Acts to Revelation | Episode 14 | TBN

Acts to Revelation | Episode 14

Watch Acts to Revelation | Episode 14
July 12, 2018
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Acts to Revelation | Episode 14

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  • Dave Stotts:
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisone
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisoner
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisoner Pa
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisoner Paul
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisoner Paul m
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisoner Paul mad
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, the prisoner Paul made
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  • the harrowing journey from Caesarea to the island of Malta.
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  • After surviving a storm, a shipwreck, and a snakebite,
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  • Paul bonded with the people of Malta and healed
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  • many islanders in the name of Jesus.
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  • After three months in Malta, Julius, Paul's centurion guard,
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  • located another ship bound for Italy.
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  • Once again, it was time for Paul to complete the journey to Rome.
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  • Dave: "After three months we put out to sea in a ship
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  • that had wintered in the island.
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  • It was an Alexandrian ship with the figurehead
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  • of the twin gods Castor and Pollux," Acts 28:11.
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  • In early 60 AD, Paul was placed on a grain freighter that had
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  • been waiting out the harsh winter here in Malta.
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  • According to Luke's account, the ship had a Dioscuri on its bow,
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  • a good luck charm for sailors.
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  • The symbol for the Dioscuri were the twin brothers
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  • Castor and Pollux, patron protectors of travelers,
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  • especially on the sea.
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  • The ship probably departed from here in Valletta.
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  • And according to Acts chapter 28, made its way to Syracuse,
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  • then to Rhegium, and then finally to the port of Puteoli.
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  • Today, Puteoli is known as Pozzuoli,
  • 00:02:15.240 --> 00:02:18.250
  • a port town just outside Naples, Italy.
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  • Had Paul's boat been a transit ship bound for Rome, it probably
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  • would have sailed farther north to Ostia, the port city of Rome.
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  • However, Puteoli must have been the original destination for the
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  • grain shipment, while still allowing easy access to Rome
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  • on the Appian Way.
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  • The Appian Way was probably the most famous road
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  • of the Roman Empire.
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  • The Via Appia, as it was known, was named for Appius Claudius,
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  • who began its construction in 312 BC, connecting Rome
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  • to the seaside city of Brindisi in southern Italy.
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  • According to Luke's account, it was at Puteoli that Paul
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  • found a group of Christians who helped take care of his needs.
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  • Then these same Christians journeyed to Rome with him
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  • along the Appian Way.
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  • This is where I'll grab my ride for the
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  • next couple of episodes through Italy.
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  • Who is lucky?
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  • Oh so lucky.
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  • Dave: An Italian classic, a vintage red Alfa Romeo
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  • convertible named Bella.
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  • Ciao bella.
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  • The journey from Puteoli to Rome is about 150 miles.
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  • According to Acts 28:14, it took Paul's group about a week.
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  • Hopefully, I can make it in less time than it took them.
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  • Driving on a 2.000 year old road, boys and girls.
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  • Approaching the city of Rome along the Appian Way, Paul would
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  • have passed near the Aqua Claudia, which had recently
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  • been completed by Emperor Claudius.
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  • Now, during the first century, aqueducts like these were
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  • importing around 300 million gallons of water into
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  • the city of Rome every day, far surpassing the needs
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  • of the local population.
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  • That's an impressive feat, even by today's standards.
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  • "And so we came to Rome.
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  • The brothers and sisters there had heard that we were coming,
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  • and they traveled as far as the forum of Appius
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  • and the Three Taverns to meet us.
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  • At the sight of these people, Paul thanked God and
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  • was encouraged," Acts 28:14 and 15.
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  • Luke's firsthand account tells us that Christians came about
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  • a day's journey from all around Rome in order to welcome Paul.
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  • The forum of Appius was an ancient marketplace
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  • along the Appian Way about 40 miles southeast of Rome.
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  • Now, the ancient historian Horus mentions the site as a post
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  • station full of, quote, "Boatmen and cheating innkeepers."
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  • Three Taverns was another station along the Appian Way,
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  • where three roads intersected about 30 miles from Rome.
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  • Now, this city originally had shops designed for travelers,
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  • including the general store, the blacksmith,
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  • and the so-called refreshment house.
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  • The forum of Appius and Three Taverns, just two places that
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  • most people sort of skip over in Scripture, but I find them to be
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  • fascinating geographical markers in biblical history.
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  • Their inclusion shows us that these were real people coming
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  • from real places in order to meet the renowned evangelist.
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  • Apparently, many of the Christians here in Rome were
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  • well aware of Paul even before he arrived here as
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  • a prisoner in about 60 AD.
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  • A few years earlier, when Paul was in Corinth,
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  • he had written a letter to the church in Rome.
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  • Now, Paul had intended to follow his letter with a personal
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  • visit, but those plans got interrupted when he was arrested
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  • in Jerusalem and imprisoned for two years in Caesarea.
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  • Now, Paul finally made it to Rome as a prisoner.
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  • And even after two years, many people were here to see
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  • in person the man who had encouraged them
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  • so much in writing.
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  • Could you imagine meeting the Apostle Paul?
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  • What a moment that must have been.
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  • Paul's letter to the Romans had made its
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  • rounds through the community.
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  • It began with a powerful declaration.
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  • "I am not ashamed of the gospel because it is the power of God
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  • for the salvation of everyone who believes, first for the Jew,
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  • then for the Gentile," Romans 1:16.
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  • Paul then went on to use several people and events
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  • from the Old Testament to set up the gospel message.
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  • He used Adam to explain the concept of inherited sin.
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  • He used Abraham as an example of righteousness
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  • being credited by faith.
  • 00:07:06.030 --> 00:07:08.090
  • And he used David, who shared the heart of the gospel some
  • 00:07:08.100 --> 00:07:12.020
  • 1.000 years earlier, when he said, "Blessed are they whose
  • 00:07:12.030 --> 00:07:16.080
  • transgressions are forgiven, whose sins are covered.
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  • Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will never
  • 00:07:19.270 --> 00:07:22.290
  • count against him," Psalm 32:1 and 2.
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  • Over the centuries, Paul's letter to the Romans has become
  • 00:07:27.260 --> 00:07:30.290
  • known for its clear presentation of the gospel.
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  • Within its verses is a step by step map of sorts,
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  • which is appropriately called the Roman road.
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  • Romans 3:23, "For all have sinned and fall short
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  • of the glory of God."
  • 00:07:46.180 --> 00:07:48.170
  • Romans 5:8, "But God demonstrates his love toward us
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  • in that while we were still sinners, Christ died us."
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  • Romans 6:23, "For the wages of sin is death, but the
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  • gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord."
  • 00:08:01.020 --> 00:08:05.170
  • Romans 10:9, "That if you confess with your mouth the Lord
  • 00:08:05.180 --> 00:08:09.080
  • Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised him
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  • from the dead, you will be saved."
  • 00:08:12.230 --> 00:08:16.040
  • This simple presentation of the gospel of Jesus Christ
  • 00:08:16.050 --> 00:08:19.200
  • has been used in evangelism for centuries.
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  • Dave: Well, here it is, Rome, the eternal city.
  • 00:08:31.190 --> 00:08:37.170
  • Rome was established on the east bank
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  • of the Tiber river in about 753 BC.
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  • According to legend, Romulus and Remus were co-rulers.
  • 00:08:44.250 --> 00:08:48.270
  • But in a battle over the founding of the city, Remus
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  • died, leaving the kingdom to Romulus, and the
  • 00:08:52.250 --> 00:08:56.080
  • city was named in his honor.
  • 00:08:56.090 --> 00:08:59.020
  • After its founding, Rome first functioned
  • 00:08:59.030 --> 00:09:01.110
  • as a monarchy from 753 to 510 BC.
  • 00:09:01.120 --> 00:09:06.000
  • Then as a republic from 510 to 31 BC.
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  • And finally as an empire from 31 BC to 476 AD.
  • 00:09:10.170 --> 00:09:16.250
  • By the time of Emperor Augustus in the first century AD,
  • 00:09:16.260 --> 00:09:20.290
  • Rome was the capital of an entire empire,
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  • and the largest city in the world.
  • 00:09:24.120 --> 00:09:27.040
  • Scholars estimate that the population of Rome had reached
  • 00:09:27.050 --> 00:09:30.180
  • 1 million people by the time of the Apostle Paul.
  • 00:09:30.190 --> 00:09:34.290
  • No other city reached 1 million people until London in
  • 00:09:35.000 --> 00:09:38.130
  • the 18th century during the Industrial Revolution.
  • 00:09:38.140 --> 00:09:43.090
  • Rome was home to a long line of emperors.
  • 00:09:44.220 --> 00:09:47.230
  • In the first century, there was Augustus, Tiberius,
  • 00:09:47.240 --> 00:09:51.230
  • Caligula, Claudius, Nero.
  • 00:09:51.240 --> 00:09:55.200
  • The so-called four: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
  • 00:09:55.210 --> 00:10:00.260
  • Titus, Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, who took the
  • 00:10:00.270 --> 00:10:06.190
  • Roman Empire into the second century.
  • 00:10:06.200 --> 00:10:10.160
  • At the beginning of the first century, Augustus vastly
  • 00:10:10.170 --> 00:10:13.220
  • improved Rome, remarking that he had founded a city
  • 00:10:13.230 --> 00:10:17.250
  • of brick and left it a city of marble.
  • 00:10:17.260 --> 00:10:21.040
  • In addition to building an imperial palace, Augustus built
  • 00:10:21.050 --> 00:10:24.110
  • many temples, including one to his step-dad, Julius Caesar.
  • 00:10:24.120 --> 00:10:30.020
  • Subsequent emperors added to the city.
  • 00:10:30.030 --> 00:10:32.250
  • And by the time Paul arrived in 60 AD, Rome included the
  • 00:10:32.260 --> 00:10:36.220
  • imperial palace complex, the Roman Forum, the forum of
  • 00:10:36.230 --> 00:10:40.160
  • Caesar, the forum of Augustus, the praetorian barracks,
  • 00:10:40.170 --> 00:10:44.210
  • the Circus Maximus, and numerous other temples, theatres,
  • 00:10:44.220 --> 00:10:48.170
  • baths, gardens, aqueducts, fountains, bridges, villas,
  • 00:10:48.180 --> 00:10:53.040
  • apartments, altars, and arches.
  • 00:10:53.050 --> 00:10:58.270
  • Amazingly, many of these buildings are still standing and
  • 00:10:58.280 --> 00:11:02.050
  • in great condition considering their 2.000-year history.
  • 00:11:02.060 --> 00:11:08.140
  • As it turns out, the ancient Romans used a special kind
  • 00:11:08.150 --> 00:11:12.230
  • of concrete in their construction, a concrete that
  • 00:11:12.240 --> 00:11:17.200
  • both hardened underwater and grew stronger with time.
  • 00:11:17.210 --> 00:11:24.050
  • It was a concrete called pyroclastic aggregate concrete.
  • 00:11:24.060 --> 00:11:31.100
  • And it was an excellent example of the amazing ingenuity
  • 00:11:31.110 --> 00:11:36.050
  • of the ancient Roman builders.
  • 00:11:36.060 --> 00:11:40.170
  • Thank you, thank you.
  • 00:11:40.180 --> 00:11:44.030
  • And could you please find someplace else
  • 00:11:44.040 --> 00:11:47.170
  • and never come back?
  • 00:11:47.180 --> 00:11:51.240
  • Here are some of the highlights of ancient Rome
  • 00:11:53.050 --> 00:11:55.240
  • at the time of Paul.
  • 00:11:55.250 --> 00:11:58.050
  • The Pantheon was a major temple dedicated to all of the gods.
  • 00:11:58.060 --> 00:12:03.050
  • It was constructed between 29 and 19 BC using some of
  • 00:12:03.060 --> 00:12:07.290
  • that famous Roman concrete we just talked about.
  • 00:12:08.000 --> 00:12:11.160
  • Now, after the time of Paul, the Pantheon was damaged by a fire
  • 00:12:11.170 --> 00:12:15.190
  • until Hadrian reconstructed the temple in the second century.
  • 00:12:15.200 --> 00:12:20.050
  • The Pantheon stands today as one of the most
  • 00:12:20.060 --> 00:12:22.240
  • iconic buildings of ancient Rome.
  • 00:12:22.250 --> 00:12:27.000
  • The theatre of Marcellus was the largest theatre in the city,
  • 00:12:30.010 --> 00:12:33.270
  • accommodating up to 20.000 spectators.
  • 00:12:33.280 --> 00:12:37.150
  • Julius Caesar cleared the space for the theatre, but he was
  • 00:12:37.160 --> 00:12:42.180
  • murdered before construction began.
  • 00:12:42.190 --> 00:12:45.180
  • Augustus completed the theatre in about 12 BC.
  • 00:12:45.190 --> 00:12:50.070
  • Now, the theatre of Marcellus has been used for various
  • 00:12:50.080 --> 00:12:52.200
  • purposes over the centuries, but mostly for plays and concerts.
  • 00:12:52.210 --> 00:12:58.050
  • The Roman Forum, this was the center of life in everyday Rome.
  • 00:13:00.240 --> 00:13:05.200
  • This area was filled with government buildings,
  • 00:13:05.210 --> 00:13:08.110
  • judicial courts, statues, temples, shops, and this
  • 00:13:08.120 --> 00:13:12.140
  • open plaza here in the middle.
  • 00:13:12.150 --> 00:13:15.100
  • This was the heart of Rome, the site for elections, trials,
  • 00:13:15.110 --> 00:13:20.010
  • speeches, and parades.
  • 00:13:20.020 --> 00:13:22.190
  • One of the most celebrated commercial centers
  • 00:13:22.200 --> 00:13:25.110
  • and meeting places in the ancient world.
  • 00:13:25.120 --> 00:13:29.250
  • Ah, and finally.
  • 00:13:30.270 --> 00:13:35.270
  • Okay, so this isn't a feature of first century Rome, but hey,
  • 00:13:35.280 --> 00:13:40.000
  • I'm in Italy, home of the pizza.
  • 00:13:40.010 --> 00:13:43.220
  • I'm sure foods similar to pizza have been made since the ancient
  • 00:13:43.230 --> 00:13:48.260
  • time, especially if you're sort of liberal
  • 00:13:48.270 --> 00:13:52.010
  • with the definition of pizza.
  • 00:13:52.020 --> 00:13:54.100
  • There are numerous accounts of cultures from around the world
  • 00:13:54.110 --> 00:13:57.140
  • that have made their meals taste better by simply taking bread
  • 00:13:57.150 --> 00:14:01.010
  • and adding certain ingredients to the top of it.
  • 00:14:01.020 --> 00:14:03.290
  • But modern pizza most likely came from the
  • 00:14:04.000 --> 00:14:06.090
  • flatbread dishes that were created right here in Italy
  • 00:14:06.100 --> 00:14:09.190
  • in the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • 00:14:09.200 --> 00:14:12.020
  • Most Italians give Naples the trophy for the first pizzerias
  • 00:14:12.030 --> 00:14:15.280
  • and the Neapolitan style, but Rome was early
  • 00:14:15.290 --> 00:14:19.080
  • to the game too and has a style all its own.
  • 00:14:19.090 --> 00:14:23.140
  • Peasant pizza was sold out of the many bakeries
  • 00:14:23.150 --> 00:14:26.040
  • and open air stands here in Rome.
  • 00:14:26.050 --> 00:14:28.270
  • On these very streets, flatbread was topped with ingredients
  • 00:14:28.280 --> 00:14:32.170
  • such a garlic, lard, salt, and basil.
  • 00:14:32.180 --> 00:14:35.280
  • And yes, of course cheese.
  • 00:14:35.290 --> 00:14:39.060
  • And that's what I'm going to have right now, classic.
  • 00:14:39.070 --> 00:14:43.170
  • Look at this, nice thin crust, a little basil,
  • 00:14:43.180 --> 00:14:47.180
  • a little olive oil, and lots and lots of mozzarella cheese.
  • 00:14:47.190 --> 00:14:53.040
  • Here's another really important tip.
  • 00:14:53.050 --> 00:14:55.180
  • If you're a fan of pepperoni pizza like I am, you're not
  • 00:14:55.190 --> 00:14:57.280
  • going to find that on the menu over here.
  • 00:14:57.290 --> 00:14:59.280
  • That's because over here, pepperoni is called salami.
  • 00:14:59.290 --> 00:15:03.280
  • I'll have a pizza salami. Huddle up.
  • 00:15:03.290 --> 00:15:07.230
  • Life hack.
  • 00:15:07.240 --> 00:15:09.050
  • It's always best to speak loudly in a foreign accent.
  • 00:15:09.060 --> 00:15:14.040
  • The locals seem to really appreciate it.
  • 00:15:14.050 --> 00:15:16.130
  • 00:15:16.280 --> 00:15:25.220
  • Dave: Needs more cheese. Garçon.
  • 00:15:26.100 --> 00:15:29.050
  • Now that I'm sufficiently stuffed with awesome pizza,
  • 00:15:29.280 --> 00:15:32.120
  • let's return to Paul and the story of his
  • 00:15:32.130 --> 00:15:34.220
  • arrival here in Rome.
  • 00:15:34.230 --> 00:15:37.050
  • Entering the city, Paul would have gone through this, Porta
  • 00:15:37.060 --> 00:15:40.190
  • Capena, the main gate that opened onto the Appian Way.
  • 00:15:40.200 --> 00:15:44.080
  • From here, he would have probably gone by the Circus
  • 00:15:44.090 --> 00:15:47.080
  • Maximus and then the imperial palace before
  • 00:15:47.090 --> 00:15:50.060
  • arriving at his destination.
  • 00:15:50.070 --> 00:15:53.220
  • According to Acts chapter 28, the centurion Julius gave
  • 00:15:54.060 --> 00:15:58.200
  • custody of Paul to the chief of the soldiers, who
  • 00:15:58.210 --> 00:16:02.080
  • was probably the commander of the praetorian guard.
  • 00:16:02.090 --> 00:16:06.040
  • This is consistent with what we know from Roman history since
  • 00:16:06.050 --> 00:16:09.140
  • the praetorian guard was in charge of prisoners
  • 00:16:09.150 --> 00:16:12.290
  • sent to Rome from outside provinces.
  • 00:16:13.000 --> 00:16:16.100
  • Now, because Paul was put under the watch of the praetorian
  • 00:16:16.110 --> 00:16:19.150
  • guard, his rented quarters were probably
  • 00:16:19.160 --> 00:16:22.050
  • very near their fortress and barracks.
  • 00:16:22.060 --> 00:16:25.090
  • The barracks or the Castra Praetoria, was constructed in 23
  • 00:16:25.100 --> 00:16:30.060
  • AD, allowing the guard to be centralized in one location.
  • 00:16:30.070 --> 00:16:35.180
  • It was a massive fortress at the edge of the city.
  • 00:16:35.190 --> 00:16:39.120
  • Some of the ruins are still visible here today
  • 00:16:39.130 --> 00:16:42.210
  • Recently, while digging a nearby metro tunnel, workers discovered
  • 00:16:43.160 --> 00:16:47.230
  • praetorian barracks from the early 2nd century.
  • 00:16:47.240 --> 00:16:51.190
  • This awesome find included mosaic floors and a 100-yard
  • 00:16:51.200 --> 00:16:56.120
  • long corridor with some 39 rooms used for sleeping quarters.
  • 00:16:56.130 --> 00:17:02.100
  • Now, to be under guard by the praetorians meant that Paul
  • 00:17:02.220 --> 00:17:06.020
  • was considered an important prisoner since these soldiers
  • 00:17:06.030 --> 00:17:09.160
  • were the personal elite guards of the emperor himself.
  • 00:17:09.170 --> 00:17:14.000
  • Augustus established the praetorians, and
  • 00:17:14.010 --> 00:17:16.270
  • Tiberius stationed them here in Rome at their own fortress.
  • 00:17:16.280 --> 00:17:21.200
  • During the time of Claudius and Nero, the praetorian
  • 00:17:21.210 --> 00:17:25.180
  • guard was expanded to about 10.000 soldiers.
  • 00:17:25.190 --> 00:17:29.170
  • The book of Acts continues, "When we got to Rome,
  • 00:17:29.280 --> 00:17:33.000
  • Paul was allowed to live by himself with
  • 00:17:33.010 --> 00:17:35.290
  • a soldier to guard him," Acts 28:16.
  • 00:17:36.000 --> 00:17:40.000
  • Paul was probably taken to an apartment in one
  • 00:17:40.010 --> 00:17:42.190
  • of the many multi-story housing blocks, or insulae, of Rome.
  • 00:17:42.200 --> 00:17:47.200
  • According to data from the late Roman period, there were about
  • 00:17:47.210 --> 00:17:50.260
  • 45.000 of these insulae housing blocks in the city,
  • 00:17:50.270 --> 00:17:55.130
  • ranging from two to five stories high, and often having
  • 00:17:55.140 --> 00:17:59.070
  • a ground level shop down beneath.
  • 00:17:59.080 --> 00:18:02.250
  • Many of these structures were known to be quite dangerous,
  • 00:18:02.260 --> 00:18:05.210
  • with fires, floods, and collapses a constant threat.
  • 00:18:05.220 --> 00:18:09.290
  • This is where Paul lived under house arrest
  • 00:18:10.000 --> 00:18:13.050
  • as he awaited his hearing with the emperor.
  • 00:18:13.060 --> 00:18:17.070
  • Three days after settling into his new apartment,
  • 00:18:17.080 --> 00:18:20.010
  • Paul called the leaders of the Jews to a meeting.
  • 00:18:20.020 --> 00:18:23.130
  • When they had assembled, he said to them, "My brothers,
  • 00:18:23.140 --> 00:18:27.000
  • although I have done nothing against our people or against
  • 00:18:27.010 --> 00:18:29.260
  • the customs of our ancestors, I was arrested in Jerusalem
  • 00:18:29.270 --> 00:18:33.290
  • and handed over to the Romans.
  • 00:18:34.000 --> 00:18:36.020
  • They examined me and wanted to release me because
  • 00:18:36.030 --> 00:18:38.230
  • I was not guilty of any crime deserving death.
  • 00:18:38.240 --> 00:18:42.000
  • The Jews objected, so I was compelled
  • 00:18:42.010 --> 00:18:44.000
  • to make an appeal to Caesar.
  • 00:18:44.010 --> 00:18:46.090
  • I certainly did not intend to bring any charge
  • 00:18:46.100 --> 00:18:48.210
  • against my own people.
  • 00:18:48.220 --> 00:18:50.180
  • For this reason, I have asked to see you and talk with you.
  • 00:18:50.190 --> 00:18:53.260
  • It is because of the hope of Israel that I am bound
  • 00:18:53.270 --> 00:18:57.060
  • in this chain," Acts 28:17 through 20.
  • 00:18:57.070 --> 00:19:02.060
  • The Jewish leaders had not heard a negative report
  • 00:19:02.070 --> 00:19:04.210
  • about Paul individually, but they did know of the
  • 00:19:04.220 --> 00:19:07.170
  • sect of Christianity that had been spoken against in
  • 00:19:07.180 --> 00:19:11.080
  • communities of Jews all over the empire.
  • 00:19:11.090 --> 00:19:15.170
  • Because Paul was under house arrest, he was not
  • 00:19:15.180 --> 00:19:18.090
  • able to venture out into the synagogues here in Rome
  • 00:19:18.100 --> 00:19:21.090
  • to preach, as was his custom in other cities.
  • 00:19:21.100 --> 00:19:24.180
  • However, the Jewish leaders did come to Paul's apartment,
  • 00:19:24.190 --> 00:19:28.090
  • and there they heard the story of his arrest.
  • 00:19:28.100 --> 00:19:31.120
  • And then Paul preached the gospel to them,
  • 00:19:31.130 --> 00:19:34.040
  • reasoning with them from the Scriptures.
  • 00:19:34.050 --> 00:19:37.120
  • Similar to what happened in other cities, some of the Jews
  • 00:19:37.130 --> 00:19:40.090
  • were persuaded, while others disagreed.
  • 00:19:40.100 --> 00:19:42.250
  • And so, a dispute arose among them.
  • 00:19:42.260 --> 00:19:46.020
  • But because Paul was under house arrest, constantly guarded
  • 00:19:46.030 --> 00:19:49.080
  • by a Roman soldier, they were not able to run
  • 00:19:49.090 --> 00:19:52.090
  • Paul out of town this time.
  • 00:19:52.100 --> 00:19:55.020
  • While under house arrest in Rome, Paul not only taught, but
  • 00:19:55.030 --> 00:19:58.180
  • he also wrote letters, including the four New Testament epistles
  • 00:19:58.190 --> 00:20:02.170
  • of Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon.
  • 00:20:02.180 --> 00:20:07.030
  • In the letter to the Philippians, Paul mentioned that
  • 00:20:07.040 --> 00:20:10.020
  • his imprisonment for the cause of Christ has become
  • 00:20:10.030 --> 00:20:12.220
  • known throughout the whole praetoria.
  • 00:20:12.230 --> 00:20:15.090
  • This is more evidence that Paul was under house arrest
  • 00:20:15.100 --> 00:20:18.060
  • with the praetorian guard while in Rome.
  • 00:20:18.070 --> 00:20:20.250
  • And it indicates that Paul was living near their barracks.
  • 00:20:20.260 --> 00:20:24.100
  • Also in his letter to the Philippians, Paul mentions
  • 00:20:24.110 --> 00:20:27.050
  • a number of new believers from the household of Caesar.
  • 00:20:27.060 --> 00:20:30.250
  • This reference shows that the people living and working
  • 00:20:30.260 --> 00:20:34.040
  • in the imperial palace were very familiar with Paul,
  • 00:20:34.050 --> 00:20:37.190
  • suggesting that Paul had interaction with those
  • 00:20:37.200 --> 00:20:41.000
  • in the household of the emperor.
  • 00:20:41.010 --> 00:20:43.180
  • Although Paul was allowed to write, send letters, have
  • 00:20:43.190 --> 00:20:46.260
  • visitors, teach, and preach, he was constantly under guard
  • 00:20:46.270 --> 00:20:51.020
  • and chained to a soldier on duty.
  • 00:20:51.030 --> 00:20:53.260
  • Roman sources demonstrate that renting quarters
  • 00:20:53.270 --> 00:20:56.220
  • and being chained to a soldier were typical protocol
  • 00:20:56.230 --> 00:20:59.100
  • for a prisoner who was under house arrest.
  • 00:20:59.110 --> 00:21:03.080
  • That meant that the soldiers who were guarding Paul
  • 00:21:03.090 --> 00:21:06.010
  • and anyone from the, quote, household of Caesar
  • 00:21:06.020 --> 00:21:09.070
  • that interacted with Paul heard the gospel.
  • 00:21:09.080 --> 00:21:12.130
  • As a result, Paul's letters tell us that many of them
  • 00:21:12.140 --> 00:21:15.200
  • became followers of Jesus and joined the first
  • 00:21:15.210 --> 00:21:18.290
  • century church here in Rome.
  • 00:21:19.000 --> 00:21:23.190
  • The book of Acts ends in Rome with Paul still awaiting trial.
  • 00:21:25.240 --> 00:21:30.180
  • For two whole years, Paul stayed there in his own rented house,
  • 00:21:30.190 --> 00:21:34.210
  • and welcomed all who came to see him.
  • 00:21:34.220 --> 00:21:37.190
  • "He proclaimed the kingdom of God and taught about the Lord
  • 00:21:37.200 --> 00:21:40.270
  • Jesus Christ with all boldness and without hindrance,"
  • 00:21:40.280 --> 00:21:44.270
  • Acts 28:30 and 31.
  • 00:21:44.280 --> 00:21:48.240
  • The rest of Paul's story must be pieced together from his letters
  • 00:21:48.250 --> 00:21:52.180
  • and other ancient church sources.
  • 00:21:52.190 --> 00:21:55.080
  • By the end of two years in about 62 AD, Paul must have had his
  • 00:21:55.090 --> 00:22:00.180
  • trial before Emperor Nero, before finally being released.
  • 00:22:00.190 --> 00:22:05.180
  • Don't forget it was probably the evidence that Luke compiled in
  • 00:22:05.190 --> 00:22:09.110
  • the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles
  • 00:22:09.120 --> 00:22:12.160
  • that was used as Paul's defense.
  • 00:22:12.170 --> 00:22:15.040
  • But before we delve into the later life of the Apostle Paul,
  • 00:22:15.050 --> 00:22:19.160
  • let's explore the life of another important apostle
  • 00:22:19.170 --> 00:22:22.190
  • who came to Rome, the Apostle Peter.
  • 00:22:22.200 --> 00:22:26.000
  • Sometime after Paul's arrival, Simon Peter also
  • 00:22:26.010 --> 00:22:29.020
  • made his way to Rome.
  • 00:22:29.030 --> 00:22:31.010
  • As you'll recall, Peter was one of the first followers of Jesus.
  • 00:22:31.020 --> 00:22:34.200
  • He was an outspoken disciple, one of Jesus's
  • 00:22:34.210 --> 00:22:37.130
  • closest friends and an apostle.
  • 00:22:37.140 --> 00:22:39.290
  • Peter was enthusiastic, strong-willed,
  • 00:22:40.000 --> 00:22:42.170
  • and at times impulsive.
  • 00:22:42.180 --> 00:22:44.120
  • He also had a few failings in life, which made him
  • 00:22:44.130 --> 00:22:47.100
  • human like the rest of us.
  • 00:22:47.110 --> 00:22:49.140
  • In his letter to the Galatians,
  • 00:22:49.150 --> 00:22:51.030
  • Paul called Peter a pillar of the church.
  • 00:22:51.040 --> 00:22:54.030
  • Now, Peter probably lived here in the Trans Tiberim quarter
  • 00:22:54.040 --> 00:22:57.230
  • on the west side of the Tiber river, where many Jews lived.
  • 00:22:57.240 --> 00:23:01.150
  • A community of Jews existed here as early
  • 00:23:01.160 --> 00:23:04.030
  • as the first century BC.
  • 00:23:04.040 --> 00:23:06.210
  • Many of them came to Rome as slaves after
  • 00:23:06.220 --> 00:23:09.170
  • the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompeii in 63 BC.
  • 00:23:09.180 --> 00:23:14.060
  • Now, today this area of Rome is known as Trastevere,
  • 00:23:14.070 --> 00:23:18.050
  • and it probably feels a little like it did 2.000 years ago.
  • 00:23:18.060 --> 00:23:23.270
  • Peter probably lived in this area of Rome with Mark.
  • 00:23:23.280 --> 00:23:28.090
  • According to ancient sources, it was during this time that Mark
  • 00:23:28.100 --> 00:23:32.050
  • wrote his gospel account, with Peter as his source.
  • 00:23:32.060 --> 00:23:37.010
  • It was also here that Peter wrote his letters.
  • 00:23:37.020 --> 00:23:40.230
  • 1 Peter, as it's called in the New Testament, was a letter
  • 00:23:40.240 --> 00:23:44.050
  • from Peter to the Christians who had been dispersed throughout
  • 00:23:44.060 --> 00:23:47.040
  • the world and were under intense persecution.
  • 00:23:47.050 --> 00:23:50.140
  • If anyone understood persecution, it was Peter.
  • 00:23:50.150 --> 00:23:53.220
  • He was beaten, punished, and jailed for preaching the gospel.
  • 00:23:53.230 --> 00:23:57.060
  • He knew what it took to endure without bitterness
  • 00:23:57.070 --> 00:24:00.190
  • and without losing hope.
  • 00:24:00.200 --> 00:24:02.150
  • Peter's direct knowledge of the living hope found
  • 00:24:02.160 --> 00:24:05.030
  • in Jesus was his ultimate message.
  • 00:24:05.040 --> 00:24:08.170
  • "Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ!
  • 00:24:08.180 --> 00:24:13.020
  • In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope
  • 00:24:13.030 --> 00:24:17.080
  • through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,"
  • 00:24:17.090 --> 00:24:20.230
  • 1 Peter 1:3.
  • 00:24:20.240 --> 00:24:23.150
  • This period of history is filled
  • 00:24:23.160 --> 00:24:25.130
  • with severe attacks against Christians.
  • 00:24:25.140 --> 00:24:28.200
  • But Peter always found time to rejoice.
  • 00:24:28.210 --> 00:24:32.280
  • He even said, "Count it a privilege to suffer
  • 00:24:32.290 --> 00:24:36.040
  • for the sake of Jesus," since Jesus suffered for them.
  • 00:24:36.050 --> 00:24:39.220
  • In the end, Peter confirmed that Satan is the real enemy of every
  • 00:24:39.230 --> 00:24:44.240
  • Christian, but he assured every Christian that their ultimate
  • 00:24:44.250 --> 00:24:48.030
  • hope lies in the future return of Jesus Christ.
  • 00:24:48.040 --> 00:24:52.200
  • Peter wrote his second letter
  • 00:24:52.210 --> 00:24:54.260
  • near the end of his life here in Rome.
  • 00:24:54.270 --> 00:24:57.210
  • He was alarmed to hear that false teachers were infiltrating
  • 00:24:57.220 --> 00:25:01.240
  • the churches in the Mediterranean region.
  • 00:25:01.250 --> 00:25:04.290
  • He called on Christians to grow up and to become strong in their
  • 00:25:05.000 --> 00:25:09.020
  • faith so that they could detect and combat the spreading lies.
  • 00:25:09.030 --> 00:25:14.050
  • Peter stressed the authenticity of the Scriptures
  • 00:25:14.060 --> 00:25:17.250
  • and the sure return of Jesus Christ.
  • 00:25:17.260 --> 00:25:20.190
  • "The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise,
  • 00:25:21.220 --> 00:25:24.040
  • as some understand slowness.
  • 00:25:24.050 --> 00:25:26.020
  • He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but
  • 00:25:26.030 --> 00:25:29.220
  • everyone to come to repentance," 2 Peter 3:9.
  • 00:25:29.230 --> 00:25:34.120
  • So, that was the environment here in Rome
  • 00:25:35.290 --> 00:25:38.180
  • in about 60 to 64 AD.
  • 00:25:38.190 --> 00:25:41.290
  • There seemed to be an active community of Jews and Christians
  • 00:25:42.000 --> 00:25:46.170
  • coexisting with a diverse population
  • 00:25:46.180 --> 00:25:49.030
  • from all around the empire.
  • 00:25:49.040 --> 00:25:51.220
  • But right around the corner, something truly
  • 00:25:51.230 --> 00:25:54.130
  • sinister was lurking.
  • 00:25:54.140 --> 00:25:57.100
  • The early Christian church was about to face
  • 00:25:57.110 --> 00:25:59.190
  • its more horrible challenge yet.
  • 00:25:59.200 --> 00:26:03.020
  • And yet, this challenge to the Christians in Rome,
  • 00:26:04.100 --> 00:26:06.220
  • which we'll look at in the next episode, was something
  • 00:26:06.230 --> 00:26:08.270
  • the first Christians had been prepared for.
  • 00:26:08.280 --> 00:26:11.150
  • And the words of Peter written from this city would provide
  • 00:26:11.160 --> 00:26:14.020
  • all the hope they needed.
  • 00:26:14.030 --> 00:26:16.100
  • "Rejoice insofar as you share Christ's sufferings, that
  • 00:26:16.110 --> 00:26:20.030
  • you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed,"
  • 00:26:20.040 --> 00:26:24.130
  • 1 Peter 4:13.
  • 00:26:24.140 --> 00:26:26.230
  • 00:26:28.080 --> 00:26:37.250
  • 00:26:38.110 --> 00:26:48.010
  • 00:26:48.170 --> 00:26:58.140
  • 00:26:58.240 --> 00:27:08.170
  • 00:27:13.240 --> 00:27:23.060
  • 00:27:23.240 --> 00:27:29.080