Episode 2 | Eastern Mediterranean | TBN

Episode 2 | Eastern Mediterranean

Watch Episode 2 | Eastern Mediterranean
January 23, 2020
26:31

Dave Stotts journeys to Istanbul, Turkey to continue his exploration of how the Gospel of Jesus Christ spread from Jerusalem to the Eastern Mediterranean region.

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Episode 2 | Eastern Mediterranean

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  • ♪♪♪
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  • Dave Stotts: Hi,I'm Dave Stotts,
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  • and I'm in Istanbul, Turkey.
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  • Known in the ancient world asByzantium and Constantinople,
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  • this epic city has acted as thegatekeeper between East and West
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  • for a millennia.
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  • Now, I'm here at the start ofour epic exploration of how the
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  • gospel of Jesus Christ spreadfrom Jerusalem to the eastern
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  • Mediterranean region.
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  • Dave Stotts: Over 2.000 yearsago, the man known as Jesus
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  • of Nazareth was born ina small town of Bethlehem
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  • in the land of Judea.
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  • His extraordinary life,brutal execution, and miraculous
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  • resurrection from the deadattest to the truth of his claim
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  • to be the only son of God.
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  • This is the storyof how Jesus--
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  • through the livesof his faithful followers--
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  • has become knownaround the world,
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  • impacting all of human historyfrom the first century
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  • until today.
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  • This is "Drive Thru History:Ends of the Earth."
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  • ♪♪♪
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  • ♪♪♪
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  • Dave Stotts: After Pentecost,thousands of new believers
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  • returned home from Jerusalem.
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  • This means that in the lands ofmodern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan,
  • 00:01:29.948 --> 00:01:34.319
  • Cyprus, Armenia, and Turkey,new followers of Jesus were
  • 00:01:34.353 --> 00:01:38.957
  • gathering around dinner tablessharing the gospel in synagogues
  • 00:01:38.991 --> 00:01:43.162
  • and serving theirneighbors in the streets.
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  • Then the Apostlesstarted going out.
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  • Unlike other regions of theworld that sometimes waited
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  • centuries for the gospel, theeastern Mediterranean heard the
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  • good news of Jesus from thosewho actually walked with him.
  • 00:01:55.440 --> 00:01:59.178
  • Peter moved from Jerusalemtowards Rome, Andrew journeyed
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  • northwest toward the BlackSea, John ministered in Ephesus,
  • 00:02:03.382 --> 00:02:07.719
  • James went as far as Spain,Bartholomew and Thomas traveled
  • 00:02:07.753 --> 00:02:12.224
  • to areas of modern Pakistanand India, and so it went.
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  • By the early secondcentury, other giants of early
  • 00:02:18.397 --> 00:02:21.867
  • Christianity steppedonto this eastern stage.
  • 00:02:21.900 --> 00:02:25.137
  • Names like Ignatius andPolycarp became renowned
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  • for their courageous faith,sound teaching,
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  • and willingness to diefor the gospel.
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  • Ignatius was the bishopof Antioch after
  • 00:02:36.615 --> 00:02:39.017
  • the fall of Jerusalem.
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  • Antioch was the primary churchin the eastern Mediterranean
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  • where followers of Christwere first called Christians.
  • 00:02:44.022 --> 00:02:48.560
  • Ignatius was a studentof the Apostle John.
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  • He wrote on a variety of topicssuch as the role of the church,
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  • sacraments, and the bishops.
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  • On a trip to Rome, Ignatiuswrote a series of letters that
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  • became a central part ofthe collection known as the
  • 00:03:00.606 --> 00:03:03.642
  • Apostolic fathers, stillconsidered an important text on
  • 00:03:03.675 --> 00:03:07.613
  • Christian history and theology.
  • 00:03:07.646 --> 00:03:10.549
  • Tradition holds that Ignatiuswas martyred for his faith
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  • in the Circus Maximusof Rome in 108 A.D.
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  • Polycarp was also a studentof the Apostle John.
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  • He was trained in Ephesusand later became the Bishop
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  • of Smyrna, a major Romancity on the Aegean coast.
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  • Like Ignatius, Polycarpwrote significant works about
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  • Christian theology and wasconsidered one of the apostolic
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  • fathers of the early church.
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  • He was also famousfor his martyrdom.
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  • In 155 A.D. Polycarp was burnedat the stake and pierced with
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  • a spear for refusing to burnincense to the Roman Emperor.
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  • As he died, Polycarp said, "Ibless you, father, for judging
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  • me worthy of this hour so thatin the company of the martyrs
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  • I may share the cup of Christ."
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  • During the early church, theeastern Mediterranean world was
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  • Roman, it was polytheistic,it was idolatrous,
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  • and it was bloody.
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  • Men were killed in arenasjust for entertainment.
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  • Christians were killed merelyfor refusing to worship
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  • the emperor as a god.
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  • But two centuries of Christianpersecution subsided with the
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  • conversion of Roman EmperorConstantine, who is commemorated
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  • with this column rightbehind me in about 312 A.D.
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  • After this Christianity wasencouraged, churches were built,
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  • and entire regionsturned to Jesus.
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  • Within years, Armenia laid claimto being the first people group
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  • to adopt Christianity asits official religion.
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  • Then Constantine chose toleave pagan Rome altogether.
  • 00:04:48.613 --> 00:04:53.485
  • He came here and establishedancient Byzantium as the new
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  • capital of the Roman Empire.
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  • By 330 A.D. his new capitalin the east
  • 00:05:00.192 --> 00:05:04.129
  • was renamed Constantinople.
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  • ♪♪♪
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  • ♪♪♪
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  • ♪♪♪
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  • This is ancient Constantinople,present day Istanbul.
  • 00:05:28.987 --> 00:05:34.292
  • Istanbul is the largest city inTurkey with a population of over
  • 00:05:34.326 --> 00:05:38.330
  • 14 million people.
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  • This strategic city hasstraddled Europe and Asia here
  • 00:05:40.632 --> 00:05:44.403
  • at the Bosporus straitfor centuries.
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  • Now, I'm at the top of anine-story medieval structure
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  • known as the Galata tower.
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  • When it was built in 1348,it was the tallest building
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  • in Istanbul.
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  • Today, it's been convertedto a restaurant offering
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  • incredible views ofIstanbul's strategically
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  • important peninsula.
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  • This spot below me is known asthe Golden Horn, the primary
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  • inlet of the Bosporus.
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  • This is one of three bridgesspanning the narrow waterway
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  • connecting Europe and Asia,the place in the world
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  • where east meets west.
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  • This is my go-to car in Turkey,the rather awesome Fiat Doblo,
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  • otherwise known as theman van of Asia Minor.
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  • For the last 15 years,that's how I roll here.
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  • Why do I love the Doblo so much?
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  • Is it the forgettable shape?
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  • The lack of anydiscernible style?
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  • The donut sized wheels?
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  • Cheap plastic interior?
  • 00:06:50.135 --> 00:06:52.137
  • Now, it's not anyof these things.
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  • Actually, it's all of thesethings put together, thus making
  • 00:06:53.638 --> 00:06:56.541
  • for a vehicle so appliance gradeand lacking in any discernible
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  • style that the pure irony of itall makes it impossibly cool.
  • 00:07:00.645 --> 00:07:05.784
  • ♪♪♪
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  • From the mid-fifth centuryto the early 13th century,
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  • Constantinople was the largestand wealthiest city in Europe.
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  • It was famous for its palace,university, hippodrome,
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  • and the Grand Bazaar.
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  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:07:31.776 --> 00:07:41.553
  • This is the amazing GrandBazaar of Istanbul, an historic
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  • Labyrinth of shops that'sbeen here for centuries.
  • 00:07:46.558 --> 00:07:50.629
  • I don't think there'sa more colorful place
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  • on earth.
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  • ♪♪♪
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  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:08:05.076 --> 00:08:13.018
  • male: Hello.
  • 00:08:14.319 --> 00:08:15.887
  • Dave Stotts: Hey, I'm Dave.What's your name?
  • 00:08:15.921 --> 00:08:17.956
  • Lion: Lion.
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  • Dave Stotts: Lion,like the animal?
  • 00:08:19.424 --> 00:08:21.293
  • Or like you enjoylyin' to tourists.
  • 00:08:21.326 --> 00:08:25.196
  • Hey, okay.
  • 00:08:25.830 --> 00:08:28.867
  • Thank you, but no.
  • 00:08:28.900 --> 00:08:30.735
  • Thank you Lion, excuse me.
  • 00:08:30.769 --> 00:08:33.238
  • I'd like a little--whoa!
  • 00:08:33.872 --> 00:08:36.575
  • Finally.
  • 00:08:37.809 --> 00:08:39.711
  • Lion: Take it.
  • 00:08:39.744 --> 00:08:42.314
  • Dave Stotts: Alright.That's awesome.
  • 00:08:45.016 --> 00:08:47.385
  • Huh?
  • 00:08:47.419 --> 00:08:49.054
  • Come on.
  • 00:08:49.087 --> 00:08:52.123
  • Give me that.
  • 00:08:52.757 --> 00:08:54.192
  • Lion: Thank you.
  • 00:08:54.225 --> 00:08:55.527
  • Dave Stotts: Thanks, Lion.
  • 00:08:55.560 --> 00:08:57.562
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:08:59.698 --> 00:09:09.674
  • Dave Stotts: And then there werea number of Byzantine era
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  • churches that set thestandard for Eastern Orthodox
  • 00:09:12.644 --> 00:09:15.547
  • architecture, although many ofthe surviving churches have been
  • 00:09:15.580 --> 00:09:18.917
  • converted to mosques or museums,they serve as small beacons
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  • of light throughoutthe city of Istanbul.
  • 00:09:23.722 --> 00:09:27.692
  • ♪♪♪
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  • This is Chora church locatedjust south of the Golden Horn.
  • 00:09:37.402 --> 00:09:42.240
  • Originally built in the earlyfourth century, the church's
  • 00:09:42.273 --> 00:09:45.243
  • full name was the church of theHoly Redeemer in the Country, or
  • 00:09:45.276 --> 00:09:50.215
  • in the fields, because it waspart of a monastery complex
  • 00:09:50.248 --> 00:09:53.885
  • outside the city walls.
  • 00:09:53.918 --> 00:09:56.388
  • In Greek, chora meant thepolitical territory outside
  • 00:09:56.421 --> 00:10:00.191
  • the city proper.
  • 00:10:00.225 --> 00:10:01.926
  • Anyway, the church waslater incorporated within
  • 00:10:01.960 --> 00:10:04.396
  • Constantinople's expandingcity walls, but the name stuck.
  • 00:10:04.429 --> 00:10:09.267
  • Although converted to a mosquein the mid-16th century, and a
  • 00:10:09.300 --> 00:10:12.737
  • museum in the mid-20th century,this renovated church still
  • 00:10:12.771 --> 00:10:17.442
  • serves as a great exampleof medieval Byzantine
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  • Orthodox architecture.
  • 00:10:21.813 --> 00:10:25.183
  • While not as large as some ofthe other Byzantine churches
  • 00:10:29.454 --> 00:10:32.323
  • that survive in present dayIstanbul, Chora church
  • 00:10:32.357 --> 00:10:36.161
  • is uniquely preserved.
  • 00:10:36.194 --> 00:10:38.530
  • Inside we see some of the oldestand finest Byzantine mosaics and
  • 00:10:38.563 --> 00:10:43.468
  • frescos anywhere in the world.
  • 00:10:43.501 --> 00:10:47.472
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:10:47.505 --> 00:10:57.482
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:10:57.515 --> 00:11:01.720
  • Instead of being destroyed whenthe church was converted into a
  • 00:11:01.753 --> 00:11:04.789
  • mosque, much of theartwork was covered in plaster.
  • 00:11:04.823 --> 00:11:09.294
  • Remarkably, this preserved theancient pieces for centuries,
  • 00:11:09.327 --> 00:11:13.198
  • which were meticulouslyuncovered and restored when
  • 00:11:13.231 --> 00:11:16.534
  • the mosque was transformedinto a museum.
  • 00:11:16.568 --> 00:11:19.671
  • Although damaged in places,the visual depictions
  • 00:11:19.704 --> 00:11:23.074
  • of the gospel accountsare truly stunning.
  • 00:11:23.108 --> 00:11:27.946
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:11:27.979 --> 00:11:37.956
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:11:37.989 --> 00:11:46.765
  • The Byzantine Empire survivedfor 1.000 years and gave birth
  • 00:11:48.633 --> 00:11:52.570
  • to stunning architecture,produced a legal code that still
  • 00:11:52.604 --> 00:11:56.274
  • shapes Western law today,and produced churches of such
  • 00:11:56.307 --> 00:12:00.378
  • grandeur that entire nationswere drawn to Jesus because
  • 00:12:00.411 --> 00:12:04.315
  • their emissaries visited them.
  • 00:12:04.349 --> 00:12:06.918
  • The most famous exampleof these churches is
  • 00:12:06.951 --> 00:12:09.921
  • the incredible Hagia Sophia.
  • 00:12:09.954 --> 00:12:13.258
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:12:13.291 --> 00:12:23.268
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:12:23.301 --> 00:12:25.703
  • Hagia Sophia, meaning HolyWisdom in Greek, was built
  • 00:12:25.737 --> 00:12:30.175
  • by the Byzantine EmperorJustinian starting in 537 A.D.
  • 00:12:30.208 --> 00:12:35.280
  • The church was dedicatedto Jesus Christ, the logos,
  • 00:12:35.313 --> 00:12:39.918
  • the wisdom of God.
  • 00:12:39.951 --> 00:12:43.855
  • The Hagia Sophia was consideredthe epitome of Byzantine
  • 00:12:45.490 --> 00:12:49.060
  • architecture and the focal pointof the Eastern Orthodox church
  • 00:12:49.093 --> 00:12:53.031
  • for nearly 1.000 years.
  • 00:12:53.064 --> 00:12:55.433
  • It was famous for its massivedome, an engineering marvel
  • 00:12:55.466 --> 00:12:58.870
  • of its time.
  • 00:12:58.903 --> 00:13:00.705
  • It was also the world's largestchurch for the same 1.000 years
  • 00:13:00.738 --> 00:13:04.409
  • until surpassed by the SevilleCathedral in the 16th century.
  • 00:13:04.442 --> 00:13:09.681
  • In 1453, Constantinople wasconquered by the Ottoman Empire.
  • 00:13:11.015 --> 00:13:16.588
  • Mehmed the Conqueror ordered theHagia Sophia the main church
  • 00:13:16.621 --> 00:13:19.858
  • of Orthodox Christianityconverted to a Muslim mosque.
  • 00:13:19.891 --> 00:13:24.429
  • The bells, altars, and relicswere destroyed, and the artwork
  • 00:13:24.462 --> 00:13:28.299
  • depicting Jesus, Mary, andthe saints were destroyed
  • 00:13:28.333 --> 00:13:31.803
  • or plastered over.
  • 00:13:31.836 --> 00:13:34.472
  • In 1935 this entire complex wasconverted to a museum, revealing
  • 00:13:34.505 --> 00:13:40.278
  • Christian mosaics and frescosfor the first time
  • 00:13:40.311 --> 00:13:43.715
  • in hundreds of years.
  • 00:13:43.748 --> 00:13:45.583
  • This now famous mosaicof Jesus probably dates
  • 00:13:45.617 --> 00:13:49.187
  • to the 13th century.
  • 00:13:49.220 --> 00:13:51.456
  • It's widely considered thefinest in the Hagia Sophia
  • 00:13:51.489 --> 00:13:55.493
  • because of its well-preservedcolors, tones, and expressions.
  • 00:13:55.526 --> 00:13:59.564
  • In this panel, we see the VirginMary and John the Baptizer
  • 00:13:59.597 --> 00:14:03.968
  • seeking Christ's intercessionfor humanity on Judgment Day.
  • 00:14:04.002 --> 00:14:09.073
  • This style of icon is one of themost used religious images of
  • 00:14:12.110 --> 00:14:16.014
  • eastern Orthodox Christianity.
  • 00:14:16.047 --> 00:14:18.483
  • Generally a mosaic or frescoof Christ Pantocrator occupies
  • 00:14:18.516 --> 00:14:23.154
  • a center position in artsand architecture of most
  • 00:14:23.187 --> 00:14:26.758
  • Byzantine churches.
  • 00:14:26.791 --> 00:14:28.826
  • From the Greek, pantocratortranslates as almighty
  • 00:14:28.860 --> 00:14:32.463
  • or ruler of all.
  • 00:14:32.497 --> 00:14:35.300
  • Today, the Hagia Sofia museumis the most visited tourist
  • 00:14:35.333 --> 00:14:39.771
  • attraction in the predominantlyMuslim country of Turkey.
  • 00:14:39.804 --> 00:14:43.541
  • As such, this image of ChristAlmighty, ruler of all,
  • 00:14:43.574 --> 00:14:48.780
  • speaks volumes.
  • 00:14:48.813 --> 00:14:51.883
  • In addition to Constantinople,other cities of the Eastern
  • 00:15:00.658 --> 00:15:04.796
  • Mediterranean played a majorrole in early Christianity.
  • 00:15:04.829 --> 00:15:08.399
  • Here in present day Turkey, thevery first church councils met
  • 00:15:08.433 --> 00:15:12.503
  • to determine Christian doctrineand practice that lasted
  • 00:15:12.537 --> 00:15:15.840
  • for centuries.
  • 00:15:15.873 --> 00:15:17.675
  • Even today, Christians who can'tname a single council generally
  • 00:15:17.709 --> 00:15:21.479
  • believe what thosecouncils taught.
  • 00:15:21.512 --> 00:15:24.549
  • The first Ecumenical Councilof Christian Bishops met
  • 00:15:24.582 --> 00:15:27.719
  • in Nicea in 325 A.D.
  • 00:15:27.752 --> 00:15:31.189
  • From the Greek, ecumenical meansworldwide, so basically, this
  • 00:15:31.222 --> 00:15:34.959
  • was the first officialmeeting of the worldwide church.
  • 00:15:34.993 --> 00:15:39.364
  • Let's drive about two hourssoutheast of this temple
  • 00:15:39.397 --> 00:15:43.167
  • to tell this important story.
  • 00:15:43.201 --> 00:15:46.104
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:15:46.404 --> 00:15:56.381
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:15:56.414 --> 00:16:06.324
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:16:06.357 --> 00:16:11.863
  • Today Nicea isalso known as Iznik.
  • 00:16:11.896 --> 00:16:15.333
  • A city of about 15.000 people,it lies in a fertile basin at
  • 00:16:15.366 --> 00:16:19.771
  • the eastern end of Lake Iznik,bounded by mountain ranges
  • 00:16:19.804 --> 00:16:24.075
  • to the north and south.
  • 00:16:24.108 --> 00:16:27.378
  • The ancient city was surroundedon all sides by 30-foot walls,
  • 00:16:31.949 --> 00:16:36.387
  • this included a wallrising from the Lake itself.
  • 00:16:36.421 --> 00:16:39.957
  • There was also a double ditchon the land portions with
  • 00:16:39.991 --> 00:16:43.227
  • over 100 protective towersat various locations.
  • 00:16:43.261 --> 00:16:48.066
  • Three large gates providedthe only access to the city.
  • 00:16:48.099 --> 00:16:52.437
  • Today the walls are pierced ina number of places for roads,
  • 00:16:52.470 --> 00:16:56.407
  • but as you can see, manyportions of the ancient
  • 00:16:56.441 --> 00:16:58.843
  • structure still survive.
  • 00:16:58.876 --> 00:17:00.845
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:17:00.878 --> 00:17:10.855
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:17:10.888 --> 00:17:15.726
  • This is lake Iznik.
  • 00:17:18.062 --> 00:17:20.198
  • Here just off the shore are theincredible ruins of a recently
  • 00:17:20.231 --> 00:17:24.569
  • discovered Byzantine churchthat dates
  • 00:17:24.602 --> 00:17:27.605
  • to the fourth century A.D.
  • 00:17:27.638 --> 00:17:30.908
  • Back in 2014, governmentsurveyors using drones captured
  • 00:17:31.409 --> 00:17:35.346
  • photos of a strange structuresitting just below
  • 00:17:35.379 --> 00:17:38.649
  • the lake's murky surface.
  • 00:17:38.683 --> 00:17:40.818
  • Archaeologists quicklydetermined it was the ruins
  • 00:17:40.852 --> 00:17:43.621
  • of a church lost long agobeneath the lake's
  • 00:17:43.654 --> 00:17:47.125
  • rising water level.
  • 00:17:47.158 --> 00:17:50.361
  • But it wasn't just any church.
  • 00:17:50.394 --> 00:17:52.530
  • Historical records tell us itwas built in the fourth century
  • 00:17:52.563 --> 00:17:56.067
  • to honor a 16-year-oldboy who was killed by
  • 00:17:56.100 --> 00:17:59.570
  • Emperor Diocletianin 303 A.D.
  • 00:17:59.604 --> 00:18:03.908
  • The boy's crime was simplybeing a follower of Jesus.
  • 00:18:03.941 --> 00:18:09.447
  • The dedication of this church--the ruins of which are under
  • 00:18:10.615 --> 00:18:13.518
  • water right out there--to a Christian martyr
  • 00:18:13.551 --> 00:18:16.521
  • was no accident.
  • 00:18:16.554 --> 00:18:18.489
  • Just a few years priorto its construction,
  • 00:18:18.523 --> 00:18:19.857
  • Emperor Constantine issuedthe Edict of Milan,
  • 00:18:19.891 --> 00:18:23.261
  • declaring an end to Romanpersecution against Christians
  • 00:18:23.294 --> 00:18:27.565
  • and setting the stage for theunderground Church to go public.
  • 00:18:27.598 --> 00:18:32.103
  • Then in 325 A.D., Constantineconvened the first Ecumenical
  • 00:18:32.136 --> 00:18:37.708
  • Church council here onthese shores, one of the most
  • 00:18:37.742 --> 00:18:41.612
  • important theological gatheringsin Christian history.
  • 00:18:41.646 --> 00:18:46.117
  • At Nicea, Christian bishopsfrom all over the Mediterranean
  • 00:18:51.289 --> 00:18:55.092
  • debated church doctrineconcerning the humanity
  • 00:18:55.126 --> 00:18:58.896
  • and divinity of Jesus Christ.
  • 00:18:58.930 --> 00:19:01.399
  • In particular, they consideredthe views of Arius,
  • 00:19:01.432 --> 00:19:04.569
  • an influential church leaderfrom Alexandria, Egypt,
  • 00:19:04.602 --> 00:19:07.805
  • who taught that Jesus wascreated by God and was not
  • 00:19:07.838 --> 00:19:11.609
  • of the same natureas God himself.
  • 00:19:11.642 --> 00:19:14.679
  • In the end, the church rejectedArianism and adopted the first
  • 00:19:14.712 --> 00:19:19.417
  • universal statement ofChristian belief known
  • 00:19:19.450 --> 00:19:23.020
  • as the Nicene Creed.
  • 00:19:23.054 --> 00:19:26.290
  • We believe in one God,the Father Almighty,
  • 00:19:27.325 --> 00:19:30.494
  • Maker of all things visibleand invisible.
  • 00:19:30.528 --> 00:19:33.831
  • And in one Lord Jesus Christ,the Son of God, begotten from
  • 00:19:33.864 --> 00:19:39.036
  • the Father, [only begotten; thatis, from the substance of the
  • 00:19:39.070 --> 00:19:42.940
  • Father, God from God,] Lightfrom Light, true God from true
  • 00:19:42.974 --> 00:19:48.112
  • God, begotten, not made, ofone substance with the Father;
  • 00:19:48.145 --> 00:19:54.118
  • through whom allthings came into being.
  • 00:19:54.151 --> 00:19:56.887
  • Things in Heaven and things onEarth; Who because of us men,
  • 00:19:56.921 --> 00:20:00.791
  • and because of our salvation,came down and became incarnate
  • 00:20:00.825 --> 00:20:05.196
  • and became man; and suffered androse again on the third day,
  • 00:20:05.229 --> 00:20:10.167
  • and ascended to the heavens;and will come to judge
  • 00:20:10.201 --> 00:20:13.371
  • the living and the dead.
  • 00:20:13.404 --> 00:20:15.539
  • And in the Holy Spirit.
  • 00:20:15.573 --> 00:20:18.776
  • The second Ecumenical Councilmet in Constantinople in 381.
  • 00:20:22.747 --> 00:20:27.618
  • It reaffirmed the NiceneCreed and added some additional
  • 00:20:27.652 --> 00:20:30.821
  • wording about the identityand role of the Holy Spirit.
  • 00:20:30.855 --> 00:20:35.326
  • The third EcumenicalCouncil met in Ephesus in 431.
  • 00:20:35.359 --> 00:20:39.730
  • Again, the Nicene Creed wasreaffirmed and false teachings
  • 00:20:39.764 --> 00:20:43.234
  • were rejected.
  • 00:20:43.267 --> 00:20:45.403
  • The fourth council met inChalcedon, just outside
  • 00:20:45.436 --> 00:20:48.606
  • Constantinople in 451.
  • 00:20:48.639 --> 00:20:52.109
  • The fifth and sixth councilsmet in Constantinople during
  • 00:20:52.143 --> 00:20:55.379
  • the sixth and seventh centuries.
  • 00:20:55.413 --> 00:20:58.883
  • And the seventh and finalcouncil of the early church
  • 00:20:58.916 --> 00:21:01.552
  • period met back in Nicea in 787.
  • 00:21:01.585 --> 00:21:06.357
  • This was the locationfor the final council
  • 00:21:06.390 --> 00:21:09.193
  • of the early church period.
  • 00:21:09.226 --> 00:21:11.095
  • Also known as the Hagia Sophia,this much smaller cousin
  • 00:21:11.128 --> 00:21:15.566
  • of the Cathedral inConstantinople was built
  • 00:21:15.599 --> 00:21:18.369
  • in the center of Niceaby Emperor Justinian
  • 00:21:18.402 --> 00:21:21.939
  • during the sixth century.
  • 00:21:21.972 --> 00:21:25.109
  • In the end the purpose of allthese early church councils
  • 00:21:26.510 --> 00:21:29.847
  • was to reject false doctrinesand reaffirm
  • 00:21:29.880 --> 00:21:33.117
  • a universal Christian creed.
  • 00:21:33.150 --> 00:21:35.686
  • To this day, the easternOrthodox Church and the Catholic
  • 00:21:35.720 --> 00:21:38.956
  • Church accept these first sevenmeetings as legitimate worldwide
  • 00:21:38.989 --> 00:21:44.028
  • councils, each of whichtook place here
  • 00:21:44.061 --> 00:21:47.465
  • in the historic land of Turkey.
  • 00:21:47.498 --> 00:21:51.302
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:21:54.004 --> 00:21:58.976
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:21:59.009 --> 00:22:06.951
  • John Chrysostom was theArchbishop of Constantinople
  • 00:22:09.286 --> 00:22:13.057
  • at the very beginningof the fifth century.
  • 00:22:13.090 --> 00:22:15.693
  • He was considered a great publicspeaker and one of the most
  • 00:22:15.726 --> 00:22:19.130
  • prolific authors in theearly Christian church.
  • 00:22:19.163 --> 00:22:21.966
  • In fact, only Augustine of Hippohas more Christian writings
  • 00:22:21.999 --> 00:22:26.137
  • that survive to this day.
  • 00:22:26.170 --> 00:22:29.540
  • John led the church inConstantinople until he was run
  • 00:22:29.573 --> 00:22:32.877
  • out of town at about 405.
  • 00:22:32.910 --> 00:22:35.546
  • He was well liked by the commonpeople but not so much by
  • 00:22:35.579 --> 00:22:38.482
  • the political and religiouselites of the city,
  • 00:22:38.516 --> 00:22:41.218
  • who viewed him as a threat.
  • 00:22:41.252 --> 00:22:43.554
  • He died in exile two years laterwith his last recorded words
  • 00:22:43.587 --> 00:22:47.458
  • being: Glory be toGod for all things.
  • 00:22:47.491 --> 00:22:51.796
  • John Chrysostom was the firstin a long line of significant
  • 00:22:51.829 --> 00:22:55.266
  • thinkers and theologians thatcalled Constantinople home.
  • 00:22:55.299 --> 00:22:59.904
  • For the next millennia,Constantinople was the central
  • 00:22:59.937 --> 00:23:02.506
  • hub of the ChristianChurch in the East.
  • 00:23:02.540 --> 00:23:06.076
  • Then in 1453,everything changed.
  • 00:23:06.110 --> 00:23:11.582
  • Sultan Mehmed the second wasonly 21 years old when he
  • 00:23:17.488 --> 00:23:21.358
  • and his army of 250.000Ottoman Turks laid siege
  • 00:23:21.392 --> 00:23:25.796
  • to Constantinople.
  • 00:23:25.830 --> 00:23:28.132
  • The Byzantine Empire stoodfor 1.000 years as a beacon of
  • 00:23:28.165 --> 00:23:31.735
  • civilization, learning, andChristian culture in the East,
  • 00:23:31.769 --> 00:23:36.106
  • and for centuries IslamicCaliphs from the other side
  • 00:23:36.140 --> 00:23:39.310
  • of the Bosporus strait dreamedof defeating it, making it
  • 00:23:39.343 --> 00:23:43.013
  • the jewel in the crown ofa worldwide Caliphate.
  • 00:23:43.047 --> 00:23:46.217
  • On May 29, 1453, the great cityof Constantinople finally fell.
  • 00:23:46.250 --> 00:23:53.824
  • Mehmed won the title ofconqueror, changed the name
  • 00:23:54.925 --> 00:23:58.329
  • of the city to Istanbul,and made it the new capital
  • 00:23:58.362 --> 00:24:02.032
  • if his Islamic empire.
  • 00:24:02.066 --> 00:24:04.368
  • Mehmed's engineers immediatelybegan the task of fitting the
  • 00:24:04.401 --> 00:24:08.005
  • Hagia Sophia-- for over 900years the largest and most
  • 00:24:08.038 --> 00:24:11.976
  • magnificent Christian cathedralin the world--
  • 00:24:12.009 --> 00:24:14.778
  • with Islamic Minarets.
  • 00:24:14.812 --> 00:24:17.948
  • Christians throughoutthe globe were shocked.
  • 00:24:17.982 --> 00:24:20.951
  • The Christian Byzantine Empirethat lasted more than
  • 00:24:20.985 --> 00:24:23.988
  • 1.000 years had fallen inunbelievable bloodshed.
  • 00:24:24.021 --> 00:24:29.260
  • Almost immediately,Mehmed the Conqueror built
  • 00:24:29.293 --> 00:24:32.162
  • the Topkapi Palace, whichserved as the main residence
  • 00:24:32.196 --> 00:24:36.000
  • and administrative headquartersfor the Muslim Ottoman Empire.
  • 00:24:36.033 --> 00:24:39.537
  • For the next 400 years,the Gospel of Jesus Christ
  • 00:24:39.570 --> 00:24:43.007
  • is held in check.
  • 00:24:43.040 --> 00:24:45.042
  • Throughout much of theeastern Mediterranean,
  • 00:24:45.075 --> 00:24:47.678
  • Christian persecution was oftenbrutal and merciless.
  • 00:24:47.711 --> 00:24:53.017
  • With the defeat of the OttomanEmpire after World War I,
  • 00:24:57.321 --> 00:25:00.658
  • the colonial powers began toexert control in the region.
  • 00:25:00.691 --> 00:25:04.595
  • As a result, historicChristianity had glimmers
  • 00:25:04.628 --> 00:25:07.698
  • of revival; however, bythe late 20th century,
  • 00:25:07.731 --> 00:25:11.502
  • Communism and later Islamicextremism were once again
  • 00:25:11.535 --> 00:25:15.205
  • working against the gospelof Jesus Christ.
  • 00:25:15.239 --> 00:25:18.609
  • Christian flight from placeslike Syria has almost entirely
  • 00:25:18.642 --> 00:25:22.146
  • stripped the faith fromits historic roots there.
  • 00:25:22.179 --> 00:25:25.883
  • Yet despite horrendous storiesof death and persecution,
  • 00:25:25.916 --> 00:25:29.920
  • courageous missionaries anda stalwart orthodox church
  • 00:25:29.954 --> 00:25:33.958
  • continue Christ's missionto the eastern Mediterranean
  • 00:25:33.991 --> 00:25:38.262
  • and to the ends of the Earth.
  • 00:25:38.295 --> 00:25:41.799
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:25:42.967 --> 00:25:52.943
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:25:52.977 --> 00:26:02.886
  • ♪♪♪
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  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:26:12.930 --> 00:26:22.906
  • ♪♪♪
  • 00:26:22.940 --> 00:26:25.275
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