The Gospels | Episode 12 | TBN

The Gospels | Episode 12

Watch The Gospels | Episode 12
February 22, 2016
27:30

Drive Thru History: The Gospels

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The Gospels | Episode 12

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  • Jesus was leading the way to Jerusalem.
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  • Remember, Mark wrote, "They were on their way up to Jerusalem,
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  • with Jesus leading the way.
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  • And the disciples were astonished, while those
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  • who followed were afraid," Mark 10:32.
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  • Jesus and his disciples had gone to Jerusalem before, but there
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  • was clearly something different this time.
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  • Their rabbi was laser focused. He was determined.
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  • He was a man on a mission.
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • Dave: Mark records that, at one point in the journey, people
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  • were, quote, "Bringing children to him, that he might touch
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  • them, and the disciples rebuked them."
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  • So, picture the scene.
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  • Jesus was so determined to get to Jerusalem
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  • that his disciples were actually afraid.
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  • And along the way, people began bringing
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  • their children up to Jesus.
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  • Perhaps not surprisingly, many of his disciples thought that
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  • Jesus had more important things on his mind
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  • and tried to put a stop to it.
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  • But Jesus said this: "Let the little children come to me,
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  • and do not hinder for them,
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  • for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these.
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  • Truly, I tell you, anyone who will not receive the kingdom of
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  • God like a little child will never enter it," Mark 10:14-15.
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  • "And Jesus picked up the children and blessed them."
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  • Interestingly, people often overlook these passages in the
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  • gospels because they don't seem to carry that much
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  • theological or historical importance.
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  • But Jesus was doing something significant here.
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  • Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures, fathers blessed
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  • their children, from Noah blessing Shem and Japheth,
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  • to Abraham blessing Isaac, Isaac blessing Jacob,
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  • and Jacob blessing his 12 sons, who went on to become
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  • the fathers of the 12 tribes of Israel.
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  • Fathers blessing their children was an
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  • important part of Israelite culture.
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  • It was a tradition at the time of Jesus that fathers would
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  • bring their children to the local synagogue, where the
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  • elders would join the father in a prayer of blessing.
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  • The traditional prayer for the child was that they would be,
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  • quote, "Famous in the law, faithful in marriage,
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  • and abundant in good works."
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  • The father would lay his hands on the child's head.
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  • The elders of the synagogue would
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  • surround them and bless the child.
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  • It was a special event in the local community.
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  • Now, the people were bringing their children to Jesus, which
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  • seems to be consistent with this kind of blessing.
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  • Dave: There was an interesting contrast to be found
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  • in this story that Jesus touched the children when he blessed
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  • them because that is something that the scribes
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  • and the Pharisees never did.
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  • In fact, they made it a point not to touch people
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  • because they believed that they would defile themselves,
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  • religiously speaking.
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  • But Jesus never held himself back from people in that way.
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  • To bless these little children as those to whom the kingdom of
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  • God belongs was an extraordinary thing for Jesus to do.
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  • In the presence of the Pharisees and other important religious
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  • leaders of the day, Jesus was giving a place of honor and
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  • prominence not to them, but to little children.
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  • But Jesus' real rebuke was for his own disciples,
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  • who were trying to hinder the children from coming to him.
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  • He wanted the crowds to know that, in God's kingdom,
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  • no one is a nuisance and no one is insignificant.
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  • The kingdom of God cannot be received with presumption
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  • or entitlement, but with humility and, like a child,
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  • with dependence and trust.
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  • Shortly after Jesus left the children, Mark records this.
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  • "And as he was setting out on his journey, a man ran up
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  • and knelt before him, and asked him,
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  • 'Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?'
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  • And Jesus said to him, 'Why do you call me good?
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  • No one is good except God alone. You know the commandments.
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  • Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal,
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  • do not bear false witness, do not defraud,
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  • honor your father and mother.'
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  • And he said to him, 'Teacher, all of these
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  • I have kept from my youth.'
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  • And Jesus, looking at him, loved him and said to him,
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  • 'You lack one thing.
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  • Go, sell all that you have and give to the poor,
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  • and you will have treasure in heaven.
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  • And come, follow me.'
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  • Disheartened by the saying, he went away sorrowful,
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  • for he had great possessions,"
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  • Mark 10:17-22.
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  • Dave: In the case of the rich young man, since prosperity
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  • was seen as proof of God's approval in ancient Israel,
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  • certain members of the religious community taught
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  • that rich people were the most likely candidates
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  • for the kingdom of God.
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  • Jesus just dismissed that notion.
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  • "When the disciples heard this, they were greatly astonished
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  • and asked, 'Who then can be saved?'
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  • Jesus looked at them and said, 'With man, this is impossible.
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  • But with God, all things are possible.'
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  • Peter answered him, 'We have left everything to follow you.
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  • What then will be there for us?'
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  • And Jesus said to them, 'Truly I tell you, at the renewal
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  • of all things, when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne,
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  • you who have followed me will also sit on 12 thrones,
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  • judging the 12 tribes of Israel.
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  • And everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters,
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  • or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or fields for my
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  • sake will receive 100 times as much
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  • and will inherit eternal life.
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  • But many who are first will be last,
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  • and many who are last will be first.'"
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  • Dave: Well, it was time to get back into Steve McQueen
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  • and head back to the city of Tiberias one last time.
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  • Just driving through modern-day Tiberias,
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  • folks, having a good day.
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  • It is uncomfortably warm, but I'd say that's more than made up
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  • for by the unbearable humidity.
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  • Could be worse, though. Could be raining.
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  • Oh. Oh!
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  • Oh, you got to be kidding me.
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  • Whoa.
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  • That whole no window design is not exactly sound engineering.
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  • I'm soaked.
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  • Back in the day, Tiberias was a grand spectacle
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  • on the sea of Galilee.
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  • Herod Antipas made it his capital city in about 20 AD, and
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  • named it after the Roman emperor, Tiberias.
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  • The city was known for its large palace, theatre,
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  • and port complex.
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  • Today, Tiberias is a modern city of some 40.000 people, and a
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  • popular spot for Jewish tourists.
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  • Not many ancient ruins have survived in here, but those that
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  • have bump right up against this modern city.
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  • Perhaps as you've watched this series, you may have noticed
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  • that Jesus uses the phrase "kingdom of God" many times.
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  • In fact, the phrase appears in the gospels over 40 times.
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  • But what did Jesus mean by this concept, the kingdom of God?
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  • Well, after the rich man walked away disappointed,
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  • Jesus explains this concept.
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  • Jesus presented a new perspective.
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  • He contrasted the short-term view that men hold of the world
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  • with God's long-term view of eternity.
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  • He promised that those who had given up a great deal to follow
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  • him in this life would be greatly rewarded
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  • in the life to come.
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  • This eternal perspective is what made the kingdom of God
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  • radically different from the kingdom of man.
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  • Jesus continued, "You know that those who are regarded as rulers
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  • of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials
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  • exercise authority over them.
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  • Not so with you.
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  • Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your
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  • servant, and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all.
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  • For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve,
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  • and to give his life as a ransom for many," Mark 10:42-45.
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  • Dave: Jesus taught his followers an ultimate paradox
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  • between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of man.
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  • Like today, leaders of Jesus' time were all about
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  • ego, power, and control.
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  • The whole point of achieving leader status was to gather
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  • enough power to boss people around or, in the words
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  • of Jesus, to lord it over the people.
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  • But Jesus announced a new type of leadership,
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  • servant leadership.
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  • And he would lead by example.
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  • For instance, the ruler of the Galilee region, the man
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  • who first built this city, was Herod Antipas.
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  • Now, Herod Antipas was the representation of supreme local
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  • power, and he named the city Tiberias in honor
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  • of the Roman Caesar at the time.
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  • Now, Jesus was becoming known to the public and was gaining a
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  • following over the course of a relatively short period of time,
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  • perhaps slightly over 3 years, while Antipas ruled
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  • for over 4 decades.
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  • Herod Antipas at the very least was probably a little annoyed,
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  • and maybe even scared at the following
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  • that Jesus was accumulating.
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  • And Jesus made a habit of using Antipas or people like him
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  • as negative examples.
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  • Jesus often made thinly veiled statements that he was the true
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  • ruler of Israel, implying that Herod Antipas was merely
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  • a flawed, mortal ruler appointed by men.
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  • Dave: Jesus once warned his followers to beware
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  • of the leaven of Herod, Mark 8:15.
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  • In so doing, he was warning the people to beware of idols,
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  • hypocrisy, and lies spreading from the Roman culture, which
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  • Antipas had incorporated into the city he built here.
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  • Jesus also compared Antipas to one who wears soft clothing and
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  • lives in a luxurious royal palace, and also a reed shaking
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  • in the wind, Luke 7:24-25.
  • 00:11:56.270 --> 00:12:00.290
  • Many believed Jesus got this reed metaphor from one of the
  • 00:12:01.000 --> 00:12:04.080
  • coins that Antipas had minted, showing a reed on one side.
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  • And referring to him as a reed shaking in the wind, Jesus may
  • 00:12:08.120 --> 00:12:12.150
  • have been implying that Antipas was weak and easily swayed
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  • by Roman influence.
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  • Well, whatever Jesus was implying,
  • 00:12:18.220 --> 00:12:20.140
  • it was not a compliment.
  • 00:12:20.150 --> 00:12:22.230
  • These were covert digs at the local leader.
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  • Once, Jesus referred to Antipas as a fox, referencing his
  • 00:12:25.240 --> 00:12:29.080
  • continual hunting of Jesus.
  • 00:12:29.090 --> 00:12:32.070
  • Antipas had attempted to track Jesus down like he had
  • 00:12:32.080 --> 00:12:35.270
  • John the Baptizer, but had been unsuccessful.
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  • Later, Herod Antipas got paranoid that Jesus was actually
  • 00:12:39.100 --> 00:12:43.030
  • John the Baptizer resurrected from the dead.
  • 00:12:43.040 --> 00:12:46.230
  • Herod continued the hunt for Jesus, but was unsuccessful.
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  • As we'll soon see, their first and only meeting came later
  • 00:12:51.000 --> 00:12:54.240
  • at the trial of Jesus.
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  • Dave: In the end, what probably frustrated Herod
  • 00:12:57.250 --> 00:13:00.080
  • Antipas more than anything was the fact that some even
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  • in his own household came to follow Jesus.
  • 00:13:03.160 --> 00:13:06.200
  • This clash of kingdoms had come right into Herod's home.
  • 00:13:06.210 --> 00:13:11.040
  • As the group continued to travel to Jerusalem,
  • 00:13:11.050 --> 00:13:14.110
  • Jesus was a man on a mission.
  • 00:13:14.120 --> 00:13:17.090
  • Not surprisingly, his teaching reflected that mission.
  • 00:13:17.100 --> 00:13:20.240
  • As the number of Jesus' followers continued to grow, so
  • 00:13:20.250 --> 00:13:24.140
  • too did the promise that to follow him would come at a cost.
  • 00:13:24.150 --> 00:13:28.250
  • At one point, Jesus said to his followers, "Whoever wants to be
  • 00:13:28.260 --> 00:13:33.100
  • my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross daily,
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  • and follow me.
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  • For whoever wants to save their life will lose it, but whoever
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  • loses their life for me will save it."
  • 00:13:44.090 --> 00:13:48.090
  • Jesus was telling his followers that if they really wanted to be
  • 00:13:48.100 --> 00:13:52.040
  • his disciples, that it wasn't going to be easy.
  • 00:13:52.050 --> 00:13:55.130
  • In fact, it was going to get more and more difficult
  • 00:13:55.140 --> 00:13:58.040
  • as time went on.
  • 00:13:58.050 --> 00:14:02.170
  • It was going to be so difficult that Jesus used a Roman cross
  • 00:14:02.180 --> 00:14:06.170
  • as a metaphor for following him.
  • 00:14:06.180 --> 00:14:09.250
  • Now, the Romans perfected this form of torture and execution.
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  • For Jesus to use this particular example would be very unusual
  • 00:14:13.230 --> 00:14:18.010
  • for a leader trying to gain a following.
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  • Most leaders tell people what they want to hear.
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  • No one could accuse Jesus of that.
  • 00:14:24.010 --> 00:14:26.280
  • With Jesus' teaching becoming more difficult, opinions about
  • 00:14:26.290 --> 00:14:29.280
  • him became more and more polarized.
  • 00:14:29.290 --> 00:14:33.040
  • Many people were drawn to Jesus, but many were angered by him.
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  • Some religious leaders were willing to discuss ideas with
  • 00:14:37.030 --> 00:14:40.130
  • him, but others hatched plots against him.
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  • Some said Jesus was possessed by the devil, and that, they said,
  • 00:14:43.220 --> 00:14:47.170
  • was how he was able to do his miracles.
  • 00:14:47.180 --> 00:14:50.170
  • Some saw Jesus as a political savior.
  • 00:14:50.180 --> 00:14:53.210
  • Others saw him as a political threat.
  • 00:14:53.220 --> 00:14:56.260
  • And sometimes, Jesus' teachings were so controversial that they
  • 00:14:56.270 --> 00:15:00.070
  • ended with the listeners picking up stones to throw at him.
  • 00:15:00.080 --> 00:15:04.010
  • For the disciples, life with Jesus was always interesting,
  • 00:15:04.020 --> 00:15:08.030
  • but it was about to get more so.
  • 00:15:08.040 --> 00:15:11.180
  • Jesus and his disciples were resting by the Jordan River
  • 00:15:11.190 --> 00:15:15.020
  • when news came that his friend Lazarus, the brother
  • 00:15:15.030 --> 00:15:17.270
  • of Mary and Martha, was very ill.
  • 00:15:17.280 --> 00:15:21.010
  • Jesus did something a bit puzzling to those with him.
  • 00:15:21.020 --> 00:15:23.230
  • He waited 2 days before setting out to see him.
  • 00:15:23.240 --> 00:15:27.230
  • Then Jesus told his disciples, "Lazarus is dead.
  • 00:15:27.240 --> 00:15:31.190
  • And for your sake, I am glad I was not there
  • 00:15:31.200 --> 00:15:34.100
  • so that you may believe."
  • 00:15:34.110 --> 00:15:36.290
  • So, they set out for the village of Bethany, a small settlement
  • 00:15:37.000 --> 00:15:40.180
  • on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives,
  • 00:15:40.190 --> 00:15:43.030
  • and the hometown of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.
  • 00:15:43.040 --> 00:15:48.160
  • Dave: Now, Bethany today is known as the traditional
  • 00:15:48.170 --> 00:15:51.110
  • Palestinian town of al-Azariya, which means the place
  • 00:15:51.120 --> 00:15:55.000
  • of Lazarus in Arabic.
  • 00:15:55.010 --> 00:15:57.140
  • It's about a mile and a half from Jerusalem.
  • 00:15:57.150 --> 00:16:00.150
  • Now, this city was the first century home of Mary and Martha.
  • 00:16:00.160 --> 00:16:04.000
  • In fact, some first century ruins have recently
  • 00:16:04.010 --> 00:16:06.110
  • been uncovered here.
  • 00:16:06.120 --> 00:16:08.280
  • Jesus had been here before.
  • 00:16:08.290 --> 00:16:11.100
  • Here is how that visit was recorded in the Gospel of Luke.
  • 00:16:11.110 --> 00:16:14.170
  • "As Jesus and his disciples were on their way, he came to a
  • 00:16:14.180 --> 00:16:17.240
  • village where a woman named Martha opened her home to him.
  • 00:16:17.250 --> 00:16:21.090
  • She had a sister called Mary, who sat at the Lord's feet,
  • 00:16:21.100 --> 00:16:24.230
  • listening to what he said.
  • 00:16:24.240 --> 00:16:27.160
  • But Martha was distracted by all the preparations
  • 00:16:27.170 --> 00:16:29.210
  • that had to be made.
  • 00:16:29.220 --> 00:16:31.260
  • She came to him and asked, 'Lord, don't you care that my
  • 00:16:31.270 --> 00:16:33.270
  • sister has left me to do the work by myself?
  • 00:16:33.280 --> 00:16:36.270
  • Tell her to help me.'
  • 00:16:36.280 --> 00:16:38.070
  • 'Martha, Martha,' the Lord answered,
  • 00:16:38.080 --> 00:16:41.100
  • 'you are worried and upset about many things,
  • 00:16:41.110 --> 00:16:43.290
  • but few things are needed, or indeed only one.
  • 00:16:44.000 --> 00:16:48.030
  • Mary has chosen what is better, and it will not be taken away
  • 00:16:48.040 --> 00:16:51.170
  • from her,'" Luke 10:38-42.
  • 00:16:51.180 --> 00:16:56.030
  • Now, the story of Jesus' friendship with Mary
  • 00:16:56.040 --> 00:16:58.270
  • and Martha is a favorite of many.
  • 00:16:58.280 --> 00:17:01.210
  • In the culture of the Middle East, men didn't typically have
  • 00:17:01.220 --> 00:17:05.130
  • these kinds of intimate encounters with women.
  • 00:17:05.140 --> 00:17:09.240
  • For Jesus to softly teach these two women
  • 00:17:09.250 --> 00:17:12.240
  • in their own home was unheard of.
  • 00:17:12.250 --> 00:17:16.030
  • It seems the friendship between Jesus, Mary, Martha,
  • 00:17:16.040 --> 00:17:18.260
  • and Lazarus was a very close one indeed.
  • 00:17:18.270 --> 00:17:24.170
  • Now back to the story of the death of Lazarus.
  • 00:17:24.180 --> 00:17:27.090
  • After Jesus arrived here in Bethany, he learned that Lazarus
  • 00:17:27.100 --> 00:17:31.090
  • had been dead and in the tomb for 4 days.
  • 00:17:31.100 --> 00:17:35.170
  • Mourners had gathered at the house of Mary
  • 00:17:35.180 --> 00:17:37.270
  • and Martha to comfort them.
  • 00:17:37.280 --> 00:17:40.020
  • Now, Martha was able to pull herself together enough to go
  • 00:17:40.030 --> 00:17:43.060
  • out and greet Jesus, but Mary was so distraught
  • 00:17:43.070 --> 00:17:47.010
  • that she stayed inside.
  • 00:17:47.020 --> 00:17:51.060
  • "'Lord,'" Martha said to Jesus, 'if you had been here,
  • 00:17:51.070 --> 00:17:54.020
  • my brother would not have died.
  • 00:17:54.030 --> 00:17:56.220
  • But I know that even now, God will give you whatever you ask.'
  • 00:17:56.230 --> 00:18:00.210
  • Jesus said to her, 'Your brother will rise again.
  • 00:18:00.220 --> 00:18:04.190
  • I am the resurrection and the life.
  • 00:18:04.200 --> 00:18:07.120
  • The one who believes in me will live, even though they die.
  • 00:18:07.130 --> 00:18:11.190
  • And whoever lives by believing in me will never die.
  • 00:18:11.200 --> 00:18:14.260
  • Do you believe this?' 'Yes, Lord,' she said.
  • 00:18:14.270 --> 00:18:18.030
  • 'I believe that you are the Messiah, the Son of God,
  • 00:18:18.040 --> 00:18:21.030
  • who is come into the world.'
  • 00:18:21.040 --> 00:18:22.190
  • After she had said this, she went back
  • 00:18:22.200 --> 00:18:24.200
  • and called her sister, Mary.
  • 00:18:24.210 --> 00:18:27.020
  • 'The teacher is here and is asking for you,'" John 11:21-28.
  • 00:18:27.030 --> 00:18:31.290
  • When Mary saw Jesus, she fell at his feet,
  • 00:18:32.000 --> 00:18:35.200
  • and he had compassion on her.
  • 00:18:35.210 --> 00:18:38.140
  • Now, it's here we get the shortest verse in the gospels,
  • 00:18:38.150 --> 00:18:42.150
  • in the entire Bible in fact, John 11:35,
  • 00:18:42.160 --> 00:18:45.260
  • which says simply, "Jesus wept."
  • 00:18:45.270 --> 00:18:48.230
  • Then Jesus led his grieving friends
  • 00:18:48.240 --> 00:18:51.070
  • over to an ancient tomb here in Bethany.
  • 00:18:51.080 --> 00:18:54.280
  • This location has been recorded as the tomb of Lazarus going
  • 00:18:54.290 --> 00:18:58.090
  • all the way back to the historian Eusebius 330 AD.
  • 00:18:58.100 --> 00:19:04.240
  • A large stone blocked the tomb's entrance.
  • 00:19:04.250 --> 00:19:08.010
  • People must have been shocked when Jesus told
  • 00:19:08.020 --> 00:19:10.090
  • them to take away the stone.
  • 00:19:10.100 --> 00:19:12.080
  • In fact, Martha objected.
  • 00:19:12.090 --> 00:19:14.200
  • "'But Lord,' said Martha, the sister of the dead man.
  • 00:19:14.210 --> 00:19:17.010
  • 'By this time, there is a bad odor,
  • 00:19:17.020 --> 00:19:18.270
  • for he has been there 4 days.'"
  • 00:19:18.280 --> 00:19:21.110
  • According to Jewish tradition, Lazarus' body would
  • 00:19:21.120 --> 00:19:23.230
  • have been wrapped in linens and scented with oils,
  • 00:19:23.240 --> 00:19:26.220
  • but the Jews did not embalm their dead.
  • 00:19:26.230 --> 00:19:29.140
  • Thus, the perfumes only lasted so long.
  • 00:19:29.150 --> 00:19:32.100
  • Anyway, Jesus insisted and the people moved the stone.
  • 00:19:32.110 --> 00:19:36.130
  • Jesus looked up and prayed to God.
  • 00:19:36.140 --> 00:19:39.100
  • He prayed to God as his Father.
  • 00:19:39.110 --> 00:19:42.100
  • "Father, I thank you that you have heard me.
  • 00:19:42.110 --> 00:19:44.290
  • I knew that you always hear me, but I said this for the benefit
  • 00:19:45.000 --> 00:19:47.270
  • of the people standing here, that they may believe
  • 00:19:47.280 --> 00:19:50.150
  • that you sent me," John 11:41-42.
  • 00:19:50.160 --> 00:19:54.260
  • "When he had said this, Jesus called in a loud voice,
  • 00:19:54.270 --> 00:19:57.230
  • 'Lazarus, come out.'
  • 00:19:57.240 --> 00:20:00.110
  • The dead man came out, his hands and feet
  • 00:20:00.120 --> 00:20:02.210
  • wrapped with strips of linen, and a cloth around his face.
  • 00:20:02.220 --> 00:20:06.170
  • Jesus said to them, 'Take off the grave clothes
  • 00:20:06.180 --> 00:20:09.150
  • and let him go.'
  • 00:20:09.160 --> 00:20:11.280
  • Therefore, many of the Jews who had come to visit Mary
  • 00:20:11.290 --> 00:20:14.230
  • and had seen what Jesus did believed in him," John 11:45.
  • 00:20:14.240 --> 00:20:21.070
  • Dave: Now, picture the scene.
  • 00:20:24.090 --> 00:20:26.190
  • Still wrapped in his grave clothes, Lazarus stumbled
  • 00:20:26.200 --> 00:20:29.290
  • out of the tomb and into the light.
  • 00:20:30.000 --> 00:20:35.000
  • It was the fulfillment of Jesus' earlier promise to Martha
  • 00:20:35.010 --> 00:20:38.140
  • that if she believed, she would see the glory of God.
  • 00:20:38.150 --> 00:20:44.130
  • But for the Jewish religious leaders,
  • 00:20:44.140 --> 00:20:47.030
  • this miracle provoked a crisis.
  • 00:20:47.040 --> 00:20:51.250
  • [music]
  • 00:20:51.260 --> 00:20:58.180
  • [music]
  • 00:20:59.120 --> 00:21:06.170
  • [music]
  • 00:21:07.000 --> 00:21:11.240
  • Dave: According to the Gospel of John, news of Jesus raising
  • 00:21:13.070 --> 00:21:16.100
  • Lazarus from the dead spread like wildfire.
  • 00:21:16.110 --> 00:21:19.250
  • The Jewish council of the Sanhedrin was enraged.
  • 00:21:19.260 --> 00:21:23.060
  • Surely a miracle like that would seduce the people
  • 00:21:23.070 --> 00:21:26.270
  • to follow Jesus to a rebellion.
  • 00:21:26.280 --> 00:21:30.120
  • The fear was that such a rebellion would provoke
  • 00:21:30.130 --> 00:21:33.020
  • a clampdown by the Romans.
  • 00:21:33.030 --> 00:21:35.240
  • Caiaphas, the high priest, made his position clear
  • 00:21:35.250 --> 00:21:38.200
  • to the religious authorities.
  • 00:21:38.210 --> 00:21:41.000
  • "Then the chief priests and the Pharisees
  • 00:21:41.010 --> 00:21:43.110
  • called a meeting of the Sanhedrin.
  • 00:21:43.120 --> 00:21:45.290
  • 'What are we accomplishing?' they asked.
  • 00:21:46.000 --> 00:21:48.050
  • 'Here is this man performing many signs.
  • 00:21:48.060 --> 00:21:50.210
  • If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him,
  • 00:21:50.220 --> 00:21:54.020
  • and then the Romans will come and take away
  • 00:21:54.030 --> 00:21:56.170
  • both our temple and our nation.'
  • 00:21:56.180 --> 00:21:59.070
  • Then one of them named Caiaphas,
  • 00:21:59.080 --> 00:22:01.040
  • who was high priest that year, spoke up.
  • 00:22:01.050 --> 00:22:04.030
  • 'You know nothing at all.
  • 00:22:04.040 --> 00:22:06.060
  • You do not realize that it is better for you that one man die
  • 00:22:06.070 --> 00:22:08.270
  • for the people than that the whole nation perish,'"
  • 00:22:08.280 --> 00:22:12.110
  • John 11:47-50.
  • 00:22:12.120 --> 00:22:15.170
  • Protecting his own power and preserving public order
  • 00:22:17.040 --> 00:22:20.160
  • were now his highest priorities.
  • 00:22:20.170 --> 00:22:23.080
  • And Caiaphas knew that Jesus must die.
  • 00:22:23.090 --> 00:22:27.130
  • [music]
  • 00:22:28.020 --> 00:22:34.290
  • [music]
  • 00:22:35.040 --> 00:22:37.040
  • Dave: Caiaphas was the Jewish high priest
  • 00:22:38.020 --> 00:22:40.060
  • who served in Jerusalem from about 18 to 36 AD.
  • 00:22:40.070 --> 00:22:45.040
  • History tells us that he was the son-in-law of Annas
  • 00:22:45.050 --> 00:22:48.010
  • and likely from the tribe of Levi.
  • 00:22:48.020 --> 00:22:51.010
  • As a member of the Jewish priestly class,
  • 00:22:51.020 --> 00:22:53.180
  • he was part of the sect of the Sadducees.
  • 00:22:53.190 --> 00:22:55.290
  • Now, the Sadducees had priestly,
  • 00:22:56.000 --> 00:22:58.110
  • but also political and judicial roles.
  • 00:22:58.120 --> 00:23:01.060
  • The other main religious group was the Pharisees,
  • 00:23:01.070 --> 00:23:04.080
  • and they focused more on religious laws
  • 00:23:04.090 --> 00:23:07.050
  • and teaching in local synagogues.
  • 00:23:07.060 --> 00:23:09.270
  • Now, the Sadducees tended to be corrupted by money.
  • 00:23:09.280 --> 00:23:13.100
  • And they were more interested in the political power and benefits
  • 00:23:13.110 --> 00:23:16.290
  • from their close ties with the Romans.
  • 00:23:17.000 --> 00:23:20.180
  • Caiaphas, who served as the high priest at the temple
  • 00:23:20.190 --> 00:23:24.000
  • in Jerusalem, is an important historical anchor
  • 00:23:24.010 --> 00:23:26.280
  • for three of the gospels: Matthew, Luke, and John.
  • 00:23:26.290 --> 00:23:30.250
  • He is also attested in the writings of Roman historian
  • 00:23:30.260 --> 00:23:33.170
  • Flavius Josephus, where Josephus attests to his name, position,
  • 00:23:33.180 --> 00:23:38.120
  • and time of service as high priest.
  • 00:23:38.130 --> 00:23:41.050
  • Interestingly, Josephus specifies that he was Joseph,
  • 00:23:41.060 --> 00:23:44.180
  • son of Caiaphas, but that he was also known as Joseph
  • 00:23:44.190 --> 00:23:48.020
  • who was called Caiaphas.
  • 00:23:48.030 --> 00:23:50.210
  • This explains why the gospels merely use the name Caiaphas.
  • 00:23:50.220 --> 00:23:54.180
  • The name Joseph, son of Caiaphas, is also found
  • 00:23:54.190 --> 00:23:57.210
  • on an ossuary or a bone box found just outside
  • 00:23:57.220 --> 00:24:01.260
  • the walls of first century Jerusalem.
  • 00:24:01.270 --> 00:24:04.290
  • In 1990, a tomb was accidentally discovered
  • 00:24:05.000 --> 00:24:08.020
  • during a construction project and subsequently excavated.
  • 00:24:08.030 --> 00:24:11.140
  • Twelve ossuaries were found inside the rock-cut tomb,
  • 00:24:11.150 --> 00:24:15.250
  • two of which contained the family name Caiaphas.
  • 00:24:15.260 --> 00:24:19.190
  • The ossuary, inscribed with Joseph son of Caiaphas,
  • 00:24:19.200 --> 00:24:23.150
  • was particularly ornate.
  • 00:24:23.160 --> 00:24:26.090
  • Inside, remains of six individuals were discovered,
  • 00:24:26.100 --> 00:24:29.170
  • including a man about 60 years old.
  • 00:24:29.180 --> 00:24:32.220
  • The tomb where the ossuary was found also contained a coin of
  • 00:24:32.230 --> 00:24:37.090
  • Herod Agrippa the first, dated to 42 or 43 AD, which places
  • 00:24:37.100 --> 00:24:42.240
  • this ossuary in the right place at the right time.
  • 00:24:42.250 --> 00:24:47.030
  • Because of the evidence, most scholars accept that this
  • 00:24:47.040 --> 00:24:50.160
  • artifact really is the ossuary which held the bones of Joseph
  • 00:24:50.170 --> 00:24:54.050
  • Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest, the man who
  • 00:24:54.060 --> 00:24:57.220
  • became such an important part of the gospel story.
  • 00:24:57.230 --> 00:25:03.060
  • Dave: According to the Gospel of John, Caiaphas was the one
  • 00:25:03.070 --> 00:25:05.210
  • who advised the Jewish leaders that it would be good for one
  • 00:25:05.220 --> 00:25:09.030
  • man to die for the people, John 18:14.
  • 00:25:09.040 --> 00:25:12.290
  • So, the chief priest gave orders that anyone who knew
  • 00:25:13.000 --> 00:25:16.090
  • the whereabouts of Jesus should notify them immediately
  • 00:25:16.100 --> 00:25:19.100
  • so that he could be arrested.
  • 00:25:19.110 --> 00:25:22.050
  • Passover was soon approaching, and the temple officials figured
  • 00:25:22.060 --> 00:25:25.160
  • that Jesus would not pass on an opportunity
  • 00:25:25.170 --> 00:25:28.080
  • to show up here in Jerusalem.
  • 00:25:28.090 --> 00:25:32.140
  • Meanwhile, Jesus was alone with his disciples,
  • 00:25:32.150 --> 00:25:35.250
  • away from the city.
  • 00:25:35.260 --> 00:25:38.040
  • It was time to prepare them for what was coming.
  • 00:25:38.050 --> 00:25:41.050
  • "We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written
  • 00:25:41.060 --> 00:25:44.280
  • by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled.
  • 00:25:44.290 --> 00:25:48.210
  • He will be delivered over to the Gentiles.
  • 00:25:48.220 --> 00:25:51.120
  • They will mock him, insult him, and spit on him.
  • 00:25:51.130 --> 00:25:54.180
  • They will flog him and kill him.
  • 00:25:54.190 --> 00:25:58.020
  • On the third day, he will rise again," Luke 18:31-33.
  • 00:25:58.030 --> 00:26:04.170
  • While many of the Jewish people were still holding out for a
  • 00:26:04.180 --> 00:26:07.060
  • conquering Messiah, Jesus was delivering the harsh reality:
  • 00:26:07.070 --> 00:26:12.090
  • the Messiah must first suffer and die.
  • 00:26:12.100 --> 00:26:16.170
  • [music]
  • 00:26:19.050 --> 00:26:25.200
  • [music]
  • 00:26:25.290 --> 00:26:32.010
  • [music]
  • 00:26:32.110 --> 00:26:38.270
  • [music]
  • 00:26:39.070 --> 00:26:45.230
  • [music]
  • 00:26:46.030 --> 00:26:53.080
  • [music]
  • 00:26:53.140 --> 00:26:59.260
  • [music]
  • 00:27:07.120 --> 00:27:14.210
  • [music]
  • 00:27:15.200 --> 00:27:22.140
  • [music]
  • 00:27:23.050 --> 00:27:28.040