Acts to Revelation | Episode 12 | TBN

Acts to Revelation | Episode 12

Watch Acts to Revelation | Episode 12
June 27, 2018
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Acts to Revelation | Episode 12

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  • 00:00:00.230 --> 00:00:07.180
  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode, Paul was nearing
  • 00:00:07.190 --> 00:00:09.200
  • the completion of his third missionary journey.
  • 00:00:09.210 --> 00:00:12.210
  • Despite warnings, his heart was to return to Jerusalem.
  • 00:00:12.220 --> 00:00:17.030
  • Paul retraced his steps around the Aegean Sea to Philippi,
  • 00:00:17.040 --> 00:00:21.060
  • where he reconnected with Luke and celebrated the Passover.
  • 00:00:21.070 --> 00:00:25.080
  • Then it was on to Troas.
  • 00:00:25.090 --> 00:00:27.060
  • From there, they weaved their way through the islands off the
  • 00:00:27.070 --> 00:00:30.030
  • coast of Asia Minor to Miletus, where they met with the elders
  • 00:00:30.040 --> 00:00:33.240
  • of the Ephesus church for a final farewell.
  • 00:00:33.250 --> 00:00:37.110
  • Paul said, "And now, compelled by the Spirit, I am going
  • 00:00:37.120 --> 00:00:41.140
  • to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there.
  • 00:00:41.150 --> 00:00:44.280
  • I only know that in every city, the Holy Spirit warns me
  • 00:00:44.290 --> 00:00:48.050
  • that prison and hardships are facing me.
  • 00:00:48.060 --> 00:00:51.010
  • However, I consider my life worth nothing to me.
  • 00:00:51.020 --> 00:00:54.010
  • My only aim is to finish the race and complete the task the
  • 00:00:54.020 --> 00:00:57.170
  • Lord Jesus has given me, the task of testifying to the good
  • 00:00:57.180 --> 00:01:01.060
  • news of God's grace," Acts 20:22 through 24.
  • 00:01:01.070 --> 00:01:05.280
  • Hurrying to be in Jerusalem for Pentecost, Paul and Luke sailed
  • 00:01:05.290 --> 00:01:09.230
  • around the southern end of Asia province to Patara,
  • 00:01:09.240 --> 00:01:13.110
  • then straight across the Mediterranean to the ports
  • 00:01:13.120 --> 00:01:15.270
  • of Tyre, Ptolemais, and Caesarea.
  • 00:01:15.280 --> 00:01:19.210
  • From here, at Caesarea, Paul journeyed to Jerusalem
  • 00:01:19.220 --> 00:01:23.260
  • one last time.
  • 00:01:23.270 --> 00:01:26.130
  • 00:01:27.100 --> 00:01:37.090
  • 00:01:37.100 --> 00:01:47.090
  • 00:01:47.100 --> 00:01:57.090
  • 00:01:57.100 --> 00:02:04.090
  • 00:02:04.100 --> 00:02:08.010
  • 00:02:17.190 --> 00:02:20.250
  • Dave: At this point, it had been about 24 years since the
  • 00:02:20.260 --> 00:02:23.240
  • first believers were empowered by the Holy Spirit here in
  • 00:02:23.250 --> 00:02:27.240
  • Jerusalem at Pentecost.
  • 00:02:27.250 --> 00:02:30.000
  • Despite trials and tribulations, the Christian church had grown
  • 00:02:30.010 --> 00:02:33.190
  • with remarkable success.
  • 00:02:33.200 --> 00:02:38.080
  • Now, after three long years of journeys around the
  • 00:02:38.090 --> 00:02:41.060
  • Mediterranean, Paul returned to Jerusalem to give a glowing
  • 00:02:41.070 --> 00:02:45.120
  • report to James and the elders of the Christian church here
  • 00:02:45.130 --> 00:02:49.070
  • about what God was doing in the spread of the gospel
  • 00:02:49.080 --> 00:02:52.100
  • among the nations.
  • 00:02:52.110 --> 00:02:54.050
  • But Paul returned to find controversy brewing,
  • 00:02:54.060 --> 00:02:57.100
  • and it was a familiar one.
  • 00:02:57.110 --> 00:02:59.110
  • As it turns out, the leaders of the church here were worried
  • 00:02:59.120 --> 00:03:01.270
  • that Paul was urging Jews around the world not to follow the law
  • 00:03:01.280 --> 00:03:06.270
  • after they became followers of Jesus.
  • 00:03:06.280 --> 00:03:09.260
  • As you might recall from previous episodes, there was an
  • 00:03:09.270 --> 00:03:12.120
  • ongoing question as to whether Christ-following Jews were
  • 00:03:12.130 --> 00:03:15.290
  • required to follow the religious rituals of the Mosaic law.
  • 00:03:16.000 --> 00:03:21.210
  • The church in Jerusalem thought it wise for Paul to squelch the
  • 00:03:21.220 --> 00:03:25.190
  • rumors publicly by ceremonially purifying himself.
  • 00:03:25.200 --> 00:03:30.120
  • Paul was willing to comply for the sake of the church, so he
  • 00:03:30.130 --> 00:03:33.170
  • got together with a few other men and started the process.
  • 00:03:33.180 --> 00:03:37.040
  • However, just before he completed the seven days
  • 00:03:37.050 --> 00:03:40.220
  • of public rituals, Paul was stopped in his tracks.
  • 00:03:40.230 --> 00:03:45.110
  • "When the seven days were nearly over, some Jews
  • 00:03:45.120 --> 00:03:47.270
  • from the province of Asia saw Paul at the temple.
  • 00:03:47.280 --> 00:03:51.040
  • They stirred up the whole crowd and seized him, shouting,
  • 00:03:51.050 --> 00:03:54.080
  • 'Fellow Israelites, help us!
  • 00:03:54.090 --> 00:03:56.090
  • This is the man who teaches everyone everywhere against
  • 00:03:56.100 --> 00:03:59.170
  • our people and our law and this place.
  • 00:03:59.180 --> 00:04:02.240
  • And besides, he has brought Greeks into the temple and
  • 00:04:02.250 --> 00:04:05.290
  • defiled this holy place.'
  • 00:04:06.000 --> 00:04:08.170
  • The whole city was aroused, and the people came running
  • 00:04:08.180 --> 00:04:10.290
  • from all directions.
  • 00:04:11.000 --> 00:04:12.240
  • Seizing Paul, they dragged him from the temple,
  • 00:04:12.250 --> 00:04:14.270
  • and immediately the gates were shut.
  • 00:04:14.280 --> 00:04:17.060
  • While they were trying to kill him, news reached to the
  • 00:04:17.070 --> 00:04:20.010
  • commander of the Roman troops that the whole city of Jerusalem
  • 00:04:20.020 --> 00:04:23.030
  • was in an uproar.
  • 00:04:23.040 --> 00:04:24.280
  • He at once took some officers and soldiers,
  • 00:04:24.290 --> 00:04:26.280
  • and ran down to the crowd.
  • 00:04:26.290 --> 00:04:29.050
  • When the rioters saw the commander and his soldiers,
  • 00:04:29.060 --> 00:04:31.240
  • they stopped beating Paul," Acts 21:27 through 32.
  • 00:04:31.250 --> 00:04:37.250
  • The four towers of the Antonia fortress loomed
  • 00:04:40.170 --> 00:04:43.180
  • over the northwest colonnade of the temple complex.
  • 00:04:43.190 --> 00:04:47.030
  • A Roman garrison of about 600 soldiers was stationed there.
  • 00:04:47.040 --> 00:04:51.220
  • They had direct access to the temple grounds,
  • 00:04:51.230 --> 00:04:54.150
  • with orders to stop any riots or disturbances,
  • 00:04:54.160 --> 00:04:58.030
  • such as the one that just broke out.
  • 00:04:58.040 --> 00:05:01.150
  • One of the specific charges against Paul was that he brought
  • 00:05:01.160 --> 00:05:04.190
  • a non-Israelite, specifically a Greek, with him to worship
  • 00:05:04.200 --> 00:05:08.170
  • in the sacred portion of the temple grounds.
  • 00:05:08.180 --> 00:05:11.120
  • This was a major offense, even punishable by death.
  • 00:05:11.130 --> 00:05:14.280
  • According to Roman historian Josephus, there were numerous
  • 00:05:14.290 --> 00:05:18.010
  • warning signs posted to that effect that separated
  • 00:05:18.020 --> 00:05:21.210
  • the inner and outer courtyards of the temple.
  • 00:05:21.220 --> 00:05:24.260
  • Although the account tells us that Paul was wrongfully accused
  • 00:05:24.270 --> 00:05:28.090
  • of bringing Greeks into the sacred place,
  • 00:05:28.100 --> 00:05:30.200
  • the charge was enough to cause a riot.
  • 00:05:30.210 --> 00:05:34.080
  • In 1936, this inscription fragment was discovered
  • 00:05:34.090 --> 00:05:38.020
  • near the Lion's Gate in Jerusalem.
  • 00:05:38.030 --> 00:05:40.230
  • It is an example of one of the warning signs
  • 00:05:40.240 --> 00:05:43.110
  • that Josephus wrote about.
  • 00:05:43.120 --> 00:05:45.220
  • It basically said no foreigners allowed beyond this point,
  • 00:05:45.230 --> 00:05:50.030
  • a clear warning that outsiders, those not part of the community
  • 00:05:50.040 --> 00:05:53.230
  • of Israel, were forbidden to enter the inner sanctuary.
  • 00:05:53.240 --> 00:05:57.230
  • This partial fragment is currently housed
  • 00:05:57.240 --> 00:06:00.020
  • at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
  • 00:06:00.030 --> 00:06:02.200
  • However, it matches a complete version discovered in 1871,
  • 00:06:02.210 --> 00:06:07.250
  • which is currently housed at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum
  • 00:06:07.260 --> 00:06:11.190
  • in Turkey.
  • 00:06:11.200 --> 00:06:13.090
  • Written in Greek, the full warning actually reads,
  • 00:06:13.100 --> 00:06:17.040
  • "No foreigner is to go beyond the balustrade and the plaza
  • 00:06:17.050 --> 00:06:21.040
  • of the temple zone.
  • 00:06:21.050 --> 00:06:23.010
  • Whoever is caught doing so will himself to blame for his death,
  • 00:06:23.020 --> 00:06:26.270
  • which will follow."
  • 00:06:26.280 --> 00:06:29.200
  • So, the charges against Paul stuck.
  • 00:06:29.210 --> 00:06:32.190
  • A riot ensued in the temple courtyard.
  • 00:06:32.200 --> 00:06:36.010
  • And the Roman soldiers stepped in to prevent
  • 00:06:36.020 --> 00:06:38.290
  • a vigilante killing.
  • 00:06:39.000 --> 00:06:41.060
  • After the soldiers secured Paul, the commander gave him a chance
  • 00:06:41.070 --> 00:06:44.160
  • to defend himself to the crazed crowd.
  • 00:06:44.170 --> 00:06:48.020
  • Paul took the opportunity and delivered his case.
  • 00:06:48.030 --> 00:06:52.090
  • "I am a Jew born in Tarsus of Cilicia,
  • 00:06:52.100 --> 00:06:55.130
  • but brought up in this city.
  • 00:06:55.140 --> 00:06:57.200
  • I studied under Gamaliel, and was thoroughly trained
  • 00:06:57.210 --> 00:07:00.110
  • in the law of our ancestors.
  • 00:07:00.120 --> 00:07:02.160
  • I was just as zealous for God as any of you are today.
  • 00:07:02.170 --> 00:07:06.090
  • I persecuted the followers of this way to their death,
  • 00:07:06.100 --> 00:07:10.000
  • arresting both men and women, throwing them into prison, as
  • 00:07:10.010 --> 00:07:13.250
  • the high priest and all the council can themselves testify.
  • 00:07:13.260 --> 00:07:18.090
  • I even obtained letters from them to their associates in
  • 00:07:18.100 --> 00:07:21.020
  • Damascus, and went there to bring these people as prisoners
  • 00:07:21.030 --> 00:07:24.200
  • to Jerusalem to be punished.
  • 00:07:24.210 --> 00:07:27.010
  • About noon, as I came near Damascus,
  • 00:07:27.020 --> 00:07:29.190
  • suddenly a bright light from heaven flashed around me.
  • 00:07:29.200 --> 00:07:33.080
  • I fell to the ground and heard a voice say to me,
  • 00:07:33.090 --> 00:07:36.130
  • 'Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?'
  • 00:07:36.140 --> 00:07:40.020
  • 'Who are you, Lord?' I asked.
  • 00:07:40.030 --> 00:07:42.130
  • 'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you are persecuting,'
  • 00:07:42.140 --> 00:07:45.150
  • he replied.
  • 00:07:45.160 --> 00:07:47.100
  • My companions saw the light, but they did not understand
  • 00:07:47.110 --> 00:07:49.160
  • the voice of him who was speaking to me.
  • 00:07:49.170 --> 00:07:52.160
  • 'What shall I do, Lord?" I asked.
  • 00:07:52.170 --> 00:07:54.260
  • 'Get up,' the Lord said, 'and go into Damascus.
  • 00:07:54.270 --> 00:07:57.270
  • There you will be told all that you have been assigned to do.'
  • 00:07:57.280 --> 00:08:01.290
  • My companions led me by the hand into Damascus
  • 00:08:02.000 --> 00:08:05.040
  • because the brilliance of the light had blinded me.
  • 00:08:05.050 --> 00:08:08.270
  • A man named Ananias came to see me.
  • 00:08:08.280 --> 00:08:11.080
  • He was a devout observer of the law and highly respected
  • 00:08:11.090 --> 00:08:14.030
  • by all the Jews living there.
  • 00:08:14.040 --> 00:08:16.030
  • He stood beside me and said,
  • 00:08:16.040 --> 00:08:18.080
  • 'Brother Saul, receive your sight.'
  • 00:08:18.090 --> 00:08:21.050
  • And at that very moment, I was able to see him.
  • 00:08:21.060 --> 00:08:24.000
  • Then he said, 'The God of our ancestors has chosen you to know
  • 00:08:24.010 --> 00:08:28.160
  • his will, and to see the righteous one,
  • 00:08:28.170 --> 00:08:30.210
  • and to hear his words from his mouth.
  • 00:08:30.220 --> 00:08:33.120
  • You will be his witness to all people of what you
  • 00:08:33.130 --> 00:08:37.030
  • have seen and heard.
  • 00:08:37.040 --> 00:08:38.290
  • And now, what are you waiting for?
  • 00:08:39.000 --> 00:08:40.260
  • Get up, be baptized, and wash your sins away,
  • 00:08:40.270 --> 00:08:44.250
  • calling on his name,'"
  • 00:08:44.260 --> 00:08:46.250
  • Acts 22:1 through 16.
  • 00:08:46.260 --> 00:08:51.020
  • Paul went on to discuss his early outreach in the synagogues
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  • of Damascus, and his ultimate return to Jerusalem,
  • 00:08:56.120 --> 00:08:59.230
  • and how he felt rejected and threatened by the Jews there.
  • 00:08:59.240 --> 00:09:03.110
  • He then explained how he felt called to leave Judea
  • 00:09:03.120 --> 00:09:06.130
  • and preach the gospel to the nations everywhere.
  • 00:09:06.140 --> 00:09:09.280
  • At this point, the people went crazy again.
  • 00:09:09.290 --> 00:09:12.190
  • They raised their voices and shouted, "Rid the earth of him.
  • 00:09:12.200 --> 00:09:16.010
  • He's not fit to live."
  • 00:09:16.020 --> 00:09:18.220
  • The Roman soldiers again protected Paul
  • 00:09:18.230 --> 00:09:21.230
  • from the unruly riots.
  • 00:09:21.240 --> 00:09:23.270
  • And they took him into custody at the nearby Antonia fortress,
  • 00:09:23.280 --> 00:09:27.240
  • the ruins of which you can see right behind me.
  • 00:09:27.250 --> 00:09:31.230
  • There they chained him and they beat him,
  • 00:09:31.240 --> 00:09:34.180
  • until they discovered that he was a Roman citizen himself.
  • 00:09:34.190 --> 00:09:39.010
  • The soldiers thought it best to then deliver him into the hands
  • 00:09:39.020 --> 00:09:42.050
  • of the Sanhedrin, the supreme court of Judaism.
  • 00:09:42.060 --> 00:09:46.270
  • Bad idea.
  • 00:09:46.280 --> 00:09:48.270
  • When Paul defended himself to the Sanhedrin,
  • 00:09:48.280 --> 00:09:51.150
  • he caused another violent uproar.
  • 00:09:51.160 --> 00:09:55.090
  • This was the last straw.
  • 00:09:55.100 --> 00:09:57.100
  • Hearing of a conspiracy to kill Paul, the Roman commander
  • 00:09:57.110 --> 00:10:00.220
  • stationed at the Antonia fortress stepped in and ordered
  • 00:10:00.230 --> 00:10:04.050
  • Paul's evacuation from Jerusalem to Caesarea,
  • 00:10:04.060 --> 00:10:07.250
  • the provincial seat of Roman government.
  • 00:10:07.260 --> 00:10:10.210
  • This commander, known as a tribune in the tenth
  • 00:10:10.220 --> 00:10:13.060
  • Roman legion, was named Claudius Lysias.
  • 00:10:13.070 --> 00:10:16.120
  • These guys prided themselves on control, and Claudius wasn't
  • 00:10:16.130 --> 00:10:20.060
  • going to allow things to get out of hand.
  • 00:10:20.070 --> 00:10:22.100
  • He would then let Marcus Antonius Felix,
  • 00:10:22.110 --> 00:10:25.190
  • the procurator of the entire Judea province, deal with Paul.
  • 00:10:25.200 --> 00:10:31.010
  • The Roman legion stationed here in the Judea province
  • 00:10:31.020 --> 00:10:34.280
  • at the time of Acts was made up of about 5.000 soldiers.
  • 00:10:34.290 --> 00:10:39.190
  • It was known as the Legio Decem Fretensis,
  • 00:10:39.200 --> 00:10:42.290
  • or the tenth legion of the strait.
  • 00:10:43.000 --> 00:10:45.200
  • The tenth legion of the strait had a long history of success,
  • 00:10:45.210 --> 00:10:49.250
  • having been led by the likes of Caesar Augustus.
  • 00:10:49.260 --> 00:10:53.210
  • Artifacts with the name and number of this legion,
  • 00:10:53.220 --> 00:10:57.200
  • as well as its icons, the bull, boar, ship, and Neptune
  • 00:10:57.210 --> 00:11:01.280
  • have been found on artifacts discovered all over Judea
  • 00:11:01.290 --> 00:11:05.020
  • and even in Jerusalem itself.
  • 00:11:05.030 --> 00:11:09.090
  • Lysias was a military commander called a tribune.
  • 00:11:09.100 --> 00:11:12.250
  • Each regular tribune was responsible for 12 centurions
  • 00:11:12.260 --> 00:11:16.170
  • and up to 1.000 soldiers.
  • 00:11:16.180 --> 00:11:19.050
  • There were six tribunes that served under the top general in
  • 00:11:19.060 --> 00:11:22.150
  • the tenth Roman legion.
  • 00:11:22.160 --> 00:11:24.190
  • Roman legionary soldiers of the empire period were typically
  • 00:11:24.200 --> 00:11:28.010
  • equipped with armor of metal and leather, a shield, spears,
  • 00:11:28.020 --> 00:11:32.210
  • a dagger, and a gladius.
  • 00:11:32.220 --> 00:11:35.160
  • The gladius was the famous short sword of the Roman foot soldier.
  • 00:11:35.170 --> 00:11:39.230
  • In Roman fashion, the soldiers were usually clean shaven
  • 00:11:39.240 --> 00:11:42.290
  • with short hair.
  • 00:11:43.000 --> 00:11:44.260
  • The legionaries endured difficult training and faced
  • 00:11:44.270 --> 00:11:47.220
  • harsh penalties for not serving properly.
  • 00:11:47.230 --> 00:11:50.090
  • Punishment could be as severe as decimation, which was the act
  • 00:11:50.100 --> 00:11:53.180
  • of killing 10% of an entire unit as an example to the others.
  • 00:11:53.190 --> 00:11:59.100
  • Harsh stuff indeed, but it created a fierce
  • 00:11:59.110 --> 00:12:02.140
  • and successful military.
  • 00:12:02.150 --> 00:12:06.110
  • According to Acts chapter 23, tribune Lysias was determined to
  • 00:12:06.120 --> 00:12:10.280
  • get Paul out of Jerusalem, away from the angry mobs,
  • 00:12:10.290 --> 00:12:14.280
  • and safely to Caesarea.
  • 00:12:14.290 --> 00:12:17.030
  • The first leg of the journey was northwest through the rugged
  • 00:12:17.040 --> 00:12:20.170
  • hill country between Jerusalem and Antipatris.
  • 00:12:20.180 --> 00:12:24.170
  • In order to avoid the large crowds, Lysias rushed Paul off
  • 00:12:24.180 --> 00:12:28.280
  • at night with a heavily armed contingent of 200 soldiers,
  • 00:12:28.290 --> 00:12:33.000
  • 200 spearmen, and 70 horsemen.
  • 00:12:33.010 --> 00:12:36.120
  • After they arrived in Antipatris, the foot soldiers
  • 00:12:36.130 --> 00:12:39.190
  • returned to Jerusalem, and Paul continued on to Caesarea
  • 00:12:39.200 --> 00:12:43.210
  • on horseback with the cavalry.
  • 00:12:43.220 --> 00:12:46.100
  • There, the soldiers brought him before Governor Felix,
  • 00:12:46.110 --> 00:12:49.150
  • along with a letter from Lysias, which explained
  • 00:12:49.160 --> 00:12:52.090
  • what was going on.
  • 00:12:52.100 --> 00:12:56.000
  • Following in the footsteps of the Apostle Paul would now take
  • 00:12:56.010 --> 00:12:59.020
  • me to the awesome city of Caesarea Maritima,
  • 00:12:59.030 --> 00:13:02.200
  • or Caesarea by the Sea.
  • 00:13:02.210 --> 00:13:05.040
  • Perhaps the most impressive collection of Roman ruins
  • 00:13:05.050 --> 00:13:08.020
  • in the entire Holy Land,
  • 00:13:08.030 --> 00:13:10.120
  • Caesarea is literally filled with history.
  • 00:13:10.130 --> 00:13:13.170
  • And once again getting behind the wheel of my old companion,
  • 00:13:13.180 --> 00:13:16.260
  • Steve McQueen, was good for the soul.
  • 00:13:16.270 --> 00:13:20.070
  • Maybe not so good for the back.
  • 00:13:20.080 --> 00:13:22.250
  • Truly there's nothing quite like being on the open road,
  • 00:13:22.260 --> 00:13:26.080
  • driving through history in the Holy Land.
  • 00:13:26.090 --> 00:13:30.000
  • Caesarea Maritima, meaning the city of Caesar by the sea,
  • 00:13:35.060 --> 00:13:39.280
  • was built by Herod the Great on the Mediterranean coast about
  • 00:13:39.290 --> 00:13:44.080
  • 70 miles northwest of Jerusalem.
  • 00:13:44.090 --> 00:13:47.110
  • Caesarea was one of Herod's massive building projects,
  • 00:13:47.120 --> 00:13:50.210
  • and it was built over an earlier site known as Straton's Tower,
  • 00:13:50.220 --> 00:13:54.270
  • which was founded in the fourth century BC
  • 00:13:54.280 --> 00:13:58.080
  • by King Straton of Sidon.
  • 00:13:58.090 --> 00:14:01.140
  • According to the historian Josephus, Herod's construction
  • 00:14:01.150 --> 00:14:04.250
  • of this new and expansive city occurred between 22 and 10 BC.
  • 00:14:04.260 --> 00:14:11.090
  • Caesarea's layout was typical of other ancient Roman cities,
  • 00:14:11.100 --> 00:14:14.210
  • with well-planned streets, an underground sewage system,
  • 00:14:14.220 --> 00:14:18.140
  • an aqueduct, a Roman temple dedicated to Caesar Augustus,
  • 00:14:18.150 --> 00:14:22.140
  • an amphitheater, and a harbor.
  • 00:14:22.150 --> 00:14:25.290
  • The harbor at Caesarea is probably its most impressive
  • 00:14:26.000 --> 00:14:29.020
  • feature, believed to be the first artificial harbor
  • 00:14:29.030 --> 00:14:32.070
  • in the world.
  • 00:14:32.080 --> 00:14:34.030
  • It was built with a technique that used hydraulic concrete
  • 00:14:34.040 --> 00:14:37.050
  • made from special volcanic sand.
  • 00:14:37.060 --> 00:14:39.210
  • This sand, known as pozzolana, was the secret ingredient
  • 00:14:39.220 --> 00:14:43.130
  • that allowed the concrete to form and harden underwater.
  • 00:14:43.140 --> 00:14:47.100
  • Since there was no natural harbor at Caesarea, engineers
  • 00:14:47.110 --> 00:14:51.020
  • carved into the coastline and built a huge breakwater
  • 00:14:51.030 --> 00:14:54.250
  • using this revolutionary technology.
  • 00:14:54.260 --> 00:14:57.290
  • The scope of construction here was massive, with concrete
  • 00:14:58.000 --> 00:15:01.120
  • blocks as large as 39 feet by 49 feet by 5 feet,
  • 00:15:01.130 --> 00:15:06.180
  • and some weighing more than 50 tons.
  • 00:15:06.190 --> 00:15:09.180
  • The southern breakwater for the harbor extended
  • 00:15:09.190 --> 00:15:12.000
  • more than 1.500 feet out into the Mediterranean Sea.
  • 00:15:12.010 --> 00:15:16.270
  • Extra blocks beyond the breakwater were used as
  • 00:15:16.280 --> 00:15:19.250
  • foundations for lighthouses and statues.
  • 00:15:19.260 --> 00:15:23.110
  • It must have been quite a sight.
  • 00:15:23.120 --> 00:15:26.270
  • According to geologic analysis, scholars have determined that
  • 00:15:26.280 --> 00:15:30.000
  • the concrete used at Caesarea harbor was made with pozzolana
  • 00:15:30.010 --> 00:15:34.040
  • imported from the gulf of Naples over 1.200 miles away.
  • 00:15:34.050 --> 00:15:39.070
  • It took hundreds of ships to get all that sand
  • 00:15:39.080 --> 00:15:42.030
  • across the Mediterranean Sea.
  • 00:15:42.040 --> 00:15:44.260
  • By the way, curing cement underwater was such
  • 00:15:44.270 --> 00:15:47.210
  • a revolutionary process that after the fall
  • 00:15:47.220 --> 00:15:50.130
  • of the Roman Empire in the fifth century,
  • 00:15:50.140 --> 00:15:52.270
  • the technology was lost to the entire world
  • 00:15:52.280 --> 00:15:56.010
  • for hundreds of years.
  • 00:15:56.020 --> 00:15:58.210
  • In about 130 AD, an earthquake
  • 00:15:58.220 --> 00:16:01.170
  • severely damaged Caesarea harbor.
  • 00:16:01.180 --> 00:16:04.200
  • Within a few centuries, the harbor ceased being used at all.
  • 00:16:04.210 --> 00:16:09.010
  • Today, the majority of the harbor is only visible
  • 00:16:09.020 --> 00:16:11.190
  • from the air or through underwater exploration.
  • 00:16:11.200 --> 00:16:14.290
  • And talk about underwater exploration.
  • 00:16:15.000 --> 00:16:17.100
  • Apparently, there was still a lot of cool stuff
  • 00:16:17.110 --> 00:16:19.120
  • to discover out there.
  • 00:16:19.130 --> 00:16:21.030
  • In fact, in May of 2016, scuba diving archaeologists uncovered
  • 00:16:21.040 --> 00:16:26.090
  • a 1.600-year-old shipwreck that contained one of the largest
  • 00:16:26.100 --> 00:16:30.290
  • treasure troves of statues and coins ever discovered
  • 00:16:31.000 --> 00:16:34.210
  • in the Mediterranean.
  • 00:16:34.220 --> 00:16:38.010
  • After Paul was delivered here to Felix the governor, it was about
  • 00:16:41.080 --> 00:16:45.240
  • five days before the high priest and the religious elders
  • 00:16:45.250 --> 00:16:49.280
  • followed from Jerusalem to make their case against Paul.
  • 00:16:49.290 --> 00:16:54.070
  • Acts chapter 24 continues.
  • 00:16:54.080 --> 00:16:57.080
  • "But Felix, having a rather accurate knowledge of the way,
  • 00:16:57.090 --> 00:17:01.080
  • put them off, saying, 'When Lysias the tribune comes down,
  • 00:17:01.090 --> 00:17:05.050
  • I will decide your case.'
  • 00:17:05.060 --> 00:17:07.150
  • Then he gave orders to the centurion that he should be kept
  • 00:17:07.160 --> 00:17:10.010
  • in custody, but have some liberty in that none of his
  • 00:17:10.020 --> 00:17:13.090
  • friends should be prevented from attending to his needs.
  • 00:17:13.100 --> 00:17:16.270
  • After some days, Felix came with his wife Drusilla,
  • 00:17:16.280 --> 00:17:20.160
  • who was Jewish, and he sent for Paul and heard him speak
  • 00:17:20.170 --> 00:17:24.030
  • about faith in Christ Jesus.
  • 00:17:24.040 --> 00:17:26.210
  • And as he reasoned about righteousness and self-control
  • 00:17:26.220 --> 00:17:29.220
  • and the coming judgment, Felix was alarmed and said,
  • 00:17:29.230 --> 00:17:33.050
  • 'Go away for the present.
  • 00:17:33.060 --> 00:17:35.020
  • When I get an opportunity, I will summon you,'"
  • 00:17:35.030 --> 00:17:37.220
  • Acts 24:22 through 25.
  • 00:17:37.230 --> 00:17:42.140
  • Felix spent the next two years procrastinating on
  • 00:17:42.150 --> 00:17:46.040
  • the official case against Paul.
  • 00:17:46.050 --> 00:17:48.260
  • That's right, two years.
  • 00:17:48.270 --> 00:17:51.100
  • During that time, we know that Felix would occasionally
  • 00:17:51.110 --> 00:17:54.160
  • meet with Paul to hear more about the gospel.
  • 00:17:54.170 --> 00:17:58.080
  • Now, we can't be certain where this meeting took place,
  • 00:17:58.090 --> 00:18:01.060
  • but it's likely that they met at the promontory palace,
  • 00:18:01.070 --> 00:18:04.270
  • or the praetorium, originally built by King Herod.
  • 00:18:04.280 --> 00:18:09.130
  • Now, the praetorium in the context of a city was the
  • 00:18:09.140 --> 00:18:12.210
  • designation for the governor's official residence.
  • 00:18:12.220 --> 00:18:17.160
  • Here you can see the remains of the praetorium,
  • 00:18:17.170 --> 00:18:20.130
  • excavated here on the southern shoreline of Caesarea.
  • 00:18:20.140 --> 00:18:24.280
  • Talk about incredible beachfront property.
  • 00:18:24.290 --> 00:18:27.210
  • Out there, you can see where the governor's palace
  • 00:18:27.220 --> 00:18:30.030
  • extended into the sea.
  • 00:18:30.040 --> 00:18:32.290
  • Archaeologists have determined that this palace featured
  • 00:18:33.000 --> 00:18:36.030
  • at least two floors, gardens, huge stone walls,
  • 00:18:36.040 --> 00:18:40.150
  • a swimming pool, a Roman bath, colorful geometric
  • 00:18:40.160 --> 00:18:44.110
  • mosaic floors, and decorative columns.
  • 00:18:44.120 --> 00:18:48.100
  • Archaeologists have also discovered official Latin
  • 00:18:48.110 --> 00:18:51.110
  • inscriptions mentioning legati here, or governors.
  • 00:18:51.120 --> 00:18:55.230
  • In the years prior to Felix, this palace structure was home
  • 00:18:55.240 --> 00:19:00.070
  • to many historical figures in the Bible,
  • 00:19:00.080 --> 00:19:03.020
  • from Herod the Great to Pontius Pilate.
  • 00:19:03.030 --> 00:19:06.060
  • So, Paul was under house arrest here at Caesarea
  • 00:19:06.070 --> 00:19:09.160
  • for two full years.
  • 00:19:09.170 --> 00:19:11.230
  • Acts tells us that Felix kept Paul so long because he was
  • 00:19:11.240 --> 00:19:15.090
  • trying to earn some favor with the Jews, and he thought
  • 00:19:15.100 --> 00:19:19.020
  • he might be able to work a bribe for his freedom.
  • 00:19:19.030 --> 00:19:23.190
  • According to Roman historian Josephus, in 60 AD,
  • 00:19:24.140 --> 00:19:28.080
  • Nero removed Felix from office because of some
  • 00:19:28.090 --> 00:19:31.230
  • local complaints against him.
  • 00:19:31.240 --> 00:19:33.290
  • Porcius Festus was then appointed the new Roman
  • 00:19:34.000 --> 00:19:37.060
  • procurator in the province until he died about two years later.
  • 00:19:37.070 --> 00:19:41.280
  • Both Felix and Festus are well attested in writings
  • 00:19:41.290 --> 00:19:46.050
  • outside the Bible.
  • 00:19:46.060 --> 00:19:48.050
  • Almost immediately, Festus dealt with the two-year custody of
  • 00:19:48.060 --> 00:19:52.090
  • Paul, ordering him to come in so that he could hear
  • 00:19:52.100 --> 00:19:55.120
  • his side of the story.
  • 00:19:55.130 --> 00:19:57.280
  • "Paul said, 'I have done nothing wrong against the Jewish law,
  • 00:19:57.290 --> 00:20:01.240
  • or against the temple, or against Caesar.'
  • 00:20:01.250 --> 00:20:05.100
  • Festus, wishing to do the Jews a favor, said to Paul,
  • 00:20:05.110 --> 00:20:09.050
  • 'Are you willing to go up to Jerusalem and stand trial
  • 00:20:09.060 --> 00:20:12.000
  • before me there on these charges?'
  • 00:20:12.010 --> 00:20:14.160
  • Paul answered, 'I am now standing before Caesar's court,
  • 00:20:14.170 --> 00:20:18.140
  • where I ought to be tried.
  • 00:20:18.150 --> 00:20:20.100
  • I have not done any wrong to the Jews,
  • 00:20:20.110 --> 00:20:22.190
  • as you yourself know very well.
  • 00:20:22.200 --> 00:20:24.280
  • If, however, I am guilty of doing anything deserving death,
  • 00:20:24.290 --> 00:20:27.270
  • I do not refuse to die.
  • 00:20:27.280 --> 00:20:30.180
  • But if the charges brought against me by these Jews
  • 00:20:30.190 --> 00:20:33.040
  • are not true, no one has the right to hand me over to them.
  • 00:20:33.050 --> 00:20:36.280
  • I appeal to Caesar.'
  • 00:20:36.290 --> 00:20:39.190
  • After Festus had conferred with his council, he declared,
  • 00:20:39.200 --> 00:20:43.210
  • 'You have appealed to Caesar.
  • 00:20:43.220 --> 00:20:45.190
  • To Caesar you will go,'" Acts 25:8 through 12.
  • 00:20:45.200 --> 00:20:51.260
  • Festus then asked Herod Agrippa II
  • 00:20:51.270 --> 00:20:54.220
  • to hear Paul's defense,
  • 00:20:54.230 --> 00:20:56.210
  • a defense that was likely given in this very room, so that he
  • 00:20:56.220 --> 00:21:00.230
  • could include some relevant information about the prisoner
  • 00:21:00.240 --> 00:21:04.010
  • that he would be sending to Rome.
  • 00:21:04.020 --> 00:21:06.100
  • Now, as you may recall from a previous episode,
  • 00:21:06.110 --> 00:21:08.280
  • Herod Agrippa II was the seventh and final king
  • 00:21:08.290 --> 00:21:12.260
  • in the Herodian line of proxy rulers for Rome.
  • 00:21:12.270 --> 00:21:17.150
  • Since we have arrived at the last king in the Herodian line,
  • 00:21:17.160 --> 00:21:20.270
  • this would be a great opportunity to go back
  • 00:21:20.280 --> 00:21:23.000
  • and revisit the family tree that was so important
  • 00:21:23.010 --> 00:21:26.040
  • in New Testament history.
  • 00:21:26.050 --> 00:21:28.130
  • As we explored in the "Gospel" series, it all started
  • 00:21:28.140 --> 00:21:31.090
  • with Herod the Great, who reigned over Judea
  • 00:21:31.100 --> 00:21:34.160
  • from about 40 to 4 BC.
  • 00:21:34.170 --> 00:21:38.050
  • His legacy continued through his sons, Herod Antipas,
  • 00:21:38.060 --> 00:21:42.140
  • Aristobulus, Archelaus, and Phillip.
  • 00:21:42.150 --> 00:21:46.010
  • Then came Herod the Great's grandson, Herod Agrippa I,
  • 00:21:46.020 --> 00:21:49.270
  • who dropped dead here at Caesarea during
  • 00:21:49.280 --> 00:21:52.130
  • a public festival in 44 AD.
  • 00:21:52.140 --> 00:21:55.280
  • And finally his great grandson, Herod Agrippa II, who finished
  • 00:21:55.290 --> 00:22:00.260
  • the family dynasty and is the subject of our current account.
  • 00:22:00.270 --> 00:22:06.030
  • In about 60 AD, Festus invited Herod Agrippa II here
  • 00:22:06.040 --> 00:22:11.040
  • to Caesarea to hear Paul's case.
  • 00:22:11.050 --> 00:22:14.000
  • In typical Herodian fashion, Herod showed up, along with
  • 00:22:14.010 --> 00:22:17.150
  • his sister Bernice, to great fanfare, along with high ranking
  • 00:22:17.160 --> 00:22:21.290
  • military officers and some prominent men.
  • 00:22:22.000 --> 00:22:25.140
  • Paul was brought before the entire crowd,
  • 00:22:25.150 --> 00:22:28.030
  • and Festus said this:
  • 00:22:28.040 --> 00:22:30.140
  • "King Agrippa and all who are present with us,
  • 00:22:30.150 --> 00:22:32.220
  • you see this man.
  • 00:22:32.230 --> 00:22:34.150
  • The whole Jewish community has petitioned me about him in
  • 00:22:34.160 --> 00:22:37.220
  • Jerusalem and here in Caesarea, shouting that he ought
  • 00:22:37.230 --> 00:22:41.160
  • not to live any longer.
  • 00:22:41.170 --> 00:22:43.220
  • I found he had done nothing deserving of death,
  • 00:22:43.230 --> 00:22:46.160
  • but because he made his appeal to the emperor,
  • 00:22:46.170 --> 00:22:49.060
  • I decided to send him to Rome.
  • 00:22:49.070 --> 00:22:51.240
  • But I have nothing definite to write to his majesty about him.
  • 00:22:51.250 --> 00:22:55.180
  • Therefore, I have brought him before all of you, and
  • 00:22:55.190 --> 00:22:58.160
  • especially before you, King Agrippa,
  • 00:22:58.170 --> 00:23:01.030
  • so that as a result of this investigation,
  • 00:23:01.040 --> 00:23:03.190
  • I may have something to write.
  • 00:23:03.200 --> 00:23:06.020
  • For I think it is unreasonable to send a prisoner
  • 00:23:06.030 --> 00:23:09.040
  • on to Rome without specifying the charges against him,"
  • 00:23:09.050 --> 00:23:13.110
  • Acts 25:24 through 27.
  • 00:23:13.120 --> 00:23:16.240
  • As he had done so many times before,
  • 00:23:16.250 --> 00:23:18.270
  • Paul went on to tell his whole story.
  • 00:23:18.280 --> 00:23:21.290
  • He shared with him his Jewish upbringing, his zeal
  • 00:23:22.000 --> 00:23:25.020
  • for the Mosaic law, his early persecution of the Jesus
  • 00:23:25.030 --> 00:23:29.070
  • followers, his conversion on the road to Damascus,
  • 00:23:29.080 --> 00:23:33.070
  • and his obedient sharing the gospel to both Jews
  • 00:23:33.080 --> 00:23:36.050
  • and Gentiles ever since.
  • 00:23:36.060 --> 00:23:39.280
  • Paul: That is why that you seized me in the temple courts
  • 00:23:39.290 --> 00:23:42.200
  • and tried to kill me.
  • 00:23:42.210 --> 00:23:46.000
  • But I have had God's help to this very day, and so I stand
  • 00:23:46.010 --> 00:23:50.010
  • here and testify to small and great alike.
  • 00:23:50.020 --> 00:23:54.120
  • I am saying nothing beyond what the prophets
  • 00:23:54.130 --> 00:23:56.160
  • and Moses said would happen, that the Christ would suffer,
  • 00:23:56.170 --> 00:24:01.180
  • and as the first to rise from the dead would proclaim light
  • 00:24:01.190 --> 00:24:04.190
  • to his own people and to the Gentiles.
  • 00:24:04.200 --> 00:24:07.150
  • Dave: At this point, Festus interrupted Paul's defense.
  • 00:24:07.160 --> 00:24:10.260
  • "'You are out of your mind, Paul!' he shouted.
  • 00:24:10.270 --> 00:24:13.120
  • 'Your great learning is driving you insane.'
  • 00:24:13.130 --> 00:24:16.250
  • 'I am not insane, most excellent Festus,' Paul replied.
  • 00:24:16.260 --> 00:24:20.160
  • 'What I am saying is true and reasonable.
  • 00:24:20.170 --> 00:24:24.010
  • The king is familiar with these things,
  • 00:24:24.020 --> 00:24:26.040
  • and I can speak freely to him.
  • 00:24:26.050 --> 00:24:28.020
  • I am convinced that none of this has escaped his notice
  • 00:24:28.030 --> 00:24:31.010
  • because it was not done in a corner.'"
  • 00:24:31.020 --> 00:24:34.090
  • Paul: King Agrippa, do you believe the prophets?
  • 00:24:34.100 --> 00:24:41.180
  • I know you do.
  • 00:24:41.190 --> 00:24:43.240
  • King Agrippa: Do you think that in such a short time,
  • 00:24:43.250 --> 00:24:46.000
  • you can persuade me to be a Christian?
  • 00:24:46.010 --> 00:24:48.200
  • Paul: Short time or long, I pray God that not only you,
  • 00:24:48.210 --> 00:24:54.140
  • but all who are listening to me today may become what I am,
  • 00:24:54.150 --> 00:24:58.170
  • except for these chains.
  • 00:24:58.180 --> 00:25:01.290
  • Dave: "The king rose, and with him the governor
  • 00:25:02.000 --> 00:25:04.180
  • and Bernice and those sitting with him.
  • 00:25:04.190 --> 00:25:07.160
  • After they left the room, they began saying to one another,
  • 00:25:07.170 --> 00:25:10.180
  • "This man is not doing anything that deserves death
  • 00:25:10.190 --> 00:25:13.210
  • or imprisonment,'" Acts 26:19 through 31.
  • 00:25:13.220 --> 00:25:19.170
  • In the end, Festus considered Paul insane.
  • 00:25:20.130 --> 00:25:23.290
  • But Herod and his sister Bernice were impressed by his testimony.
  • 00:25:24.000 --> 00:25:29.000
  • Ultimately, after more hearings with Paul here in Caesarea,
  • 00:25:29.010 --> 00:25:33.060
  • they all agreed that he had done nothing, quote,
  • 00:25:33.070 --> 00:25:36.000
  • "deserving of death or chains," and might have been released
  • 00:25:36.010 --> 00:25:39.260
  • if he had not appealed to Caesar.
  • 00:25:39.270 --> 00:25:45.010
  • You know, I've always found it interesting that the Bible
  • 00:25:47.100 --> 00:25:49.070
  • records that Paul could have been set free if he had not
  • 00:25:49.080 --> 00:25:52.190
  • appealed to his special status as a Roman citizen
  • 00:25:52.200 --> 00:25:55.270
  • and appealed to Caesar.
  • 00:25:55.280 --> 00:25:57.280
  • It's one of those little details that speaks
  • 00:25:57.290 --> 00:26:00.020
  • to the authenticity of the text.
  • 00:26:00.030 --> 00:26:02.150
  • And the book of Acts is filled with details like that.
  • 00:26:02.160 --> 00:26:06.050
  • Paul was loaded onto a ship with other prisoners and sent
  • 00:26:06.060 --> 00:26:10.020
  • from here in Caesarea harbor to Rome.
  • 00:26:10.030 --> 00:26:13.220
  • Paul would never again return to Judea,
  • 00:26:13.230 --> 00:26:17.080
  • but his missionary adventures were far from over.
  • 00:26:17.090 --> 00:26:22.120
  • 00:26:22.130 --> 00:26:26.110
  • 00:26:28.090 --> 00:26:38.080
  • 00:26:38.090 --> 00:26:48.080
  • 00:26:48.090 --> 00:26:58.080
  • 00:26:58.090 --> 00:27:07.160
  • 00:27:14.020 --> 00:27:21.010
  • 00:27:21.020 --> 00:27:25.010
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