE
  • 00:33:19.000 --> 00:33:20.050
  • ARE 250 BISHOPS IN CARTHAGE.
  • 00:33:20.050 --> 00:33:22.030
  • THIS WAS CALLED
  • 00:33:22.030 --> 00:33:24.050
  • "MONEPISCOPACY,"
  • 00:33:24.050 --> 00:33:26.090
  • "ONE BISHOP," IF YOU WILL,
  • 00:33:26.090 --> 00:33:27.250
  • AND "MONEPISCOPE."
  • 00:33:27.250 --> 00:33:29.160
  • IT WAS SIMPLY TRYING
  • 00:33:29.160 --> 00:33:30.280
  • TO MAKE SURE THERE
  • 00:33:30.280 --> 00:33:31.270
  • WEREN'T COMPETING
  • 00:33:31.270 --> 00:33:32.130
  • PEOPLE OF AUTHORITY IN
  • 00:33:32.130 --> 00:33:33.030
  • THE SAME AREA.
  • 00:33:33.030 --> 00:33:35.020
  • IT BECAME MORE AND MORE
  • 00:33:35.020 --> 00:33:35.280
  • COMPLEX AS THE CHURCH GREW.
  • 00:33:36.040 --> 00:33:39.040
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:33:40.170 --> 00:33:43.170
  • - JERRY: THAT CENTER
  • 00:33:43.170 --> 00:33:44.240
  • AUTHORITY BECAME KNOWN AS
  • 00:33:44.240 --> 00:33:46.030
  • THE HIGH CHAIR OF
  • 00:33:46.030 --> 00:33:47.080
  • AUTHORITY, OR IN LATIN,
  • 00:33:47.080 --> 00:33:49.240
  • THE "CATHEDRA" POWER, AND
  • 00:33:49.240 --> 00:33:51.120
  • "CATHEDRALS" CAME
  • 00:33:51.120 --> 00:33:52.290
  • FROM THAT.
  • 00:33:53.210 --> 00:33:56.210
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:33:56.210 --> 00:33:57.260
  • - JERRY: THE PRESBYTERS
  • 00:33:57.260 --> 00:33:59.180
  • THEMSELVES BECAME PRIESTS.
  • 00:33:59.180 --> 00:34:00.090
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:34:02.010 --> 00:34:05.010
  • - STANLEY: SO IN THE
  • 00:34:05.010 --> 00:34:05.190
  • THIRD CENTURY, ROME WAS
  • 00:34:05.190 --> 00:34:06.120
  • HAVING ESSENTIALLY ONE
  • 00:34:06.200 --> 00:34:09.200
  • MASSIVE UPHEAVAL.
  • 00:34:09.200 --> 00:34:10.060
  • IT'S A LONG CIVIL WAR, SO
  • 00:34:10.060 --> 00:34:10.290
  • FROM THE PERIOD OF 235 TO
  • 00:34:10.290 --> 00:34:12.050
  • 270 A.D., SO A 35-YEAR
  • 00:34:12.050 --> 00:34:14.190
  • PERIOD, YOU HAD 70
  • 00:34:14.190 --> 00:34:16.050
  • EMPERORS IN A 35-YEAR
  • 00:34:16.050 --> 00:34:18.000
  • PERIOD, ONLY ONE OF WHOM
  • 00:34:18.000 --> 00:34:19.070
  • DIED OF NATURAL CAUSES.
  • 00:34:19.070 --> 00:34:21.260
  • SO THAT'S ONE LONG CIVIL
  • 00:34:21.260 --> 00:34:22.250
  • WAR WITH ONE GENERAL AFTER
  • 00:34:22.250 --> 00:34:24.200
  • ANOTHER CROSS THE RUBICON,
  • 00:34:24.200 --> 00:34:25.270
  • PROCLAIMING HIMSELF
  • 00:34:25.270 --> 00:34:26.150
  • EMPEROR AND ASCENDING THE
  • 00:34:26.150 --> 00:34:27.130
  • THRONE.
  • 00:34:27.130 --> 00:34:28.240
  • AND SO YOU HAVE THIS
  • 00:34:29.210 --> 00:34:32.210
  • DRAMATIC, DIFFICULT SEASON
  • 00:34:32.210 --> 00:34:34.050
  • IN THE ROMAN WORLD.
  • 00:34:34.050 --> 00:34:34.260
  • IT IS CHAOS.
  • 00:34:34.260 --> 00:34:35.200
  • IT IS FULL OF UNCERTAINTY.
  • 00:34:35.200 --> 00:34:36.240
  • IT'S ALSO AT A TIME WHERE
  • 00:34:37.080 --> 00:34:40.080
  • YOU HAVE A NUMBER OF
  • 00:34:40.080 --> 00:34:41.210
  • PERSECUTIONS OF CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:34:41.210 --> 00:34:43.010
  • IT'S IMPORTANT TO
  • 00:34:43.010 --> 00:34:43.180
  • UNDERSTAND THESE
  • 00:34:43.180 --> 00:34:44.140
  • PERSECUTIONS WERE AT THE
  • 00:34:44.140 --> 00:34:45.210
  • CORE OF POLITICAL DEBATES AND
  • 00:34:45.210 --> 00:34:47.020
  • LOYALTY TESTS.
  • 00:34:47.020 --> 00:34:49.100
  • IF YOU'VE JUST KILLED OFF
  • 00:34:49.100 --> 00:34:49.290
  • YOUR PREDECESSOR AND
  • 00:34:49.290 --> 00:34:51.130
  • ASCENDED THE THRONE, OF
  • 00:34:51.130 --> 00:34:54.100
  • COURSE, YOU'RE GONNA WANT
  • 00:34:54.100 --> 00:34:54.290
  • TO ESTABLISH YOURSELF.
  • 00:34:54.290 --> 00:34:55.160
  • YOU LOOK FOR LOYALTY, RIGHT?
  • 00:34:55.290 --> 00:34:58.290
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:34:58.290 --> 00:35:01.170
  • - STANLEY: SO THEY
  • 00:35:01.170 --> 00:35:02.100
  • INSTITUTED UNDER THE
  • 00:35:02.100 --> 00:35:03.220
  • EMPEROR DECIUS, IN
  • 00:35:03.220 --> 00:35:05.030
  • PARTICULAR, CREATED THIS
  • 00:35:05.030 --> 00:35:06.020
  • NOTION OF WORSHIPING THE
  • 00:35:06.020 --> 00:35:07.010
  • GENUS OF THE EMPEROR.
  • 00:35:07.010 --> 00:35:09.230
  • THE GENUS IS THE SPIRITUAL
  • 00:35:09.230 --> 00:35:10.120
  • REPRESENTATION OF THE
  • 00:35:10.120 --> 00:35:11.150
  • PERSON, BUT IT WAS A FORM
  • 00:35:11.150 --> 00:35:12.140
  • - STANLEY: NOW, WHO WERE
  • 00:35:18.250 --> 00:35:19.170
  • THE PEOPLE WHO REFUSED TO
  • 00:35:19.170 --> 00:35:20.060
  • WORSHIP THE GENUS OF THE
  • 00:35:20.060 --> 00:35:20.240
  • EMPEROR?
  • 00:35:20.240 --> 00:35:21.110
  • THE CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:35:21.110 --> 00:35:22.230
  • IN THE ANCIENT WORLD,
  • 00:35:22.230 --> 00:35:23.150
  • POLITICS AND RELIGION ARE
  • 00:35:23.150 --> 00:35:24.210
  • TWO SIDES OF THE SAME
  • 00:35:24.210 --> 00:35:26.200
  • COIN, SO IF YOU WANTED TO
  • 00:35:26.200 --> 00:35:27.160
  • MAKE A POLITICAL MOVE,
  • 00:35:27.160 --> 00:35:28.190
  • INEVITABLY IT'S GOT A
  • 00:35:28.190 --> 00:35:29.260
  • RELIGIOUS DIMENSION TO IT.
  • 00:35:29.260 --> 00:35:30.240
  • SO YOU HAVE THE POLITICAL
  • 00:35:30.240 --> 00:35:32.010
  • MOVE OF INSTITUTING A
  • 00:35:32.010 --> 00:35:33.120
  • LOYALTY TEST, BUT IT'S A
  • 00:35:33.120 --> 00:35:35.140
  • RELIGIOUS LOYALTY TEST
  • 00:35:35.140 --> 00:35:36.070
  • BECAUSE IT'S INCONCEIVABLE
  • 00:35:36.070 --> 00:35:37.140
  • - STANLEY: THE CHRISTIANS
  • 00:35:41.050 --> 00:35:42.050
  • ARE NOT GIVING THEIR
  • 00:35:42.050 --> 00:35:42.240
  • LOYALTY, IF YOU WILL.
  • 00:35:42.240 --> 00:35:43.250
  • YOU KNOW, FOR THEM, YOU
  • 00:35:43.250 --> 00:35:44.180
  • KNOW, THEY WRITE LETTERS AND
  • 00:35:44.180 --> 00:35:45.270
  • SAY, "WE'RE GONNA BE LOYAL."
  • 00:35:46.280 --> 00:35:49.280
  • THEY WERE OFFERING THEIR
  • 00:35:49.280 --> 00:35:51.000
  • LOYALTY,
  • 00:35:51.000 --> 00:35:51.240
  • BUT NOT THROUGH A WAY THAT
  • 00:35:51.240 --> 00:35:52.130
  • THE IMPERIAL MECHANISM
  • 00:35:52.130 --> 00:35:53.070
  • COULD RECOGNIZE, AND SO
  • 00:35:53.070 --> 00:35:53.250
  • YOU HAVE THESE
  • 00:35:53.250 --> 00:35:54.180
  • - STANLEY: AND THE
  • 00:35:58.250 --> 00:35:59.110
  • PERSECUTIONS, OVER TIME,
  • 00:35:59.110 --> 00:36:00.140
  • GO FROM INITIALLY
  • 00:36:00.140 --> 00:36:01.130
  • SPASMODIC, QUITE LOCAL,
  • 00:36:01.130 --> 00:36:03.190
  • NOT AS A OVERALL IMPERIAL
  • 00:36:03.190 --> 00:36:05.230
  • POLICY, SLOWLY BECOME A
  • 00:36:05.230 --> 00:36:06.280
  • BIT MORE OF THAT.
  • 00:36:06.280 --> 00:36:08.100
  • THE FACT THAT THE
  • 00:36:08.100 --> 00:36:09.180
  • PROSECUTIONS ARE FOCUSING
  • 00:36:09.180 --> 00:36:10.280
  • MORE AND MORE ON
  • 00:36:10.280 --> 00:36:13.000
  • LEADERSHIP, WELL, THAT
  • 00:36:13.000 --> 00:36:13.210
  • SHOWS US THAT THERE IS
  • 00:36:13.210 --> 00:36:14.280
  • SOME EMERGING SENSE OF THE
  • 00:36:14.280 --> 00:36:16.200
  • - STANLEY: IN THIS
  • 00:36:20.220 --> 00:36:21.080
  • CONTEXT OF THIS CHAOS, YOU
  • 00:36:21.080 --> 00:36:22.080
  • DIOCLETIAN ASSUME THE THRONE.
  • 00:36:25.010 --> 00:36:28.010
  • 00:36:28.120 --> 00:36:31.120
  • - STANLEY: EMPEROR
  • 00:36:40.230 --> 00:36:41.090
  • DIOCLETIAN DIVIDES THE
  • 00:36:41.090 --> 00:36:42.050
  • ROMAN EMPIRE INTO EAST AND
  • 00:36:42.050 --> 00:36:43.090
  • WEST, AND IT'S AT THAT
  • 00:36:43.090 --> 00:36:44.280
  • POINT THAT WE GET THE
  • 00:36:44.280 --> 00:36:46.000
  • EASTERN AND WESTERN
  • 00:36:46.000 --> 00:36:47.150
  • CULTURAL DIVIDE, IF YOU WILL,
  • 00:36:47.150 --> 00:36:48.200
  • THE GREEK AND LATIN WORLDS.
  • 00:36:48.200 --> 00:36:50.040
  • HE DID IT IN THE NATURAL
  • 00:36:50.040 --> 00:36:51.120
  • PLACE, BUT WE STILL HAVE
  • 00:36:51.120 --> 00:36:52.270
  • THAT TO THIS DAY.
  • 00:36:52.270 --> 00:36:53.220
  • WE REFER TO EASTERN EUROPE.
  • 00:36:55.260 --> 00:36:58.260
  • 00:37:00.070 --> 00:37:03.070
  • 00:37:04.090 --> 00:37:07.090
  • - STANLEY: HE CREATED TWO
  • 00:37:07.090 --> 00:37:07.280
  • EMPERORS FOR THE EAST AND
  • 00:37:07.280 --> 00:37:09.080
  • WEST, AND TWO, IF YOU WILL,
  • 00:37:09.080 --> 00:37:10.230
  • - STANLEY: AND SO, WHAT
  • 00:37:15.200 --> 00:37:16.080
  • HE DID IS HE CREATED AN
  • 00:37:16.080 --> 00:37:16.260
  • AUTHORITATIVE STRUCTURE
  • 00:37:16.260 --> 00:37:17.140
  • THAT ALSO PROMOTED PEOPLE
  • 00:37:17.140 --> 00:37:18.120
  • WHO COULD THEN CONTEND
  • 00:37:18.120 --> 00:37:20.090
  • WITH EACH OTHER IF THEY
  • 00:37:20.090 --> 00:37:21.170
  • - STANLEY: HE THEN DOES A
  • 00:37:33.230 --> 00:37:34.120
  • REALLY SURPRISING THING.
  • 00:37:34.120 --> 00:37:35.150
  • HE RETIRES.
  • 00:37:35.170 --> 00:37:38.170
  • EMPERORS DON'T DO THAT.
  • 00:37:38.170 --> 00:37:40.260
  • A CIVIL WAR ERUPTS WHEN HE
  • 00:37:40.260 --> 00:37:41.180
  • RETIRES.
  • 00:37:41.230 --> 00:37:44.230
  • THIS YOUNG UPSTART OUT OF
  • 00:37:44.230 --> 00:37:46.010
  • YORK, SON OF ONE OF THE
  • 00:37:46.010 --> 00:37:47.130
  • CO-EMPEROR, MARCHES ON ROME.
  • 00:37:47.130 --> 00:37:49.250
  • THIS IS CONSTANTINE.
  • 00:37:49.250 --> 00:37:52.220
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:37:52.220 --> 00:37:55.220
  • - STANLEY: HE
  • 00:37:55.220 --> 00:37:56.210
  • WALL-MARCHED INTO ROME,
  • 00:37:56.210 --> 00:37:57.280
  • HAS SOME SORT OF VISION.
  • 00:37:57.280 --> 00:37:58.210
  • WE DON'T-- IT COULD'VE
  • 00:37:58.210 --> 00:38:00.020
  • BEEN SHORTLY BEFORE.
  • 00:38:00.020 --> 00:38:00.270
  • SOMETIMES IT SEEMS TO BE
  • 00:38:00.270 --> 00:38:01.190
  • ABOUT THREE MONTHS BEFORE,
  • 00:38:01.190 --> 00:38:02.190
  • BUT HE HAS SOME SORT OF VISION.
  • 00:38:02.190 --> 00:38:03.130
  • HE SAYS HE SEES THE SIGN
  • 00:38:03.130 --> 00:38:05.090
  • OF THE CROSS AND A VOICE
  • 00:38:05.090 --> 00:38:06.250
  • SAYING, "CONQUER USING
  • 00:38:06.250 --> 00:38:07.120
  • THIS SIGN,"
  • 00:38:07.120 --> 00:38:09.110
  • "IN HOC SIGNO VINCES."
  • 00:38:09.110 --> 00:38:12.070
  • CONSTANTINE HAS THE "CHI-RHO,"
  • 00:38:12.070 --> 00:38:12.280
  • THE TRADITIONAL EARLY
  • 00:38:12.280 --> 00:38:15.150
  • CHRISTIAN IMAGE OF CHRIST
  • 00:38:15.150 --> 00:38:16.100
  • AND THE CROSS PAINTED ON
  • 00:38:16.100 --> 00:38:18.130
  • THE SHIELDS OF SOLDIERS.
  • 00:38:18.130 --> 00:38:19.260
  • THEY WERE OUTMANNED,
  • 00:38:19.260 --> 00:38:21.060
  • SUBSTANTIALLY OUTNUMBERED,
  • 00:38:21.060 --> 00:38:23.000
  • SO THEY'RE THE OFFENDERS,
  • 00:38:23.000 --> 00:38:24.160
  • NOT THE DEFENDERS;
  • 00:38:24.160 --> 00:38:25.110
  • OUTNUMBERED,
  • 00:38:25.110 --> 00:38:26.270
  • AND THEY'RE GOING AGAINST
  • 00:38:26.270 --> 00:38:29.260
  • A FORTIFIED LOCATION, AND
  • 00:38:29.260 --> 00:38:30.150
  • THEY HAVE THE RIVER TIBER.
  • 00:38:30.150 --> 00:38:32.110
  • EVEN MORE THAN THAT,
  • 00:38:32.110 --> 00:38:33.100
  • HIS OPPONENT, THE OTHER
  • 00:38:33.100 --> 00:38:34.200
  • GENERAL WANTING TO
  • 00:38:34.200 --> 00:38:35.150
  • BE THE EMPEROR IN THE
  • 00:38:35.150 --> 00:38:36.090
  • CIVIL WAR, MAXENTIUS,
  • 00:38:36.090 --> 00:38:38.040
  • ACTUALLY DIES CROSSING
  • 00:38:38.040 --> 00:38:39.130
  • THE RIVER.
  • 00:38:44.180 --> 00:38:47.180
  • HIS BARGE IS HIT.
  • 00:38:47.180 --> 00:38:48.220
  • IT SINKS, AND HE DIES IN
  • 00:38:48.220 --> 00:38:49.130
  • HIS ARMOR.
  • 00:38:49.190 --> 00:38:52.190
  • NOW, FOR A ROMAN, THAT'S AN
  • 00:38:52.190 --> 00:38:54.010
  • IGNOMINIOUS DEATH.
  • 00:38:54.040 --> 00:38:57.040
  • IT WAS A GIVEN IN THE
  • 00:38:57.040 --> 00:38:58.030
  • ANCIENT WORLD, THE
  • 00:38:58.030 --> 00:38:58.240
  • EMPERORS WOULD CHOOSE
  • 00:38:58.240 --> 00:39:00.070
  • DIFFERENT GODS TO BE THEIR
  • 00:39:00.070 --> 00:39:01.080
  • PATRONS.
  • 00:39:01.080 --> 00:39:02.250
  • SO YOU HAVE LITERALLY THE
  • 00:39:02.250 --> 00:39:04.070
  • GOD OF THE CHRISTIANS IN A
  • 00:39:04.070 --> 00:39:06.190
  • CIVIL WAR WITH CONSTANTINE
  • 00:39:06.190 --> 00:39:07.250
  • AND MAXENTIUS, UP AGAINST
  • 00:39:07.250 --> 00:39:09.130
  • ANOTHER GOD.
  • 00:39:09.130 --> 00:39:11.250
  • IT WAS OPPOSING OF
  • 00:39:11.250 --> 00:39:12.210
  • CONSTANTINE AND HIS PATRON
  • 00:39:12.210 --> 00:39:14.050
  • GOD AGAINST MAXENTIUS AND HIS.
  • 00:39:15.040 --> 00:39:18.040
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:39:18.040 --> 00:39:19.210
  • - STANLEY: AND THIS PLAYS
  • 00:39:19.210 --> 00:39:20.100
  • INTO THE MIND-SET OF
  • 00:39:20.100 --> 00:39:21.010
  • CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:39:21.010 --> 00:39:21.240
  • THEY'VE JUST EXPERIENCED
  • 00:39:21.240 --> 00:39:22.170
  • SEVERAL HORRIBLE
  • 00:39:22.170 --> 00:39:23.100
  • PERSECUTIONS.
  • 00:39:23.100 --> 00:39:24.160
  • YOU HAVE THIS YOUNG
  • 00:39:24.160 --> 00:39:27.090
  • UPSTART OF YORK WIN A
  • 00:39:27.090 --> 00:39:29.260
  • BATTLE HE SHOULDN'T HAVE WON.
  • 00:39:29.260 --> 00:39:31.060
  • HE'S SEEN THE OPPONENT
  • 00:39:31.060 --> 00:39:33.140
  • KILLED IN A IGNOMINIOUS
  • 00:39:33.140 --> 00:39:34.150
  • WAY, AND THE RESPONSE WAS
  • 00:39:34.150 --> 00:39:35.140
  • THIS DELIGHT, THIS
  • 00:39:35.140 --> 00:39:37.170
  • EXCITEMENT, THIS
  • 00:39:37.170 --> 00:39:38.080
  • OUTPOURING OF SUPPORT:
  • 00:39:38.080 --> 00:39:40.130
  • "CONSTANTINE IS OUR MAN."
  • 00:39:40.130 --> 00:39:42.240
  • "CONSTANTINE HAS BEEN
  • 00:39:42.240 --> 00:39:43.110
  • CALLED BY GOD."
  • 00:39:43.110 --> 00:39:45.120
  • "CONSTANTINE HAS BROUGHT
  • 00:39:45.120 --> 00:39:46.010
  • - JUSTO: CONSTANTINE
  • 00:39:54.290 --> 00:39:55.160
  • BECAME THE SOLE EMPEROR,
  • 00:39:55.160 --> 00:39:57.140
  • BUT EVENTUALLY, HE'S THE
  • 00:39:57.140 --> 00:39:59.110
  • ONE WHO NOT ONLY PUTS AN
  • 00:39:59.110 --> 00:40:00.140
  • END TO THE PERSECUTIONS,
  • 00:40:00.140 --> 00:40:03.030
  • BUT STARTS FAVORING THE
  • 00:40:03.030 --> 00:40:03.210
  • CHURCH IN VARIOUS WAYS.
  • 00:40:03.280 --> 00:40:06.280
  • - JONATHAN: CONSTANTINE
  • 00:40:06.280 --> 00:40:07.160
  • DIDN'T IMPOSE CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:40:07.160 --> 00:40:08.170
  • ON THE EMPIRE.
  • 00:40:08.170 --> 00:40:09.230
  • HE DIDN'T FORCE ANYBODY TO
  • 00:40:09.230 --> 00:40:11.120
  • BECOME A CHRISTIAN.
  • 00:40:11.120 --> 00:40:12.210
  • HE ALLOWED CHRISTIANITY TO
  • 00:40:12.210 --> 00:40:14.010
  • BE PRACTICED, AND BY HIS
  • 00:40:14.010 --> 00:40:15.210
  • - JONATHAN: IF THE
  • 00:40:21.180 --> 00:40:22.040
  • EMPEROR GROWS A BEARD,
  • 00:40:22.040 --> 00:40:22.210
  • EVERYBODY GROWS A BEARD.
  • 00:40:22.210 --> 00:40:24.040
  • - STANLEY: AND, SUDDENLY,
  • 00:40:24.040 --> 00:40:24.230
  • INSTEAD OF BISHOPS BEING
  • 00:40:24.230 --> 00:40:26.130
  • PERSECUTED AND BEING ASKED
  • 00:40:26.130 --> 00:40:27.250
  • TO BURN THE BIBLES AND
  • 00:40:27.250 --> 00:40:28.220
  • RENOUNCE CHRIST, YOU HAVE
  • 00:40:28.220 --> 00:40:29.210
  • BISHOPS IN THE IMPERIAL
  • 00:40:29.210 --> 00:40:30.210
  • - STANLEY: AND IT'S
  • 00:40:35.130 --> 00:40:36.050
  • DURING THIS TIME THAT THE
  • 00:40:36.050 --> 00:40:37.050
  • CHURCH BEGINS TO
  • 00:40:37.050 --> 00:40:38.070
  • RECONSIDER ITS PLACE, ITS
  • 00:40:38.070 --> 00:40:39.020
  • IDENTITY, AND YOU SEE THIS
  • 00:40:39.020 --> 00:40:40.080
  • IN EUSEBIUS' CHURCH HISTORY.
  • 00:40:40.080 --> 00:40:41.240
  • WE HAVE EUSEBIUS POSITING
  • 00:40:41.240 --> 00:40:44.110
  • CONSTANTINE AS GOD'S NEXT
  • 00:40:45.090 --> 00:40:48.090
  • STEP BEYOND CHRIST AND
  • 00:40:48.090 --> 00:40:49.150
  • SALVATION HISTORY SO THAT
  • 00:40:49.150 --> 00:40:51.000
  • CONSTANTINE IS MOVING THE
  • 00:40:51.000 --> 00:40:52.180
  • WORLD FORWARD IN GOD'S
  • 00:40:52.180 --> 00:40:55.010
  • INTENDED PLAN FOR HISTORY
  • 00:40:55.010 --> 00:40:55.250
  • BECAUSE HE'S
  • 00:40:55.250 --> 00:40:58.070
  • CHRISTIANIZING.
  • 00:40:58.070 --> 00:40:59.140
  • HE'S MADE ROME CHRISTIAN.
  • 00:40:59.140 --> 00:41:01.110
  • HE'S TURNING ROMAN
  • 00:41:01.110 --> 00:41:02.140
  • ROADS, THIS GREAT ENGINEERING
  • 00:41:02.140 --> 00:41:03.060
  • MARVEL OF THE WORLD.
  • 00:41:03.060 --> 00:41:05.030
  • HE'S MAKING THEM TOOLS FOR
  • 00:41:05.030 --> 00:41:06.260
  • PROPAGATING THE GOSPEL,
  • 00:41:06.260 --> 00:41:08.110
  • SO, OF COURSE, GOD MUST
  • 00:41:08.110 --> 00:41:09.150
  • - STANLEY: AND SO THEY
  • 00:41:13.250 --> 00:41:14.130
  • THINK IN TERMS OF THE
  • 00:41:14.130 --> 00:41:15.060
  • PEACE OF THE GODS, AND NOW
  • 00:41:15.060 --> 00:41:17.150
  • IT'S NOT "THE GODS," BUT
  • 00:41:17.150 --> 00:41:18.100
  • THE PEACE OF GOD PLAYING
  • 00:41:18.100 --> 00:41:19.120
  • OUT THROUGH ROMAN CULTURE
  • 00:41:19.120 --> 00:41:20.190
  • - STANLEY: YOU HAVE THE
  • 00:41:24.090 --> 00:41:24.270
  • SAME THEOLOGICAL VISION,
  • 00:41:24.270 --> 00:41:27.000
  • POLITICAL PAGAN VISION,
  • 00:41:27.000 --> 00:41:28.160
  • - JONATHAN; PALESTINE, AT
  • 00:41:32.140 --> 00:41:33.030
  • THIS POINT, WAS A VERY
  • 00:41:33.030 --> 00:41:35.000
  • PAGAN AREA EVER SINCE A.D. 70,
  • 00:41:35.000 --> 00:41:36.220
  • WHEN THE ROMANS HAD
  • 00:41:36.220 --> 00:41:38.260
  • DESTROYED JERUSALEM, BUT
  • 00:41:38.260 --> 00:41:40.040
  • WHEN CONSTANTINE BECAME
  • 00:41:40.040 --> 00:41:42.020
  • EMPEROR, HE TRANSFORMED
  • 00:41:42.020 --> 00:41:43.040
  • PALESTINE.
  • 00:41:43.040 --> 00:41:45.000
  • HE BUILT ENORMOUS CHURCHES
  • 00:41:45.000 --> 00:41:45.240
  • TO CELEBRATE THE GREAT
  • 00:41:45.240 --> 00:41:47.120
  • EVENTS RECOUNTED IN THE
  • 00:41:47.120 --> 00:41:49.030
  • GOSPELS, THE BIRTH OF
  • 00:41:49.030 --> 00:41:50.230
  • CHRIST IN BETHLEHEM, THE
  • 00:41:50.230 --> 00:41:51.200
  • DEATH AND BURIAL OF CHRIST
  • 00:41:51.270 --> 00:41:54.270
  • IN JERUSALEM, AND THESE
  • 00:41:54.270 --> 00:41:55.190
  • GREAT CHURCHES TRANSFORMED
  • 00:41:55.190 --> 00:41:57.280
  • PALESTINE INTO A CENTER OF
  • 00:41:57.280 --> 00:41:59.130
  • PILGRIMAGE AND CHANGED THE
  • 00:41:59.130 --> 00:42:01.100
  • RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE OF
  • 00:42:01.100 --> 00:42:02.080
  • - STANLEY: CONSTANTINE
  • 00:42:08.120 --> 00:42:09.010
  • WAS ALSO A BRUTAL
  • 00:42:09.010 --> 00:42:09.280
  • DICTATOR, SO LET'S NOT
  • 00:42:09.280 --> 00:42:11.210
  • PRETEND THAT WE HAVE A
  • 00:42:11.210 --> 00:42:13.010
  • CHARMING, GENTLE LEADER.
  • 00:42:13.010 --> 00:42:14.170
  • - JUSTO: HE ORDERED HIS
  • 00:42:14.170 --> 00:42:17.000
  • OWN SON EXECUTED BECAUSE
  • 00:42:17.000 --> 00:42:17.270
  • HE SUSPECTED THAT HIS SON
  • 00:42:17.270 --> 00:42:19.080
  • WAS CONSPIRING AGAINST HIM.
  • 00:42:19.080 --> 00:42:21.140
  • AT THE SAME TIME,
  • 00:42:21.140 --> 00:42:23.160
  • THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE, HE
  • 00:42:23.160 --> 00:42:24.270
  • WAS THE HIGH PRIEST OF
  • 00:42:24.270 --> 00:42:26.130
  • - JUSTO: YOU BEGIN
  • 00:42:32.220 --> 00:42:33.080
  • WONDERING ABOUT ALL THIS
  • 00:42:33.080 --> 00:42:34.100
  • CHEAP CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:42:34.100 --> 00:42:35.160
  • THAT'S DEVELOPING AROUND
  • 00:42:35.160 --> 00:42:36.090
  • YOU, AND ONE OF THE
  • 00:42:36.090 --> 00:42:37.210
  • OPTIONS--THERE ARE MANY
  • 00:42:37.210 --> 00:42:38.210
  • OPTIONS, BUT ONE OF THE
  • 00:42:38.210 --> 00:42:40.060
  • OPTIONS SAY, "I'M GONNA GO
  • 00:42:40.060 --> 00:42:40.250
  • AWAY SOMEPLACE AND GET
  • 00:42:40.250 --> 00:42:41.150
  • AWAY FROM THIS CORRUPT
  • 00:42:41.150 --> 00:42:42.270
  • SOCIETY," AND THE WORD FOR
  • 00:42:42.270 --> 00:42:45.010
  • SOMEBODY WHO FLEES,
  • 00:42:45.010 --> 00:42:47.090
  • EVENTUALLY BECAME THE WORD
  • 00:42:47.090 --> 00:42:48.160
  • - JUSTO: YOU HAVE TO
  • 00:42:53.040 --> 00:42:55.050
  • UNDERSTAND THE POWER OF
  • 00:42:55.050 --> 00:42:56.070
  • THE MONASTIC MOVEMENT IN
  • 00:42:56.070 --> 00:42:57.090
  • THOSE YEARS.
  • 00:42:57.200 --> 00:43:00.220
  • YOU HAVE ALL THESE PEOPLE
  • 00:43:00.220 --> 00:43:01.110
  • THAT HAVE BEEN TRAINING
  • 00:43:01.110 --> 00:43:01.290
  • FOR MARTYRDOM.
  • 00:43:02.210 --> 00:43:05.210
  • - DAVID: MONASTICISM IS
  • 00:43:05.210 --> 00:43:06.210
  • JUST A PARTICULAR FORM OF
  • 00:43:06.210 --> 00:43:08.030
  • CHRISTIAN ASCETICISM,
  • 00:43:08.030 --> 00:43:10.100
  • TAKING VERY SERIOUSLY WHAT
  • 00:43:10.100 --> 00:43:10.290
  • IT LOOKS LIKE TO BE REALLY
  • 00:43:10.290 --> 00:43:12.130
  • INTENTIONAL AND WANTING TO
  • 00:43:12.130 --> 00:43:14.120
  • DO THAT IN A WAY THAT IS
  • 00:43:14.120 --> 00:43:15.170
  • DENYING THE FLESH IN ORDER
  • 00:43:15.280 --> 00:43:18.280
  • TO GIVE LIFE TO THE
  • 00:43:18.280 --> 00:43:19.280
  • - DAVID: FROM THE VERY
  • 00:43:23.190 --> 00:43:24.070
  • BEGINNING, WE HAVE
  • 00:43:24.070 --> 00:43:25.010
  • CHRISTIAN ASCETICISM BEING
  • 00:43:25.010 --> 00:43:25.230
  • INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT FOR
  • 00:43:25.230 --> 00:43:26.280
  • THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY.
  • 00:43:26.280 --> 00:43:28.110
  • WHAT CHANGES WITH
  • 00:43:28.110 --> 00:43:30.070
  • MONASTICISM IS THAT YOU
  • 00:43:30.070 --> 00:43:31.200
  • HAVE PEOPLE MOVING OUT TO
  • 00:43:31.200 --> 00:43:33.110
  • PLACES THAT REMOVE THEM
  • 00:43:33.110 --> 00:43:35.170
  • FROM THE CITY, AND SO THAT
  • 00:43:35.170 --> 00:43:37.040
  • FORM OF ASCETICISM BECOMES
  • 00:43:37.040 --> 00:43:38.010
  • PROMINENT IN PLACES LIKE
  • 00:43:38.010 --> 00:43:39.090
  • - JERRY: THE LIFE OF
  • 00:43:46.180 --> 00:43:47.110
  • ST. ANTHONY," WRITTEN BY
  • 00:43:47.110 --> 00:43:49.180
  • ATHANASIUS, ENDED UP
  • 00:43:49.180 --> 00:43:51.190
  • BECOMING, SORT OF, LIKE A
  • 00:43:51.190 --> 00:43:53.170
  • GUIDEBOOK OR INSPIRATION
  • 00:43:53.170 --> 00:43:55.290
  • - JERRY: HE WAS SO MUCH
  • 00:44:00.230 --> 00:44:01.220
  • INTO THE SPIRITUAL SIDE OF
  • 00:44:01.220 --> 00:44:03.140
  • THINGS, THAT WHEN THE
  • 00:44:03.250 --> 00:44:06.250
  • EMPEROR CONSTANTINE WROTE
  • 00:44:06.250 --> 00:44:08.010
  • HIM, HE WASN'T EVEN GOING TO
  • 00:44:08.010 --> 00:44:10.080
  • WRITE HIM BACK, AND HE
  • 00:44:10.080 --> 00:44:11.080
  • ENDED UP BASICALLY
  • 00:44:11.080 --> 00:44:12.010
  • CHASTISING THEM FOR FOCUSING
  • 00:44:12.010 --> 00:44:13.100
  • - JUSTO: BUT THEN YOU
  • 00:44:22.170 --> 00:44:23.040
  • HAVE MONKS WHO BECOME THE
  • 00:44:23.040 --> 00:44:25.210
  • PEOPLE WHO COPY SCRIPTURES
  • 00:44:25.210 --> 00:44:27.000
  • AND OTHER DOCUMENTS.
  • 00:44:27.000 --> 00:44:28.140
  • THEY ARE THE ONES WHO
  • 00:44:28.140 --> 00:44:29.170
  • TRANSMIT THE KNOWLEDGE OF
  • 00:44:29.170 --> 00:44:30.130
  • ANTIQUITY AND THE
  • 00:44:30.130 --> 00:44:31.130
  • SCRIPTURE IT'S ON.
  • 00:44:31.130 --> 00:44:34.080
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:44:35.030 --> 00:44:38.030
  • - CATHERINE: IF YOU READ
  • 00:44:38.030 --> 00:44:39.170
  • THE NEW TESTAMENT,
  • 00:44:39.170 --> 00:44:40.020
  • PARTICULARLY THE BOOK OF
  • 00:44:40.020 --> 00:44:41.000
  • ACTS AND PASTORAL EPISTLES,
  • 00:44:41.000 --> 00:44:41.260
  • WOMEN HAD A ROLE.
  • 00:44:42.290 --> 00:44:45.290
  • THEY WERE THE ONES WHO DID
  • 00:44:45.290 --> 00:44:46.180
  • A LOT OF THE CARE FOR THE SICK.
  • 00:44:46.180 --> 00:44:48.050
  • THEY ALSO, IF THE CHURCH
  • 00:44:48.050 --> 00:44:50.000
  • PICKED UP ABANDONED BABIES,
  • 00:44:50.000 --> 00:44:51.200
  • THEY WERE PART OF THE GROUP
  • 00:44:51.260 --> 00:44:54.260
  • THAT HELPED TO RAISE THEM.
  • 00:44:54.260 --> 00:44:55.180
  • IN THE SECOND CENTURY, WE
  • 00:44:55.180 --> 00:44:57.090
  • KNOW THAT THEY WERE
  • 00:44:57.090 --> 00:44:58.130
  • INVOLVED IN THE
  • 00:44:58.130 --> 00:44:59.110
  • CATECHUMENATE FOR WOMEN.
  • 00:44:59.110 --> 00:45:00.260
  • IT WOULDN'T HAVE BEEN
  • 00:45:00.260 --> 00:45:01.130
  • THINKABLE FOR THAT TO BE
  • 00:45:01.130 --> 00:45:03.240
  • - CATHERINE: THE
  • 00:45:11.150 --> 00:45:12.000
  • CONSECRATION OF DEACONESS,
  • 00:45:12.000 --> 00:45:12.190
  • THIS OCCURS CLEARLY IN THE
  • 00:45:12.190 --> 00:45:13.100
  • SECOND CENTURY, WHICH GAVE
  • 00:45:13.100 --> 00:45:14.210
  • THEM A LITTLE MORE
  • 00:45:14.210 --> 00:45:15.190
  • AUTHORITY, A LITTLE MORE--
  • 00:45:15.190 --> 00:45:16.170
  • A KIND OF WAY INTO THE
  • 00:45:16.170 --> 00:45:18.030
  • MORE HIERARCHICAL
  • 00:45:18.030 --> 00:45:19.070
  • STRUCTURE.
  • 00:45:19.070 --> 00:45:20.200
  • THEY WERE ACTIVE IN THE
  • 00:45:20.200 --> 00:45:21.210
  • SOCIETY.
  • 00:45:21.210 --> 00:45:22.170
  • THEY WERE OUT, DOING
  • 00:45:22.170 --> 00:45:23.070
  • - CATHERINE: WHEN
  • 00:45:27.130 --> 00:45:28.000
  • MONASTICISM BEGAN,
  • 00:45:28.000 --> 00:45:28.290
  • ESPECIALLY AFTER
  • 00:45:28.290 --> 00:45:30.240
  • CONSTANTINE, MANY IN THE
  • 00:45:30.240 --> 00:45:32.220
  • LOCAL CHURCH SAY,
  • 00:45:32.220 --> 00:45:34.130
  • "WHAT ARE THESE WOMEN
  • 00:45:34.130 --> 00:45:35.010
  • DOING HERE?"
  • 00:45:35.010 --> 00:45:36.190
  • I MEAN, THE CATECHUMENATE
  • 00:45:36.190 --> 00:45:37.080
  • IS DYING.
  • 00:45:37.080 --> 00:45:39.070
  • YOU WEREN'T HAVING
  • 00:45:39.070 --> 00:45:39.240
  • CHILDREN ABANDONED.
  • 00:45:39.240 --> 00:45:40.270
  • THAT'S ONE THING THAT THE
  • 00:45:40.270 --> 00:45:41.270
  • CHURCH DID GET RID OF
  • 00:45:41.270 --> 00:45:43.050
  • FAIRLY QUICKLY.
  • 00:45:43.050 --> 00:45:43.260
  • SO THEY WERE, IN A SENSE,
  • 00:45:43.260 --> 00:45:45.100
  • FORCED OUT TO THE DESERT
  • 00:45:45.100 --> 00:45:47.120
  • TO PARALLEL WHAT WAS
  • 00:45:47.120 --> 00:45:49.120
  • HAPPENING WITH THE MEN.
  • 00:45:49.120 --> 00:45:51.050
  • THAT MEANT THAT THEIR
  • 00:45:51.050 --> 00:45:52.060
  • MINISTRY WAS NO LONGER
  • 00:45:52.060 --> 00:45:54.000
  • CONSIDERED NECESSARY IN
  • 00:45:54.000 --> 00:45:55.050
  • THE LOCAL CHURCH, AND IT
  • 00:45:55.050 --> 00:45:56.000
  • WAS TAKEN OUT, AND THEY
  • 00:45:56.000 --> 00:45:57.030
  • - CATHERINE: FOR
  • 00:46:02.120 --> 00:46:04.110
  • CENTURIES, IN A SENSE, THE
  • 00:46:04.110 --> 00:46:07.050
  • VOCATION OF A WOMAN NO
  • 00:46:07.050 --> 00:46:08.160
  • LONGER COULD BE ANY FORM
  • 00:46:08.160 --> 00:46:09.180
  • OF MINISTRY IN A LOCAL
  • 00:46:09.180 --> 00:46:10.210
  • CHURCH, BUT THEY'RE ALWAYS
  • 00:46:10.210 --> 00:46:12.110
  • PUSHING AGAINST SIMPLY
  • 00:46:12.110 --> 00:46:13.150
  • BEING CLOISTERED EXCEPT
  • 00:46:13.150 --> 00:46:15.280
  • FOR A FEW REALLY
  • 00:46:15.280 --> 00:46:17.000
  • CLOISTERED ORDERS THAT
  • 00:46:17.000 --> 00:46:18.050
  • - JUSTO: THE MONASTERIES
  • 00:46:22.000 --> 00:46:22.190
  • BECOME SCHOOLS.
  • 00:46:22.190 --> 00:46:23.130
  • THE MONASTERIES BECOME
  • 00:46:23.130 --> 00:46:24.090
  • 00:46:30.240 --> 00:46:33.240
  • - STANLEY: THIS WAS ALSO
  • 00:46:41.000 --> 00:46:41.190
  • A TIME OF GREAT
  • 00:46:41.190 --> 00:46:42.100
  • THEOLOGICAL DEBATE WITHIN
  • 00:46:42.100 --> 00:46:42.290
  • THE CHURCH OVER THE NATURE
  • 00:46:42.290 --> 00:46:43.280
  • OF THE GODHEAD, AND YOU
  • 00:46:43.280 --> 00:46:45.120
  • HAD THROUGH THIS TRADITION
  • 00:46:45.120 --> 00:46:47.230
  • THAT IS OFTEN CALLED THE
  • 00:46:47.230 --> 00:46:48.110
  • ARIANS, THOSE WHO FOLLOWED
  • 00:46:48.110 --> 00:46:49.290
  • ARIUS, WHO POSITED THAT
  • 00:46:50.130 --> 00:46:53.130
  • GOD IS ONE AND THAT
  • 00:46:53.130 --> 00:46:55.200
  • JESUS CHRIST WAS A HUMAN
  • 00:46:55.200 --> 00:46:56.220
  • ADOPTED BY GOD, GIVEN, IF
  • 00:46:56.220 --> 00:46:58.060
  • YOU WILL, KIND OF SEMIDIVINE
  • 00:46:58.060 --> 00:46:59.050
  • STATUS AND POSITION,
  • 00:47:01.160 --> 00:47:04.160
  • AND A ROLE OF REDEMPTION,
  • 00:47:04.160 --> 00:47:05.050
  • BUT NOT A FULL TRIUNE FUNCTION.
  • 00:47:07.290 --> 00:47:10.290
  • - STANLEY: AND THEN YOU
  • 00:47:10.290 --> 00:47:11.170
  • HAD THOSE WHO REPRESENTED
  • 00:47:11.170 --> 00:47:12.130
  • THAT GOD IS THREE, THE
  • 00:47:12.130 --> 00:47:14.020
  • NOTION OF THE TRINITY.
  • 00:47:14.020 --> 00:47:16.050
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS
  • 00:47:16.050 --> 00:47:17.250
  • CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE OF THE
  • 00:47:17.250 --> 00:47:18.170
  • TRINITY IS SOMETHING THAT
  • 00:47:18.170 --> 00:47:21.040
  • GROWS SLOWLY OVER THE
  • 00:47:21.040 --> 00:47:23.110
  • COURSE OF SEVERAL CENTURIES.
  • 00:47:23.190 --> 00:47:26.190
  • THERE ARE CERTAINLY EARLY
  • 00:47:26.190 --> 00:47:27.080
  • INDICATIONS OF IT, BUT
  • 00:47:27.080 --> 00:47:28.110
  • IT'S NOT A CLEAR AND
  • 00:47:28.110 --> 00:47:29.130
  • OBVIOUS PATTERN FROM THE
  • 00:47:29.130 --> 00:47:31.110
  • VERY FIRST.
  • 00:47:31.110 --> 00:47:32.270
  • WE HAVE TO BE CAREFUL NOT
  • 00:47:32.270 --> 00:47:33.160
  • - STANLEY: BUT THEN YOU
  • 00:47:38.140 --> 00:47:39.020
  • HAVE CONSTANTINE CALLING
  • 00:47:39.020 --> 00:47:40.030
  • THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA.
  • 00:47:41.060 --> 00:47:44.060
  • NOW, ALMOST ALL CHRISTIAN
  • 00:47:44.060 --> 00:47:44.250
  • CHURCHES TO THIS DAY,
  • 00:47:44.250 --> 00:47:45.280
  • WHETHER THEY KNOW IT OR NOT,
  • 00:47:45.280 --> 00:47:46.180
  • ARE DEPENDENT UPON THIS
  • 00:47:46.180 --> 00:47:49.020
  • COUNCIL AND USE THE CREED
  • 00:47:49.020 --> 00:47:50.170
  • OF NICAEA.
  • 00:47:50.170 --> 00:47:52.010
  • IT'S A FUNDAMENTAL,
  • 00:47:52.010 --> 00:47:52.220
  • DEFINING CREED IN THE LIFE
  • 00:47:52.220 --> 00:47:54.000
  • - CHILDREN: I BELIEVE IN
  • 00:47:57.200 --> 00:47:58.090
  • ONE GOD, THE FATHER
  • 00:47:58.090 --> 00:47:59.170
  • ALMIGHTY, MAKER OF HEAVEN
  • 00:47:59.170 --> 00:48:02.190
  • AND EARTH, OF ALL THINGS
  • 00:48:02.190 --> 00:48:03.190
  • VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE.
  • 00:48:03.190 --> 00:48:06.030
  • I BELIEVE IN ONE LORD,
  • 00:48:06.080 --> 00:48:09.080
  • JESUS CHRIST, THE ONLY
  • 00:48:09.080 --> 00:48:10.050
  • BEGOTTEN SON OF GOD, BORN
  • 00:48:10.050 --> 00:48:12.010
  • OF THE FATHER BEFORE ALL
  • 00:48:12.010 --> 00:48:13.090
  • AGES, GOD FROM GOD, LIGHT
  • 00:48:13.090 --> 00:48:16.030
  • FROM LIGHT, TRUE GOD FROM
  • 00:48:16.030 --> 00:48:18.160
  • - DENNIS: IN A.D. 330,
  • 00:48:24.020 --> 00:48:25.020
  • CONSTANTINE MOVED THE
  • 00:48:25.020 --> 00:48:26.220
  • CAPITAL OF THE EMPIRE TO
  • 00:48:26.220 --> 00:48:27.240
  • BYZANTIUM AND RENAMED THE
  • 00:48:27.240 --> 00:48:29.130
  • CITY CONSTANTINOPLE,
  • 00:48:29.130 --> 00:48:31.200
  • MODERN-DAY ISTANBUL IN THE
  • 00:48:31.200 --> 00:48:33.230
  • COUNTRY OF TURKEY.
  • 00:48:33.230 --> 00:48:35.260
  • AND IN A.D. 337,
  • 00:48:35.260 --> 00:48:37.080
  • THE FIRST CHRISTIAN
  • 00:48:37.080 --> 00:48:38.150
  • EMPEROR, IN THE KNOWLEDGE
  • 00:48:38.150 --> 00:48:40.100
  • THAT HE WAS DYING OF AN
  • 00:48:40.100 --> 00:48:41.060
  • - JERRY: THEN THERE
  • 00:48:46.180 --> 00:48:47.160
  • BECAME FOUR SEATS OF POWER
  • 00:48:47.160 --> 00:48:49.270
  • IN CHRISTIANITY, SO YOU
  • 00:48:49.270 --> 00:48:51.150
  • HAVE ROME, YOU HAVE
  • 00:48:51.150 --> 00:48:52.130
  • ALEXANDRIA, YOU HAVE
  • 00:48:52.130 --> 00:48:53.060
  • ANTIOCH, AND THEN AFTER
  • 00:48:53.060 --> 00:48:55.070
  • A.D. 390,
  • 00:48:55.070 --> 00:48:56.210
  • - DIARMAID: ORTHODOXY IS
  • 00:49:00.210 --> 00:49:01.140
  • SOMETHING WHICH EVOLVED
  • 00:49:01.140 --> 00:49:03.080
  • OVER THREE OR FOUR
  • 00:49:03.080 --> 00:49:04.220
  • CENTURIES IN THE EARLY
  • 00:49:04.220 --> 00:49:05.240
  • STORY OF THE CHURCH.
  • 00:49:05.240 --> 00:49:07.070
  • NOW, THE PEOPLE WHO CALL
  • 00:49:07.070 --> 00:49:08.200
  • THEMSELVES ORTHODOX NOW
  • 00:49:08.200 --> 00:49:09.160
  • WOULD LOOK DOWN ON EARLIER
  • 00:49:09.160 --> 00:49:11.210
  • CHRISTIANS WHO HAVE
  • 00:49:11.210 --> 00:49:13.090
  • SURVIVED, WHO ARE NOW
  • 00:49:13.090 --> 00:49:15.060
  • GENERALLY CALLED THE
  • 00:49:15.060 --> 00:49:16.210
  • ORIENTAL ORTHODOX.
  • 00:49:16.210 --> 00:49:19.190
  • AND AS FAR AS THE ORTHODOX
  • 00:49:19.190 --> 00:49:20.080
  • ARE CONCERNED, THEY ARE
  • 00:49:20.080 --> 00:49:20.260
  • UNORTHODOX.
  • 00:49:20.260 --> 00:49:22.080
  • SO, YOU SEE, ORTHODOXIES
  • 00:49:22.080 --> 00:49:22.260
  • ARE IN THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER.
  • 00:49:24.180 --> 00:49:27.180
  • THE CHRISTIANITY OF THE
  • 00:49:27.180 --> 00:49:28.060
  • PRESENT DAY IS UTTERLY
  • 00:49:28.060 --> 00:49:29.070
  • DIFFERENT FROM THE BEGINNING.
  • 00:49:30.260 --> 00:49:33.260
  • IT'S UNITED BY ITS FOCUS
  • 00:49:33.260 --> 00:49:35.160
  • ON A PERSON,
  • 00:49:35.160 --> 00:49:37.150
  • THE PERSON OF JESUS
  • 00:49:37.150 --> 00:49:38.120
  • 00:49:45.040 --> 00:49:48.040
  • - STANLEY: AS WE HAVE
  • 00:49:54.170 --> 00:49:55.040
  • CONSTANTINE'S SUCCESSORS
  • 00:49:55.040 --> 00:49:56.040
  • MOVING ALONG AND MOVING,
  • 00:49:56.040 --> 00:49:58.120
  • TAKING NEW STEPS.
  • 00:49:58.120 --> 00:49:59.210
  • AT THE SAME TIME, WE HAVE
  • 00:49:59.210 --> 00:50:00.100
  • SOME OF THE EMPERORS
  • 00:50:00.100 --> 00:50:01.030
  • PROCLAIMING ARIAN
  • 00:50:01.030 --> 00:50:02.090
  • CHRISTIANITY, THIS
  • 00:50:02.090 --> 00:50:03.250
  • ALTERNATE FORM AS THE
  • 00:50:03.250 --> 00:50:04.140
  • OFFICIAL RELIGION, SO IT'S
  • 00:50:04.140 --> 00:50:05.270
  • NOT JUST "CHRISTIANITY IS
  • 00:50:05.270 --> 00:50:07.020
  • LEGAL, AN OFFICIAL FORM,"
  • 00:50:07.020 --> 00:50:07.220
  • BUT IT'S "WHICH
  • 00:50:07.220 --> 00:50:09.260
  • CHRISTIANITY?"
  • 00:50:09.260 --> 00:50:11.250
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:50:11.250 --> 00:50:12.170
  • - JONATHAN: AND YOU SEE
  • 00:50:12.170 --> 00:50:13.050
  • ACROSS THE FOURTH CENTURY,
  • 00:50:13.050 --> 00:50:14.080
  • THIS GROWTH OF
  • 00:50:14.080 --> 00:50:14.280
  • CHRISTIANITY INTO A STATE
  • 00:50:14.280 --> 00:50:15.280
  • RELIGION.
  • 00:50:15.280 --> 00:50:18.050
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:50:18.050 --> 00:50:19.090
  • - STANLEY: AND IN 386,
  • 00:50:19.090 --> 00:50:20.250
  • ANOTHER EMPEROR,
  • 00:50:20.250 --> 00:50:21.200
  • THEODOSIUS THE GREAT, FOR
  • 00:50:21.200 --> 00:50:22.090
  • THE FIRST TIME, MAKES
  • 00:50:22.090 --> 00:50:23.220
  • CHRISTIANITY THE OFFICIAL,
  • 00:50:23.220 --> 00:50:25.140
  • SOLE RELIGION OF THE
  • 00:50:25.140 --> 00:50:26.230
  • EMPIRE.
  • 00:50:26.230 --> 00:50:27.180
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:50:27.180 --> 00:50:28.160
  • - JONATHAN: IT BECOMES
  • 00:50:28.160 --> 00:50:29.040
  • MANDATED.
  • 00:50:29.040 --> 00:50:29.270
  • IT BECOMES EXPECTED THAT
  • 00:50:29.270 --> 00:50:30.250
  • PEOPLE SHOULD BE
  • 00:50:30.250 --> 00:50:32.030
  • CHRISTIANS, AND, OF
  • 00:50:32.030 --> 00:50:32.190
  • COURSE, SOME OF THE
  • 00:50:32.190 --> 00:50:34.190
  • CHRISTIANS WOULD SAY,
  • 00:50:34.190 --> 00:50:35.140
  • "THIS IS A VERY BAD
  • 00:50:35.140 --> 00:50:36.110
  • THING," THAT CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:50:36.110 --> 00:50:37.280
  • IS NOT A RELIGION TO BE
  • 00:50:37.280 --> 00:50:38.240
  • IMPOSED UPON PEOPLE.
  • 00:50:38.240 --> 00:50:40.150
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:50:40.240 --> 00:50:43.240
  • - STANLEY: BEING A
  • 00:50:43.240 --> 00:50:44.110
  • CHRISTIAN IS TIED IN WITH
  • 00:50:44.110 --> 00:50:45.140
  • POLITICAL LEADERSHIP.
  • 00:50:45.140 --> 00:50:47.030
  • IT IS TIED INTO IMPERIAL
  • 00:50:47.030 --> 00:50:47.240
  • RULE.
  • 00:50:47.240 --> 00:50:50.190
  • SO IT'S INTO THIS CONTEXT
  • 00:50:50.190 --> 00:50:51.080
  • THAT THIS YOUNG MAN IN
  • 00:50:51.080 --> 00:50:52.050
  • NORTH AFRICA, AUGUSTINE
  • 00:50:52.200 --> 00:50:55.200
  • IS BORN.
  • 00:50:55.200 --> 00:50:57.250
  • - JUSTO: HIS MOTHER WANTS
  • 00:50:57.250 --> 00:50:59.250
  • HIM TO BE A CHRISTIAN LIKE
  • 00:50:59.250 --> 00:51:00.160
  • SHE IS, BUT SHE ALSO WANTS
  • 00:51:00.160 --> 00:51:02.180
  • HIM TO BE A ROMAN LIKE HIS
  • 00:51:02.180 --> 00:51:03.280
  • FATHER IS BECAUSE THAT'S
  • 00:51:03.280 --> 00:51:05.120
  • THE WAY UP IN SOCIETY.
  • 00:51:05.120 --> 00:51:07.190
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:51:07.190 --> 00:51:10.120
  • - STANLEY: AUGUSTINE
  • 00:51:10.120 --> 00:51:11.030
  • IMPLICITLY HAD THIS NOTION
  • 00:51:11.030 --> 00:51:12.140
  • THAT GOD MUST BE GOOD, AND
  • 00:51:12.140 --> 00:51:13.260
  • THE GOD THAT HE SAW
  • 00:51:13.260 --> 00:51:14.210
  • PRESENTED TO HIM DID NOT
  • 00:51:14.210 --> 00:51:15.230
  • MAKE ANY SENSE.
  • 00:51:15.230 --> 00:51:16.160
  • SO AUGUSTINE AS A TEENAGER
  • 00:51:16.160 --> 00:51:18.010
  • LEAVES THE CHURCH, AND HE
  • 00:51:18.040 --> 00:51:21.040
  • GOES UP TO MILAN WHERE THE
  • 00:51:21.040 --> 00:51:22.000
  • IMPERIAL COURT WAS BASED.
  • 00:51:22.000 --> 00:51:23.170
  • HE COMES UNDER THE INFLUENCE
  • 00:51:23.260 --> 00:51:26.260
  • OF THE BISHOP OF MILAN, AMBROSE.
  • 00:51:26.260 --> 00:51:28.250
  • - MALE NARRATOR
  • 00:51:28.250 --> 00:51:31.130
  • (AUGUSTINE): I BEGAN TO
  • 00:51:31.130 --> 00:51:34.030
  • LOVE AMBROSE, OF COURSE,
  • 00:51:34.030 --> 00:51:36.030
  • NOT AT THE FIRST AS A
  • 00:51:36.160 --> 00:51:39.160
  • TEACHER OF THE TRUTH, FOR
  • 00:51:39.160 --> 00:51:41.130
  • I HAD ENTIRELY DESPAIRED
  • 00:51:41.130 --> 00:51:43.030
  • OF FINDING THAT IN
  • 00:51:43.030 --> 00:51:45.100
  • THE CHURCH.
  • 00:51:45.290 --> 00:51:48.290
  • AND WHILE I OPEN MY HEART
  • 00:51:48.290 --> 00:51:51.060
  • TO ACKNOWLEDGE HOW
  • 00:51:51.060 --> 00:51:52.070
  • SKILLFULLY HE SPOKE, THERE
  • 00:51:52.070 --> 00:51:53.280
  • ALSO CAME AN AWARENESS OF
  • 00:51:54.100 --> 00:51:57.100
  • HOW TRULY HE SPOKE."
  • 00:51:59.000 --> 00:52:02.020
  • - STANLEY: AND THEN IT'S
  • 00:52:02.020 --> 00:52:03.160
  • DURING THIS TIME HE BEGINS
  • 00:52:03.160 --> 00:52:04.050
  • TO RETHINK OF EVIL AS A
  • 00:52:04.050 --> 00:52:04.230
  • KIND OF CORROSION OR
  • 00:52:04.230 --> 00:52:05.120
  • CORRUPTION.
  • 00:52:05.120 --> 00:52:06.290
  • IT'S A TWISTING.
  • 00:52:06.290 --> 00:52:07.220
  • IT'S AN UNMAKING.
  • 00:52:07.220 --> 00:52:09.220
  • GOD MAKES SOMETHING OUT OF
  • 00:52:09.220 --> 00:52:10.210
  • NOTHING.
  • 00:52:10.210 --> 00:52:11.230
  • WHAT EVIL IS, IS THIS
  • 00:52:11.230 --> 00:52:13.080
  • MAKING OF NOTHING OUT OF
  • 00:52:13.080 --> 00:52:14.090
  • SOMETHING.
  • 00:52:14.090 --> 00:52:16.120
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:52:20.280 --> 00:52:23.280
  • - STANLEY: SO HE'S
  • 00:52:23.280 --> 00:52:24.270
  • ACTUALLY GOING THROUGH
  • 00:52:24.270 --> 00:52:26.040
  • NORTH AFRICA ON A, KIND
  • 00:52:26.040 --> 00:52:27.030
  • OF, SPEAKING TOUR,
  • 00:52:27.030 --> 00:52:28.030
  • IF YOU WILL.
  • 00:52:28.030 --> 00:52:28.260
  • WHILE THERE, HE'S IN
  • 00:52:28.260 --> 00:52:29.260
  • HIPPO, AND HIPPO'S PRIEST
  • 00:52:29.260 --> 00:52:30.180
  • HAS RECENTLY DIED, AND HE
  • 00:52:30.180 --> 00:52:31.160
  • IS FORCIBLY GRABBED AND
  • 00:52:31.160 --> 00:52:33.080
  • MADE A PRIEST AGAINST
  • 00:52:33.080 --> 00:52:34.270
  • HIS WILL.
  • 00:52:34.270 --> 00:52:37.160
  • THIS HAPPENED SOMETIMES IN
  • 00:52:37.160 --> 00:52:38.080
  • ANCIENT WORLD.
  • 00:52:38.080 --> 00:52:40.180
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:52:40.180 --> 00:52:42.090
  • - STANLEY: AND SHORTLY
  • 00:52:42.090 --> 00:52:42.270
  • THEREAFTER, HE'S MADE A
  • 00:52:42.270 --> 00:52:43.260
  • CO-BISHOP, AND THEN
  • 00:52:43.260 --> 00:52:44.260
  • BISHOP IN HIPPO, IN
  • 00:52:44.260 --> 00:52:46.090
  • NORTH AFRICA.
  • 00:52:46.090 --> 00:52:48.270
  • HE HAD A WORLDWIDE
  • 00:52:48.270 --> 00:52:49.270
  • REPUTATION, AT THIS POINT,
  • 00:52:49.270 --> 00:52:50.290
  • OR EMPIRE-WIDE REPUTATION
  • 00:52:50.290 --> 00:52:51.240
  • IS GROWING.
  • 00:52:51.240 --> 00:52:53.030
  • HE'S A KNOWN PERSON.
  • 00:52:53.030 --> 00:52:54.210
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:52:55.080 --> 00:52:58.080
  • - JUSTO: HE SOON BECOMES
  • 00:52:58.080 --> 00:52:59.130
  • RESPECTED BY MANY, MANY OF
  • 00:52:59.130 --> 00:53:01.060
  • HIS COLLEAGUES, AND HIS
  • 00:53:01.060 --> 00:53:02.050
  • WRITING BEGINS CIRCULATING AND
  • 00:53:02.050 --> 00:53:04.160
  • SO ON.
  • 00:53:04.160 --> 00:53:05.190
  • THOSE WRITINGS BECAME THE
  • 00:53:05.190 --> 00:53:06.090
  • STANDARD INTERPRETATION OF
  • 00:53:06.090 --> 00:53:09.020
  • PAUL THAT THE WESTERN
  • 00:53:09.020 --> 00:53:10.130
  • CHURCH RECEIVED, AND
  • 00:53:10.130 --> 00:53:11.270
  • THAT'S WHY, WHEN YOU COME
  • 00:53:11.270 --> 00:53:14.170
  • TO THE 16TH CENTURY
  • 00:53:14.170 --> 00:53:15.210
  • THROUGH THE REFORMATION,
  • 00:53:15.210 --> 00:53:16.210
  • BOTH PROTESTANT AND
  • 00:53:17.180 --> 00:53:20.180
  • CATHOLIC'S CLAIM OTHER THING.
  • 00:53:21.030 --> 00:53:24.030
  • - JUSTO: IT'S IMPORTANT
  • 00:53:24.030 --> 00:53:24.220
  • BECAUSE HE LIVED RIGHT AT
  • 00:53:24.220 --> 00:53:25.130
  • THE END OF AN ERA.
  • 00:53:26.080 --> 00:53:29.080
  • - STANLEY: ROME HAS
  • 00:53:29.080 --> 00:53:29.280
  • EXPENDED A GREAT DEAL OF
  • 00:53:29.280 --> 00:53:31.110
  • MONEY OVER THE COURSE OF
  • 00:53:31.140 --> 00:53:34.140
  • THE 4TH CENTURY.
  • 00:53:34.140 --> 00:53:35.050
  • IT HAS EXHAUSTED ITS
  • 00:53:35.050 --> 00:53:37.030
  • RESOURCES, AND IT HAS MANY
  • 00:53:37.030 --> 00:53:37.250
  • WARS, AND IT HAS
  • 00:53:37.250 --> 00:53:38.230
  • INSUFFICIENT NUMBER OF
  • 00:53:38.230 --> 00:53:40.000
  • SOLDIERS, AND THEY BEGIN
  • 00:53:40.000 --> 00:53:41.240
  • DOING WHAT MANY OTHERS
  • 00:53:41.240 --> 00:53:42.290
  • HAVE DONE OVER TIME: THEY
  • 00:53:42.290 --> 00:53:44.000
  • HIRE MERCENARIES.
  • 00:53:44.000 --> 00:53:46.120
  • THE ROMAN LEADERSHIP
  • 00:53:46.120 --> 00:53:46.280
  • DIDN'T COUNT ON ONE
  • 00:53:46.280 --> 00:53:47.290
  • IMPORTANT THING: THAT IS,
  • 00:53:47.290 --> 00:53:49.110
  • IF YOU HAVE MERCENARIES,
  • 00:53:49.110 --> 00:53:50.090
  • YOU NEED TO PAY THEM, AND
  • 00:53:50.090 --> 00:53:51.060
  • IF YOU DON'T PAY THEM,
  • 00:53:51.060 --> 00:53:52.010
  • THEY'VE GOT THE TOOLS TO REACT.
  • 00:53:54.160 --> 00:53:57.160
  • BUT THERE'S ANOTHER INTERESTING
  • 00:53:57.160 --> 00:53:58.080
  • PART OF IT.
  • 00:53:58.080 --> 00:53:59.280
  • THESE MERCENARIES WERE ALL
  • 00:53:59.280 --> 00:54:00.190
  • ARIAN CHRISTIANS, GOTHIC
  • 00:54:00.190 --> 00:54:01.200
  • TRIBES WHO HAVE COME DOWN
  • 00:54:01.200 --> 00:54:03.090
  • OUT OF THE NORTH, SO THEY
  • 00:54:03.090 --> 00:54:04.100
  • REPRESENTED A GROWING
  • 00:54:04.100 --> 00:54:05.250
  • POSITION OF HERESY, AND
  • 00:54:05.250 --> 00:54:06.260
  • YOU HAVE ROMAN LEADERSHIP
  • 00:54:06.260 --> 00:54:09.020
  • REPRESENTING CHRISTIANITY
  • 00:54:09.020 --> 00:54:10.150
  • OF THE NICAEAN CREED, AND
  • 00:54:10.150 --> 00:54:12.240
  • THEY DO SOMETHING IN 410
  • 00:54:12.240 --> 00:54:14.000
  • THAT WAS UNHEARD OF,
  • 00:54:14.180 --> 00:54:17.180
  • INCONCEIVABLE TO THE ROMAN
  • 00:54:17.180 --> 00:54:19.010
  • MIND.
  • 00:54:19.010 --> 00:54:22.000
  • - DIARMAID: THE CHRISTIAN
  • 00:54:32.220 --> 00:54:33.110
  • LEADERSHIP HAD INVESTED SO
  • 00:54:33.110 --> 00:54:34.040
  • MUCH IN THE IDEA THAT GOD
  • 00:54:34.040 --> 00:54:35.200
  • WAS ON THE SIDE OF THE
  • 00:54:35.200 --> 00:54:38.000
  • EMPIRE, AND SUDDENLY, IT
  • 00:54:38.000 --> 00:54:39.290
  • SEEMED AS IF THE EMPIRE
  • 00:54:39.290 --> 00:54:41.080
  • WAS COLLAPSING.
  • 00:54:41.080 --> 00:54:44.060
  • - STANLEY: YOU HAVE
  • 00:54:44.060 --> 00:54:45.100
  • ROMAN CHRISTIANS BESIEGED
  • 00:54:45.100 --> 00:54:46.230
  • BY ARIAN CHRISTIANS.
  • 00:54:46.230 --> 00:54:49.060
  • YOU HAVE THE ROMANS
  • 00:54:49.060 --> 00:54:49.220
  • SAYING, "OUR GODS NEVER
  • 00:54:49.220 --> 00:54:50.290
  • DID THIS TO US."
  • 00:54:50.290 --> 00:54:52.220
  • "PAX DEORUM,"
  • 00:54:52.220 --> 00:54:53.260
  • THE "PEACE OF THE GODS."
  • 00:54:53.260 --> 00:54:54.270
  • "WELL, YOU'VE FAILED.
  • 00:54:54.270 --> 00:54:57.110
  • THE CHRISTIAN GOD MUST BE
  • 00:54:57.110 --> 00:54:58.130
  • FALSE OR A WEAK GOD.
  • 00:54:58.130 --> 00:55:00.050
  • EITHER IT'S A FALSE
  • 00:55:00.050 --> 00:55:01.000
  • RELIGION OR IT'S A WEAK
  • 00:55:01.000 --> 00:55:01.270
  • RELIGION.
  • 00:55:01.270 --> 00:55:02.230
  • EITHER WAY, WE DON'T WANT IT."
  • 00:55:03.270 --> 00:55:06.270
  • OUT OF THIS, YOU ONLY HAVE TWO
  • 00:55:06.270 --> 00:55:08.040
  • VOICES REACTING.
  • 00:55:08.040 --> 00:55:10.040
  • YOU HAVE JEROME THE GREAT
  • 00:55:10.040 --> 00:55:11.100
  • SCHOLAR OF THE BIBLE, WHO
  • 00:55:11.100 --> 00:55:12.260
  • CREATED THE VULGATE, THE
  • 00:55:12.260 --> 00:55:14.050
  • GREAT LATIN TRANSLATION.
  • 00:55:14.050 --> 00:55:15.160
  • "VULGATE" MEANS "VULGAR."
  • 00:55:15.160 --> 00:55:17.030
  • IT WAS THE COMMON LANGUAGE
  • 00:55:17.030 --> 00:55:18.060
  • OF THE PEOPLE, AND HE CAN
  • 00:55:18.060 --> 00:55:20.090
  • ONLY GIVE THE PLAINTIVE
  • 00:55:20.090 --> 00:55:22.030
  • CRY, "IF ROME CAN FAIL,
  • 00:55:22.030 --> 00:55:22.210
  • WHAT CAN SURVIVE?"
  • 00:55:22.210 --> 00:55:23.160
  • NO OTHER VOICE WOULD SPEAK
  • 00:55:23.160 --> 00:55:25.200
  • TO IT EXCEPT AUGUSTINE
  • 00:55:25.200 --> 00:55:28.130
  • WITH WHAT HE CALLED HIS
  • 00:55:28.130 --> 00:55:29.280
  • GREAT AND ARDUOUS WORK,
  • 00:55:29.280 --> 00:55:31.090
  • "THE CITY OF GOD,"
  • 00:55:31.090 --> 00:55:32.130
  • "DE CIVITATE DEI."
  • 00:55:32.170 --> 00:55:35.170
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:55:35.170 --> 00:55:36.280
  • - NARRATOR (AUGUSTINE):
  • 00:55:36.280 --> 00:55:37.240
  • TWO CITIES HAVE BEEN
  • 00:55:37.240 --> 00:55:38.170
  • FORMED BY TWO LOVES.
  • 00:55:40.090 --> 00:55:43.090
  • THE ONE LIFTS UP ITS HEAD
  • 00:55:43.090 --> 00:55:45.080
  • IN ITS OWN GLORY.
  • 00:55:46.050 --> 00:55:49.050
  • THE OTHER SAYS TO ITS GOD,
  • 00:55:49.050 --> 00:55:51.050
  • "THOU ART MY GLORY AND THE
  • 00:55:54.030 --> 00:55:57.030
  • LIFTER UP OF MINE HEAD."
  • 00:55:58.260 --> 00:56:01.280
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:56:01.280 --> 00:56:04.000
  • - JUSTO: ALL OF EUROPE IS
  • 00:56:29.260 --> 00:56:30.270
  • COLLAPSING.
  • 00:56:30.270 --> 00:56:32.120
  • ALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IS
  • 00:56:32.120 --> 00:56:33.050
  • COLLAPSING, BEING TAKEN
  • 00:56:33.050 --> 00:56:34.090
  • OVER AND BY THE PEOPLE
  • 00:56:34.090 --> 00:56:35.270
  • THAT THE ROMANS CALLED
  • 00:56:35.270 --> 00:56:38.110
  • "BARBARIANS."
  • 00:56:38.110 --> 00:56:39.190
  • WHAT AUGUSTINE DOES IS HE SAYS,
  • 00:56:39.190 --> 00:56:40.110
  • "NO, EVERY HUMAN ORDER IS
  • 00:56:40.110 --> 00:56:41.090
  • BASED ON SELF-LOVE," AND
  • 00:56:44.130 --> 00:56:47.130
  • AN ORDER BASED ON
  • 00:56:47.140 --> 00:56:50.140
  • SELF-LOVE CANNOT ALONE
  • 00:56:50.140 --> 00:56:52.280
  • SUBSIST.
  • 00:56:54.070 --> 00:56:57.070
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:56:58.210 --> 00:57:01.230
  • - STANLEY: "THE CITY OF
  • 00:57:01.230 --> 00:57:02.110
  • GOD," OR "CITY OF MAN"
  • 00:57:02.110 --> 00:57:04.250
  • CAN'T BE IDENTIFIED WITH
  • 00:57:04.250 --> 00:57:05.130
  • ANY PARTICULAR CONCRETE,
  • 00:57:05.130 --> 00:57:06.070
  • POLITICAL, CULTURAL
  • 00:57:06.070 --> 00:57:07.170
  • INSTITUTION, WHETHER IT BE
  • 00:57:07.170 --> 00:57:08.260
  • THE GOVERNMENT OR THE
  • 00:57:08.260 --> 00:57:09.290
  • CHURCH.
  • 00:57:09.290 --> 00:57:12.030
  • IT'S SOMETHING THAT IS
  • 00:57:12.030 --> 00:57:14.050
  • MUCH MORE TRANSCENDENT.
  • 00:57:14.050 --> 00:57:15.210
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:57:16.100 --> 00:57:19.100
  • - STANLEY: "MY LOYALTY
  • 00:57:19.100 --> 00:57:19.280
  • HAS GOT TO BE TO HEAVEN.
  • 00:57:19.280 --> 00:57:21.130
  • THAT'S WHERE MY IDENTITY IS.
  • 00:57:21.130 --> 00:57:22.170
  • THAT'S WHERE MY
  • 00:57:22.170 --> 00:57:23.090
  • CITIZENSHIP IS.
  • 00:57:23.090 --> 00:57:23.270
  • I'M A CITIZEN OF THE CITY
  • 00:57:23.270 --> 00:57:24.210
  • OF GOD."
  • 00:57:24.210 --> 00:57:26.160
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:57:26.160 --> 00:57:27.250
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:57:30.020 --> 00:57:33.020
  • - DENNIS: THEREFORE, WHEN
  • 00:57:33.020 --> 00:57:33.210
  • THEY HAD COME TOGETHER,
  • 00:57:33.210 --> 00:57:34.180
  • THEY ASKED HIM SAYING,
  • 00:57:34.180 --> 00:57:35.190
  • "WILL YOU AT THIS TIME
  • 00:57:35.190 --> 00:57:36.280
  • RESTORE THE KINGDOM OF
  • 00:57:36.280 --> 00:57:39.110
  • ISRAEL?"
  • 00:57:39.110 --> 00:57:40.190
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:57:40.190 --> 00:57:41.240
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:57:55.010 --> 00:57:58.010
  • - DENNIS: AND HE SAID TO
  • 00:57:58.010 --> 00:57:58.210
  • THEM, "IT IS NOT FOR YOU
  • 00:57:58.210 --> 00:57:59.090
  • TO KNOW THE TIMES AND THE
  • 00:57:59.090 --> 00:58:00.100
  • SEASONS WHICH THE FATHER
  • 00:58:00.100 --> 00:58:01.270
  • HAS PUT IN HIS OWN
  • 00:58:01.270 --> 00:58:03.040
  • AUTHORITY."
  • 00:58:03.040 --> 00:58:05.060
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:58:05.060 --> 00:58:06.020
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:58:12.270 --> 00:58:15.270
  • - DENNIS: "BUT YOU SHALL
  • 00:58:15.270 --> 00:58:16.210
  • RECEIVE POWER WHEN THE
  • 00:58:16.210 --> 00:58:17.210
  • HOLY SPIRIT HAS COME UPON
  • 00:58:17.210 --> 00:58:19.030
  • YOU."
  • 00:58:19.030 --> 00:58:20.160
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:58:20.160 --> 00:58:21.220
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:58:24.190 --> 00:58:27.190
  • - DENNIS: "AND YOU SHALL
  • 00:58:27.190 --> 00:58:28.110
  • BE WITNESSES TO ME IN
  • 00:58:28.110 --> 00:58:29.070
  • JERUSALEM AND ALL OF JUDEA
  • 00:58:29.070 --> 00:58:31.190
  • AND SAMARIA, AND TO THE
  • 00:58:34.100 --> 00:58:37.100
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:58:42.030 --> 00:58:43.060
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:58:46.180 --> 00:58:49.180
  • - STANLEY: AUGUSTINE IS
  • 00:58:49.180 --> 00:58:50.060
  • TOLD THAT THE CITY IS
  • 00:58:50.060 --> 00:58:52.070
  • BURNING.
  • 00:58:52.070 --> 00:58:54.050
  • THE BUILDINGS ARE BEING
  • 00:58:54.050 --> 00:58:55.130
  • DESTROYED.
  • 00:58:56.050 --> 00:58:59.050
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:58:59.050 --> 00:59:00.040
  • [VOCALIZING]
  • 00:59:00.040 --> 00:59:01.090
  • - STANLEY: AND AUGUSTINE
  • 00:59:01.090 --> 00:59:02.090
  • SAYS, "WHAT IS THE CITY
  • 00:59:02.090 --> 00:59:03.060
  • BUT ITS PEOPLE."
  • 00:59:03.060 --> 00:59:05.090
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:59:05.090 --> 00:59:07.290
  • - DENNIS: IN A.D. 430, 20
  • 00:59:08.180 --> 00:59:11.180
  • YEARS AFTER THE ARIAN
  • 00:59:11.180 --> 00:59:12.130
  • VISIGOTHS SACKED ROME,
  • 00:59:12.130 --> 00:59:14.000
  • HIPPO REGIUS FELL TO
  • 00:59:14.000 --> 00:59:14.270
  • THE ARIAN VANDALS.
  • 00:59:14.270 --> 00:59:15.200
  • THIS SERIES OF WARS WOULD
  • 00:59:15.200 --> 00:59:17.070
  • LEAD TO THE FALL OF THE
  • 00:59:17.070 --> 00:59:18.200
  • WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE AND
  • 00:59:18.200 --> 00:59:19.270
  • USHER IN WHAT WE NOW CALL
  • 00:59:19.270 --> 00:59:20.160
  • THE DARK AGES.
  • 00:59:22.080 --> 00:59:25.080
  • OUR STORY NOW TURNS TOWARD
  • 00:59:25.080 --> 00:59:25.280
  • EUROPE.
  • 00:59:25.280 --> 00:59:27.240
  • COULD CHRISTIANITY SURVIVE
  • 00:59:27.240 --> 00:59:28.190
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:59:44.100 --> 00:59:47.100

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