The Gospels | Episode 11 | TBN

The Gospels | Episode 11

Watch The Gospels | Episode 11
February 15, 2016
27:30

Drive Thru History: The Gospels

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The Gospels | Episode 11

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  • Dave Stotts: In our prior episode of "Drive Thru History:
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  • The Gospels," Jesus continued to teach and perform miracles
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  • around the Sea of Galilee.
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  • Jesus chose 12 of his closest followers as apostles,
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  • men who were sent out to the surrounding villages to share
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  • the good news about the kingdom of God.
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  • Although Jesus started his ministry by specifically
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  • addressing the Jewish people, we ended our last episode with
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  • Jesus broadening his message to the Gentiles.
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  • The gospel would now be available for everyone.
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  • Jesus was near the end of his ministry.
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  • He was about to reconvene his apostles for a special trip to
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  • the northern end of the Galilee region.
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • [music]
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  • Dave: In today's "Drive Thru History" excursion,
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  • we turn our faces North and make the approximately 25-mile
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  • drive from the Sea of Galilee to Caesarea Philippi,
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  • an ancient Roman city at the base of Mount Hermon in a
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  • region of Israel known as the Golan Heights.
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  • It's pretty much uphill all the way from the Sea of Galilee
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  • which is almost 700 feet below sea level to Caesarea Philippi
  • 00:02:03.290 --> 00:02:09.010
  • which is about 1150 feet above sea level.
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  • The landscape changes as you go,
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  • from dry and golden to more lush and green.
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  • Knowing Jesus and his disciples spent time here made this road
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  • trip all the more exciting to me.
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  • And I was again impressed with the amazing realization that I
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  • was very much following the footsteps of the most
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  • influential and consequential man who ever walked the earth.
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  • Dave: Well, I finally made it to the North of Israel,
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  • near Dan, and a place called Caesarea Philippi.
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  • Now this is a large archeological site containing
  • 00:02:44.110 --> 00:02:47.050
  • elaborate building projects by Herod Philip and Herod the
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  • Great's grandson, Agrippa II.
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  • Heard it's supposed to rain today.
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  • [thunder crashing]
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  • Dave: In addition to magnificent Roman structures,
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  • Caesarea Philippi is also known for Banias,
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  • a collection of springs and pagan worship sites
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  • linked to the cult of Pan.
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  • Pan, also called the Goat God, was the Greco-Roman God of
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  • nature, livestock, and hunting, all things related to wild
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  • times, party music, and, of course, fertility.
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  • Pan was the crazy-looking guy with the hind quarters,
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  • legs, and horns of a goat.
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  • [horn sounding]
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  • Dave: The centerpiece of this ancient worship site is
  • 00:03:29.080 --> 00:03:32.050
  • this huge cliff and grotto, containing the remains of
  • 00:03:32.060 --> 00:03:36.210
  • numerous altars, caves, temples, and courtyards.
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  • This whole area was teeming with Roman mythology and idolatry.
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  • [music]
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  • Dave: It was right here where Jesus,
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  • nearing the end of his ministry,
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  • asked his disciples one profound question,
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  • "Who do you say that I am?"
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  • [music]
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  • Dave: Simon Peter answered,
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  • "You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God."
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  • Jesus replied, "Blessed are you,
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  • Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man,
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  • but by my Father in heaven.
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  • And I tell you that you are Peter,
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  • and on this rock I will build my church,
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  • and the gates of Hades will not overcome it."
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  • Matthew 16:13 through 18.
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  • Dave: This dramatic scene in the gospels is
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  • commonly referred to as Peter's confession.
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  • Now the disciples had walked with Jesus for about 3 years.
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  • They had listened to his teachings.
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  • They had witnessed his miracles.
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  • They had come to know Jesus as a man.
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  • But Simon Peter had come to understand that Jesus was the
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  • long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
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  • Jesus responded by blessing Simon.
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  • He changed Simon's name to Peter,
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  • the Rock, and declared that he would build a church on this
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  • rock, a church so solid that not even Hades
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  • itself would overcome it.
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  • Dave: That huge cave adjacent to the Temple of Pan
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  • was considered to be the gateway to Hades.
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  • In Greek mythology, Hades was the God of the Underworld.
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  • By the time of the Romans, Hades was considered to pretty
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  • much be the Underworld itself.
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  • Cult worshipers believed that this open pit provided some
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  • kind of a gateway, access to the abode of the dead.
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  • Sacrifices were made here to appease the guardians
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  • of the Underworld.
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  • [music]
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  • Dave: To the Jew, Hades represented the present pit in
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  • the heart of the earth, a place where the souls of the dead
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  • were confined and awaiting judgment.
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  • In the context of this ancient occult location,
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  • the power of Jesus' statement really comes through.
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  • The gates of Hades will not overcome the church that will
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  • be built in his name.
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  • Okay, so what about Jesus' use of the word "rock,
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  • here at Caesarea Philippi?
  • 00:06:23.010 --> 00:06:25.090
  • The debate rages on as to whether or not the rock that
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  • Jesus will build his church is referring to Peter or to
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  • Jesus himself.
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  • The first view is that Jesus was declaring that Peter would
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  • be the rock on which he would build his church.
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  • In that case, Jesus was using a play on words.
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  • "You are Peter, petros, and on this bedrock,
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  • petra, I will build my church."
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  • Since Peter's name means rock and since Jesus was going to
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  • build his church on bedrock, one school of thought is that
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  • Jesus was linking the two together.
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  • Later in history, Peter does become a primary foundation of
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  • the church.
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  • It is Peter who first proclaims the gospel on the Day of
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  • Pentecost and was the first to take the gospel
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  • to the Gentiles.
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  • And later we can see from the testimony of the early church
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  • that Peter was widely considered as the leader of the church.
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  • In a sense, Peter was the rock foundation of the church.
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  • Another interpretation is that the rock Jesus spoke of wasn't
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  • Peter but Peter's confession and proclamation
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  • of Jesus as Messiah.
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  • In this sense, it's the gospel message that Jesus is Lord that
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  • serves as the church's foundation.
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  • In the eyes of many, this view is another way of saying Jesus
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  • himself is the foundation.
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  • Dave: Peter's declaration of faith,
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  • "You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God,
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  • led Jesus to declare that he was the rock,
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  • the bedrock, the cornerstone, the foundation upon which he
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  • would build his own church.
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  • Jesus' identity as the Christ, the Messiah,
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  • was the bedrock that would support everything else.
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  • But what came next must have truly baffled his disciples.
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  • In Matthew 16:20, Jesus orders them,
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  • "Do not tell anyone that I am the Messiah."
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  • Now put yourself in the disciples' sandals
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  • for just a minute.
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  • Over the course of their time with Jesus,
  • 00:08:25.030 --> 00:08:26.230
  • they'd seen him control the weather,
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  • heal people, cast out demons, baffle the experts,
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  • and mesmerize crowds of thousands, walk on water.
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  • And they now finally believed him to be the long-awaited
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  • Jewish Messiah who would cast off Roman oppression and usher
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  • in the new Jewish kingdom.
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  • And they were his best friends.
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  • Now I know what I'd be thinking: let the good times roll.
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  • Dave: Except that's not how the Scripture reads.
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  • According to the Bible, that little party lasted
  • 00:08:54.220 --> 00:08:56.270
  • for about 8 seconds.
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  • [music]
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  • Dave: From that time on, Jesus began to explain to his
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  • disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many
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  • things at the hands of the elders,
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  • the chief priests, and the teachers of the law.
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  • And that he must be killed and on the third
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  • day be raised to life.
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  • Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.
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  • "'Never, Lord,' he said, 'this shall never happen to you.'
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  • Jesus turned and said to Peter, 'Get behind thee,
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  • Satan, for you are a stumbling block to me,
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  • "Matthew 16:22 and 23.
  • 00:09:31.000 --> 00:09:34.040
  • [music]
  • 00:09:34.050 --> 00:09:35.280
  • Dave: And so here for the first time Jesus revealed
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  • his plan to his disciples.
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  • And it's clear by Peter's reaction that they weren't
  • 00:09:41.250 --> 00:09:45.050
  • exactly prepared for this new revelation that Jesus,
  • 00:09:45.060 --> 00:09:49.140
  • their leader, their friend, who did all those amazing things,
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  • was now going to suffer and die.
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  • Dave: Now Jesus did say that he would be
  • 00:09:57.190 --> 00:09:59.210
  • raised from the dead.
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  • But I think it's possible that they might have missed that
  • 00:10:01.090 --> 00:10:03.180
  • part with the words "suffer and die" still
  • 00:10:03.190 --> 00:10:06.100
  • ringing in their ears.
  • 00:10:06.110 --> 00:10:08.070
  • Peter just simply couldn't understand it all,
  • 00:10:08.080 --> 00:10:10.090
  • and the gospels record that he began to rebuke Jesus.
  • 00:10:10.100 --> 00:10:15.090
  • Jesus' response was pretty interesting.
  • 00:10:15.100 --> 00:10:17.220
  • Well, interesting to us 2000 years later.
  • 00:10:17.230 --> 00:10:20.230
  • I don't think interesting is the word Peter would choose to
  • 00:10:20.240 --> 00:10:23.190
  • describe it, though, especially right after Jesus told him,
  • 00:10:23.200 --> 00:10:26.230
  • "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church."
  • 00:10:26.240 --> 00:10:30.150
  • "Get behind me, Satan," Jesus said.
  • 00:10:30.160 --> 00:10:34.170
  • As incomprehensible as it may have seemed to his disciples,
  • 00:10:34.180 --> 00:10:38.200
  • Jesus knew he was going to suffer.
  • 00:10:38.210 --> 00:10:41.050
  • And apparently, it was his plan to allow it to happen.
  • 00:10:41.060 --> 00:10:44.280
  • And he wasn't going to allow anyone,
  • 00:10:44.290 --> 00:10:47.130
  • not even one of his closest friends, to get in the way.
  • 00:10:47.140 --> 00:10:49.220
  • [music]
  • 00:10:49.230 --> 00:10:59.240
  • [music]
  • 00:10:59.240 --> 00:10:59.250
  • [music]
  • 00:10:59.250 --> 00:11:04.290
  • Dave: "About 8 days after Jesus said this,
  • 00:11:05.190 --> 00:11:08.110
  • he took Peter, John, and James with him and went up
  • 00:11:08.120 --> 00:11:11.240
  • onto a mountain to pray.
  • 00:11:11.250 --> 00:11:13.210
  • As he was praying, the appearance of his face changed
  • 00:11:13.220 --> 00:11:17.100
  • and his clothes became as bright as a flash of lightning.
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  • Two men, Moses and Elijah, appeared in glorious splendor,
  • 00:11:21.030 --> 00:11:25.110
  • talking with Jesus.
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  • They spoke about his departure, which he was about to bring to
  • 00:11:28.270 --> 00:11:31.250
  • fulfillment at Jerusalem.
  • 00:11:31.260 --> 00:11:34.170
  • Peter and his companions were very sleepy but when they
  • 00:11:34.180 --> 00:11:36.290
  • became fully awake, they saw his glory and the two men
  • 00:11:37.000 --> 00:11:40.080
  • standing with him.
  • 00:11:40.090 --> 00:11:41.280
  • As the men were leaving Jesus, Peter said to him,
  • 00:11:41.290 --> 00:11:44.210
  • 'Master, it is good for us to be here.
  • 00:11:44.220 --> 00:11:46.240
  • Let us put up three shelters, one for you,
  • 00:11:46.250 --> 00:11:49.130
  • one for Moses, and one for Elijah.'
  • 00:11:49.140 --> 00:11:52.290
  • While he was speaking, a cloud appeared and covered them
  • 00:11:53.000 --> 00:11:56.040
  • and they were afraid as they entered the cloud.
  • 00:11:56.050 --> 00:12:00.230
  • A voice came from the cloud, saying,
  • 00:12:00.240 --> 00:12:02.270
  • 'This is my Son, whom I have chosen;
  • 00:12:02.280 --> 00:12:05.270
  • listen to him.'
  • 00:12:05.280 --> 00:12:07.210
  • When the voice had spoken, they found that Jesus was alone."
  • 00:12:07.220 --> 00:12:11.190
  • Luke 9:28 through 36.
  • 00:12:11.200 --> 00:12:15.180
  • "As they were coming down the mountain,
  • 00:12:15.190 --> 00:12:16.290
  • Jesus instructed them, 'Do not tell anyone what you have seen
  • 00:12:17.000 --> 00:12:20.230
  • until the Son of Man has been raised from the dead,'"
  • 00:12:20.240 --> 00:12:24.060
  • Matthew 17:9.
  • 00:12:24.070 --> 00:12:26.250
  • Dave: This event in the gospels is called the
  • 00:12:26.260 --> 00:12:28.220
  • Transfiguration.
  • 00:12:28.230 --> 00:12:30.270
  • Now according to Miriam Webster's dictionary,
  • 00:12:30.280 --> 00:12:33.030
  • a transfiguration is a change of form or appearance,
  • 00:12:33.040 --> 00:12:38.220
  • especially one that glorifies, beautifies,
  • 00:12:38.230 --> 00:12:41.270
  • and makes more spiritual.
  • 00:12:41.280 --> 00:12:45.050
  • Now this event of the Transfiguration was the
  • 00:12:45.060 --> 00:12:47.060
  • capstone of Jesus' public life.
  • 00:12:47.070 --> 00:12:50.030
  • While his baptism was the starting point of his public
  • 00:12:50.040 --> 00:12:53.270
  • ministry, the Transfiguration was the peak,
  • 00:12:53.280 --> 00:12:58.070
  • the culmination of his public ministry.
  • 00:12:58.080 --> 00:13:01.110
  • Now the experience of the Transfiguration gave Peter,
  • 00:13:01.120 --> 00:13:04.110
  • James, and John a glimpse of heaven in order for them to be
  • 00:13:04.120 --> 00:13:08.010
  • strengthened for the terrible suffering that was to come.
  • 00:13:08.020 --> 00:13:12.100
  • [music]
  • 00:13:17.020 --> 00:13:19.090
  • Dave: And we can only imagine what this experience
  • 00:13:19.100 --> 00:13:21.120
  • would have been like for the disciples but it must have been
  • 00:13:21.130 --> 00:13:24.110
  • pretty astonishing because it's written that the disciples were
  • 00:13:24.120 --> 00:13:27.170
  • very afraid.
  • 00:13:27.180 --> 00:13:29.150
  • Now, here's another question.
  • 00:13:29.160 --> 00:13:31.180
  • Of all the significant figures available in the Hebrew
  • 00:13:31.190 --> 00:13:35.090
  • Scriptures, why was it particularly Moses
  • 00:13:35.100 --> 00:13:37.260
  • and Elijah that showed up?
  • 00:13:37.270 --> 00:13:40.030
  • Well, one popular theory is that Moses represented the law
  • 00:13:40.040 --> 00:13:44.070
  • and Elijah represented the prophets.
  • 00:13:44.080 --> 00:13:46.130
  • So when God's voice from heaven said about Jesus,
  • 00:13:46.140 --> 00:13:49.150
  • "Listen to him," that indicated that the law and the prophets
  • 00:13:49.160 --> 00:13:53.130
  • must now give way to Jesus who will replace the old way with
  • 00:13:53.140 --> 00:13:57.130
  • the new way.
  • 00:13:57.140 --> 00:13:58.240
  • He is the completion of the law and the fulfillment of the
  • 00:13:58.250 --> 00:14:01.240
  • prophecies of the Old Testament.
  • 00:14:01.250 --> 00:14:04.060
  • Dave: A theory as to the whole purpose of this entire
  • 00:14:04.070 --> 00:14:06.220
  • event was that it gave the inner circle of Jesus'
  • 00:14:06.230 --> 00:14:09.180
  • followers a greater understanding of
  • 00:14:09.190 --> 00:14:11.220
  • who Jesus really was.
  • 00:14:11.230 --> 00:14:14.000
  • The apostles, who had only known Jesus in his human body,
  • 00:14:14.010 --> 00:14:17.110
  • now had a greater understanding of his deity.
  • 00:14:17.120 --> 00:14:20.230
  • This also gave them the reassurance they needed after
  • 00:14:20.240 --> 00:14:23.280
  • the shocking revelation of his coming death.
  • 00:14:23.290 --> 00:14:26.100
  • [music]
  • 00:14:26.110 --> 00:14:28.250
  • Dave: It's also interesting to note the
  • 00:14:28.260 --> 00:14:30.240
  • symbolism that exists in this event.
  • 00:14:30.250 --> 00:14:33.150
  • As Jesus meets with Moses and Elijah,
  • 00:14:33.160 --> 00:14:36.030
  • it's recorded that they spoke of his departure.
  • 00:14:36.040 --> 00:14:39.270
  • Moses had led his own departure or exodus out of
  • 00:14:39.280 --> 00:14:42.290
  • Egypt almost 15 centuries earlier.
  • 00:14:43.000 --> 00:14:46.090
  • Also, 2 Kings records that Elijah departed this earth in a
  • 00:14:46.100 --> 00:14:50.170
  • flaming chariot.
  • 00:14:50.180 --> 00:14:52.180
  • Jesus had miraculously provided bread for the multitudes in the
  • 00:14:52.190 --> 00:14:56.100
  • story of loaves and fishes we covered in our last episode,
  • 00:14:56.110 --> 00:15:00.150
  • just as Moses provided bread or manna in the
  • 00:15:00.160 --> 00:15:03.280
  • wilderness to the Israelites.
  • 00:15:03.290 --> 00:15:06.080
  • And when Moses came down from the mountain with the Ten
  • 00:15:06.090 --> 00:15:08.270
  • Commandments, you may remember that his face was shining with
  • 00:15:08.280 --> 00:15:11.290
  • the glory of God, just as Jesus' face was now shining
  • 00:15:12.000 --> 00:15:16.070
  • with the same glory.
  • 00:15:16.080 --> 00:15:18.080
  • To one familiar with the Hebrew Bible,
  • 00:15:18.090 --> 00:15:20.280
  • these parallels would have been extraordinarily meaningful.
  • 00:15:20.290 --> 00:15:26.080
  • Dave: The disciples, they never forgot what happened
  • 00:15:26.090 --> 00:15:29.210
  • on the mountain that day.
  • 00:15:29.220 --> 00:15:31.240
  • This was no doubt intended.
  • 00:15:31.250 --> 00:15:34.150
  • John wrote in his gospel, "We have seen his glory,
  • 00:15:34.160 --> 00:15:38.100
  • the glory of the one and only."
  • 00:15:38.110 --> 00:15:42.130
  • "We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told
  • 00:15:42.140 --> 00:15:45.190
  • you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ but we
  • 00:15:45.200 --> 00:15:49.090
  • were eye witnesses of his majesty,
  • 00:15:49.100 --> 00:15:52.040
  • for he received honor and glory from God the Father when the
  • 00:15:52.050 --> 00:15:55.220
  • voice came to him from the Majestic Glory,
  • 00:15:55.230 --> 00:15:58.180
  • saying, 'This is my Son, whom I love;
  • 00:15:58.190 --> 00:16:01.220
  • with him I am well pleased.'
  • 00:16:01.230 --> 00:16:04.030
  • We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven
  • 00:16:04.040 --> 00:16:07.080
  • when we were with him on the sacred mountain,"
  • 00:16:07.090 --> 00:16:09.290
  • 2 Peter 1:16 through 17.
  • 00:16:10.000 --> 00:16:13.290
  • [music]
  • 00:16:14.000 --> 00:16:17.100
  • Dave: Now the gospel accounts are silent as to the
  • 00:16:17.230 --> 00:16:19.040
  • exact identification of the mountain where Jesus underwent
  • 00:16:19.050 --> 00:16:22.260
  • the Transfiguration but there are two sites that have
  • 00:16:22.270 --> 00:16:26.110
  • historically been considered strong possibilities.
  • 00:16:26.120 --> 00:16:29.260
  • Mount Tabor, the top of which I'm standing right now,
  • 00:16:29.270 --> 00:16:32.180
  • is the earliest traditional site for the Mount of
  • 00:16:32.190 --> 00:16:35.150
  • Transfiguration, a tradition established by a 3rd century
  • 00:16:35.160 --> 00:16:39.050
  • Christian scholar named Origen.
  • 00:16:39.060 --> 00:16:41.230
  • The site was later confirmed by a Latin priest and historian
  • 00:16:41.240 --> 00:16:46.200
  • named Jerome, along with a theologian named Cyril of
  • 00:16:46.210 --> 00:16:50.140
  • Jerusalem in the 4th century AD.
  • 00:16:50.150 --> 00:16:53.080
  • By the 5th century, Christian structures were being built up
  • 00:16:53.090 --> 00:16:56.260
  • here to commemorate the site.
  • 00:16:56.270 --> 00:17:00.200
  • Dave: Mount Tabor isn't a very big mountain, at 1886 feet.
  • 00:17:00.210 --> 00:17:05.110
  • However, it stands alone in the area and was considered very
  • 00:17:05.120 --> 00:17:09.000
  • strategic high ground throughout the centuries.
  • 00:17:09.010 --> 00:17:12.070
  • The mountain is located at the eastern end of the Jezreel
  • 00:17:12.080 --> 00:17:15.010
  • Valley, 11 miles west of the Sea of Galilee.
  • 00:17:15.020 --> 00:17:18.220
  • During the time of Jesus, Mount Tabor was the landmark for an
  • 00:17:18.230 --> 00:17:22.090
  • important junction on the Roman highway known
  • 00:17:22.100 --> 00:17:24.280
  • as the Way of the Sea.
  • 00:17:24.290 --> 00:17:26.230
  • It marked the connector road up to Damascus.
  • 00:17:26.240 --> 00:17:31.020
  • The other main possibility for the location of the
  • 00:17:31.030 --> 00:17:33.190
  • Transfiguration is Mount Hermon.
  • 00:17:33.200 --> 00:17:36.160
  • At 9232 feet, this mountain is the highest in the area.
  • 00:17:36.170 --> 00:17:41.180
  • It is also near Caesarea Philippi where the previous
  • 00:17:41.190 --> 00:17:44.160
  • events recorded in the gospels took place.
  • 00:17:44.170 --> 00:17:47.190
  • Some scholars believe that Mount Hermon better conforms to
  • 00:17:47.200 --> 00:17:51.050
  • the record than the traditional sites on Mount Tabor, but
  • 00:17:51.060 --> 00:17:54.220
  • we just don't know.
  • 00:17:54.230 --> 00:17:57.040
  • [music]
  • 00:17:57.210 --> 00:18:00.220
  • Dave: My time investigating the gospel
  • 00:18:02.200 --> 00:18:04.190
  • accounts of the Transfiguration was powerful.
  • 00:18:04.200 --> 00:18:07.210
  • Now it's time to drive down the mountain and return to Jesus'
  • 00:18:07.220 --> 00:18:11.030
  • home base of Capernaum on the northwestern shore of
  • 00:18:11.040 --> 00:18:14.100
  • the Sea of Galilee.
  • 00:18:14.110 --> 00:18:16.080
  • [music]
  • 00:18:16.230 --> 00:18:21.120
  • Dave: So a little review is in order.
  • 00:18:21.260 --> 00:18:24.110
  • You will recall that Jesus and his disciples had just been in
  • 00:18:24.120 --> 00:18:27.180
  • the region of Caesarea Philippi where Jesus had told them that
  • 00:18:27.190 --> 00:18:31.060
  • he must, quote, "Go to Jerusalem and suffer many
  • 00:18:31.070 --> 00:18:34.130
  • things at the hands of the elders,
  • 00:18:34.140 --> 00:18:36.230
  • the chief priests, and the teachers of the law."
  • 00:18:36.240 --> 00:18:40.040
  • They then had their mountaintop transfiguration experience and
  • 00:18:40.050 --> 00:18:43.240
  • then, shortly thereafter, returned here to Capernaum.
  • 00:18:43.250 --> 00:18:46.210
  • [music]
  • 00:18:47.170 --> 00:18:49.020
  • Dave: After Jesus and his disciples arrived in
  • 00:18:49.030 --> 00:18:52.160
  • Capernaum, the collectors of the 2 drachma temple tax came
  • 00:18:52.170 --> 00:18:55.230
  • to Peter and asked, "Doesn't your teacher
  • 00:18:55.240 --> 00:18:58.200
  • pay the temple tax?"
  • 00:18:58.210 --> 00:19:00.150
  • Matthew 17:24.
  • 00:19:00.160 --> 00:19:02.250
  • The annual temple tax was collected each spring from
  • 00:19:02.260 --> 00:19:06.070
  • Israelite males aged 20 and older.
  • 00:19:06.080 --> 00:19:10.000
  • The practice at Jesus' time had been going on for over 1400
  • 00:19:10.010 --> 00:19:14.150
  • years, starting with Moses, where he collected money for
  • 00:19:14.160 --> 00:19:17.120
  • the tent of meeting.
  • 00:19:17.130 --> 00:19:19.060
  • By the 8th century BC, this money was now considered an
  • 00:19:19.070 --> 00:19:23.000
  • annual tax levied to support the temple built
  • 00:19:23.010 --> 00:19:26.100
  • by Solomon in Jerusalem.
  • 00:19:26.110 --> 00:19:28.180
  • According to the Jewish Mishnah,
  • 00:19:28.190 --> 00:19:30.250
  • this temple tax continued throughout the temple's history
  • 00:19:30.260 --> 00:19:34.180
  • to support daily operations, repairs, and improvements.
  • 00:19:34.190 --> 00:19:38.230
  • No matter where an Israelite man was living in the world,
  • 00:19:38.240 --> 00:19:41.290
  • he was responsible for the annual tax to support the
  • 00:19:42.000 --> 00:19:45.000
  • temple in Jerusalem.
  • 00:19:45.010 --> 00:19:48.260
  • Dave: In an earlier part of the gospel story,
  • 00:19:48.270 --> 00:19:51.080
  • Jesus proclaimed authority over the temple by
  • 00:19:51.090 --> 00:19:54.200
  • driving out the money changers.
  • 00:19:54.210 --> 00:19:57.130
  • That's probably what prompted the local tax collectors to
  • 00:19:57.140 --> 00:20:00.150
  • ask Peter whether or not Jesus pays the tax himself.
  • 00:20:00.160 --> 00:20:04.140
  • What better way to test Jesus' teaching on the temple in
  • 00:20:04.150 --> 00:20:07.220
  • Jerusalem than to challenge his disciples on their
  • 00:20:07.230 --> 00:20:10.170
  • home turf here at Capernaum.
  • 00:20:10.180 --> 00:20:13.240
  • Peter answered, "Yes, Jesus pays the tax."
  • 00:20:13.250 --> 00:20:17.030
  • And then quickly searched out Jesus in order to
  • 00:20:17.040 --> 00:20:19.190
  • find out what to do.
  • 00:20:19.200 --> 00:20:21.240
  • [music]
  • 00:20:21.250 --> 00:20:23.100
  • Dave: In order to prevent the temple tax from
  • 00:20:23.110 --> 00:20:25.090
  • becoming an issue, Jesus instructed Peter to pay the tax
  • 00:20:25.100 --> 00:20:28.200
  • on behalf of both of them.
  • 00:20:28.210 --> 00:20:30.160
  • Rather than taking the money from,
  • 00:20:30.170 --> 00:20:32.080
  • say, the disciples' petty cash fund,
  • 00:20:32.090 --> 00:20:34.250
  • Jesus had more unconventional instructions for Peter.
  • 00:20:34.260 --> 00:20:40.050
  • "So that we may not cause offense,
  • 00:20:40.060 --> 00:20:42.090
  • go to the lake and throw out your line.
  • 00:20:42.100 --> 00:20:44.270
  • Take the first fish you catch.
  • 00:20:44.280 --> 00:20:47.060
  • Open its mouth and you will find a 4 drachma coin.
  • 00:20:47.070 --> 00:20:51.090
  • Take it and give it to them for my tax and
  • 00:20:51.100 --> 00:20:54.210
  • yours, Matthew 17:27.
  • 00:20:54.220 --> 00:20:59.040
  • Dave: You know, I have to wonder if the disciples at
  • 00:20:59.050 --> 00:21:00.220
  • this point sometimes just had to shake their heads and say,
  • 00:21:00.230 --> 00:21:04.230
  • "All right, Jesus, if you say so."
  • 00:21:04.240 --> 00:21:07.240
  • And so wouldn't you know it, Peter went to the lake,
  • 00:21:07.250 --> 00:21:10.230
  • dropped in a line, and they caught a fish with the exact
  • 00:21:10.240 --> 00:21:14.100
  • amount in its mouth needed for the temple tax.
  • 00:21:14.110 --> 00:21:18.190
  • I also wonder if Peter, after all he had seen,
  • 00:21:18.200 --> 00:21:21.200
  • following Jesus, was even surprised or not.
  • 00:21:21.210 --> 00:21:25.230
  • Dave: Historically, the best known fish in the Sea of
  • 00:21:25.240 --> 00:21:28.070
  • Galilee is the tilapia galilaea.
  • 00:21:28.080 --> 00:21:31.210
  • Locals refer to this tilapia as either amnon in Hebrew
  • 00:21:31.220 --> 00:21:36.010
  • or musht in Arabic.
  • 00:21:36.020 --> 00:21:38.050
  • Amnon appears to be derived from two Aramaic words meaning
  • 00:21:38.060 --> 00:21:42.040
  • mother fish because it cares for its young in its mouth.
  • 00:21:42.050 --> 00:21:46.140
  • Dave: Not that it makes Peter's story any less amazing,
  • 00:21:46.150 --> 00:21:49.220
  • but even today, in the Sea of Galilee,
  • 00:21:49.230 --> 00:21:52.110
  • you can find that fish with small pebbles or
  • 00:21:52.120 --> 00:21:55.110
  • bottle caps in its mouth.
  • 00:21:55.120 --> 00:21:57.280
  • Yummy.
  • 00:21:57.290 --> 00:21:59.220
  • Dave: During the springtime,
  • 00:21:59.230 --> 00:22:01.070
  • in the shallow waters near Capernaum,
  • 00:22:01.080 --> 00:22:03.170
  • these fish congregate to spawn.
  • 00:22:03.180 --> 00:22:06.140
  • Once the eggs have been fertilized,
  • 00:22:06.150 --> 00:22:08.070
  • they grab up the eggs in their mouths and carry them around
  • 00:22:08.080 --> 00:22:11.090
  • for weeks until they hatch.
  • 00:22:11.100 --> 00:22:13.250
  • This fish is known locally as St. Peter's fish because of
  • 00:22:13.260 --> 00:22:17.190
  • this story in the gospels.
  • 00:22:17.200 --> 00:22:20.080
  • [music]
  • 00:22:20.090 --> 00:22:25.140
  • Dave: Speaking of local coinage,
  • 00:22:25.150 --> 00:22:27.120
  • a number of historical figures mentioned in the gospels minted
  • 00:22:27.130 --> 00:22:31.010
  • their own coins, many of which survive to this day.
  • 00:22:31.020 --> 00:22:36.170
  • Political officials minted coins with a variety of designs
  • 00:22:36.180 --> 00:22:40.100
  • and inscriptions usually referring to themselves or to
  • 00:22:40.110 --> 00:22:44.090
  • the Roman Emperor of the time.
  • 00:22:44.100 --> 00:22:47.150
  • Caesar Augustus is mentioned in
  • 00:22:47.160 --> 00:22:49.190
  • Luke chapter 2, verse 1.
  • 00:22:49.200 --> 00:22:51.290
  • Emperor Augustus minted many coins in
  • 00:22:52.000 --> 00:22:54.220
  • many different designs.
  • 00:22:54.230 --> 00:22:56.230
  • This coin shows a profile of him with the phrase,
  • 00:22:56.240 --> 00:23:00.020
  • "Divine Augustus."
  • 00:23:00.030 --> 00:23:03.270
  • Tiberius Caesar is mentioned in Luke chapter 3,
  • 00:23:03.280 --> 00:23:06.280
  • verse 1, and also appears on quite a few coins.
  • 00:23:06.290 --> 00:23:10.170
  • This silver denarius, commonly called the tribute penny,
  • 00:23:10.180 --> 00:23:14.260
  • depicts Tiberius in profile with the surrounding
  • 00:23:14.270 --> 00:23:18.010
  • inscription, "Caesar Augustus Tiberius,
  • 00:23:18.020 --> 00:23:21.070
  • Son of the Divine Augustus."
  • 00:23:21.080 --> 00:23:25.250
  • Because Tiberius was the Roman Emperor at the time of Jesus,
  • 00:23:25.260 --> 00:23:29.170
  • this is the coin many believe Jesus was holding when the
  • 00:23:29.180 --> 00:23:32.230
  • Pharisees tried to trap him into saying something
  • 00:23:32.240 --> 00:23:35.170
  • incriminating about Rome's tax system.
  • 00:23:35.180 --> 00:23:38.210
  • His famous response was this, "'You hypocrites,
  • 00:23:38.220 --> 00:23:42.070
  • why are you trying to trap me?
  • 00:23:42.080 --> 00:23:44.130
  • Show me the coin used for paying the tax.'
  • 00:23:44.140 --> 00:23:47.190
  • They brought him a denarius, and he asked them,
  • 00:23:47.200 --> 00:23:49.260
  • 'Whose image is this?
  • 00:23:49.270 --> 00:23:52.020
  • And whose inscription?' 'Caesar's, they replied.
  • 00:23:52.030 --> 00:23:55.100
  • Then he said to them, 'So give back to Caesar what is
  • 00:23:55.110 --> 00:23:58.190
  • Caesar's, and to God what is God's.'"
  • 00:23:58.200 --> 00:24:03.070
  • Herod the Great who is first mentioned in Matthew chapter 2,
  • 00:24:03.080 --> 00:24:06.290
  • verse 1, also issued his own coins.
  • 00:24:07.000 --> 00:24:09.270
  • This bronze prutah shows a ceremonial
  • 00:24:09.280 --> 00:24:12.250
  • ball sitting on a tripod.
  • 00:24:12.260 --> 00:24:15.060
  • It also has a Greek inscription that reads,
  • 00:24:15.070 --> 00:24:17.270
  • "Of King Herod."
  • 00:24:17.280 --> 00:24:19.100
  • Herod also displayed other objects,
  • 00:24:19.110 --> 00:24:21.140
  • such as this helmet, palm branches, and star.
  • 00:24:21.150 --> 00:24:25.190
  • Herod Antipas, tetrarch of the Galilee region,
  • 00:24:25.200 --> 00:24:28.260
  • is mentioned throughout the ministry of Jesus.
  • 00:24:28.270 --> 00:24:31.290
  • This is the Herod mentioned during the trial of Jesus.
  • 00:24:32.000 --> 00:24:35.150
  • The front of this coin shows a palm branch surrounded by the
  • 00:24:35.160 --> 00:24:39.020
  • Greek words, "Herod tetrarch."
  • 00:24:39.030 --> 00:24:42.040
  • Another prominent character in the gospel story is Pontius
  • 00:24:42.050 --> 00:24:44.240
  • Pilate who is first mentioned in Luke chapter 3, verse 1.
  • 00:24:44.250 --> 00:24:50.140
  • Pilate minted coins that honored the Roman Emperor Tiberius.
  • 00:24:50.150 --> 00:24:54.270
  • This coin shows the Greek words,
  • 00:24:54.280 --> 00:24:56.240
  • "Tiberius Caesar," surrounding a curved wand important in
  • 00:24:56.250 --> 00:25:01.180
  • Roman mythology.
  • 00:25:01.190 --> 00:25:03.190
  • For anyone who loves history, ancient coins provide awesome
  • 00:25:03.200 --> 00:25:07.240
  • evidence for the famous rulers we read about.
  • 00:25:07.250 --> 00:25:10.240
  • Here in Israel, numerous coins have been discovered that
  • 00:25:10.250 --> 00:25:14.050
  • establish the characters in the gospels as real
  • 00:25:14.060 --> 00:25:17.210
  • people in history.
  • 00:25:17.220 --> 00:25:21.080
  • Soon after the seemingly inconsequential event with the
  • 00:25:21.090 --> 00:25:24.010
  • fishy money at Capernaum, Jesus left Galilee for the last time.
  • 00:25:24.020 --> 00:25:30.000
  • Galilee had been the setting for his greatest teachings and
  • 00:25:30.010 --> 00:25:33.070
  • most memorable miracles but the master clock was ticking.
  • 00:25:33.080 --> 00:25:37.210
  • It was time for the final chapter in Jesus' mission,
  • 00:25:37.220 --> 00:25:41.090
  • a final confrontation.
  • 00:25:41.100 --> 00:25:44.090
  • According to Luke, Jesus resolutely
  • 00:25:44.100 --> 00:25:46.280
  • set out for Jerusalem.
  • 00:25:46.290 --> 00:25:49.290
  • Something new and purposeful was in the air.
  • 00:25:50.000 --> 00:25:53.290
  • According to Mark, "They were on their way up to Jerusalem
  • 00:25:54.000 --> 00:25:58.010
  • with Jesus leading the way and the disciples were astonished
  • 00:25:58.020 --> 00:26:02.120
  • while those who followed were afraid, Mark 10:32.
  • 00:26:02.130 --> 00:26:07.190
  • The disciples' fear was palpable.
  • 00:26:07.200 --> 00:26:10.130
  • Why did this trip to Jerusalem feel so much different?
  • 00:26:10.140 --> 00:26:14.210
  • [music]
  • 00:26:15.150 --> 00:26:18.010
  • [music]
  • 00:26:21.100 --> 00:26:35.280
  • [music]
  • 00:26:36.200 --> 00:26:50.290
  • [music]
  • 00:26:51.280 --> 00:26:59.270
  • [music]
  • 00:27:00.270 --> 00:27:05.290
  • [music]
  • 00:27:09.040 --> 00:27:23.080
  • CC by Aberdeen Captioning 1-800-688-6621 www.abercap.com
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