Acts to Revelation | Episode 10 | TBN

Acts to Revelation | Episode 10

Watch Acts to Revelation | Episode 10
June 13, 2018
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Acts to Revelation | Episode 10

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  • Dave Stott
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  • Dave Stotts:
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode
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  • Dave Stotts: In our last episode,
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  • Paul
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  • Paul was rushed
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  • Paul was rushed out
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  • Paul was rushed out of
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  • Paul was rushed out of
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  • Paul was rushed out of
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  • Paul was rushed out of the
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  • Paul was rushed out of the ci
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city o
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city of
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city of Be
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city of Bere
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city of Berea
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  • Paul was rushed out of the city of Berea to
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  • avoid a growing threat.
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  • He was put on a ship and escorted to the
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  • epic city of Athens.
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  • We made a road trip out of it and had a great time driving the
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  • 300 miles down the eastern coast of Greece.
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  • While waiting for his companions,
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  • Paul was invited to speak to the philosophers and officials of
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  • the Areopagus that met on Mars Hill.
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  • There, he presented the gospel to the so-called professional
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  • thinkers of Athens.
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  • Many scoffed at his message of forgiveness through Jesus
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  • Christ, but a few of them became believers.
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  • After a short time in Athens, Paul hit the road again.
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  • Next stop, the capital city of Corinth.
  • 00:00:43.010 --> 00:00:47.190
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  • Dave: Ancient Corinth thrived as one of the most prosperous
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  • Greek city-states for hundreds of years prior
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  • to the Roman Empire.
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  • The Corinthians dominated trade in the region,
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  • invented Corinthians-style architecture, boasted
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  • some of the greatest fighters in all of Greece,
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  • and they invented the trireme warship.
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  • Dave: The trireme was an awesome ship of the ancient seas
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  • with three rows of oars, one man to each oar.
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  • In Greek, "trireme" basically means a three rower.
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  • Corinthian triremes were known as light attack ships with a
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  • large battering ram in the front.
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  • The Corinthian warriors were also known for their helmets,
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  • considered the finest helmets in ancient Greece for centuries.
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  • The entire head and neck were covered,
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  • with holes for the eyes, a slit for the mouth,
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  • and a curved projection that protected the nape of the neck.
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  • When out of combat, Hoplite warriors would wear the helmet
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  • tipped upward for comfort, as you can see in this ancient
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  • Corinthian stater coin.
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  • This gave rise to a series of other helmet designs where the
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  • helmet was no longer pulled over the face,
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  • but worn like a cap.
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  • Dave: Ancient Corinth was also known for its bronze.
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  • Corinthian bronze was a metallic alloy made from bronze and other
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  • materials that, in its finished state, looked like gold.
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  • It was only made for a short span of time,
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  • but then its recipe was lost to history.
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  • Corinthian bronze was sought all over the Mediterranean for its
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  • use in palaces, temples, theaters,
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  • and even musical instruments.
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  • Dave: Even the temple in Jerusalem used Corinthian bronze
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  • for one of its gates, known as the Beautiful Gate,
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  • which no longer exists.
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  • Dave: Corinthian bronze was used in the most elaborate
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  • mirrors, some of which have been unearthed here
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  • in ancient Corinth.
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  • Dave: These mirrors were typically small,
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  • round, held with a handle, and had molding or engraved designs.
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  • Metal was difficult to form as a thin,
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  • flat surface and needed constant polishing.
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  • Therefore, these bronze mirrors produced a dark
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  • and distorted image.
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  • Dave: Later, when Paul wrote a letter to the ancient church
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  • here in Corinth, he used the known distortion of Corinthian
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  • mirrors to make a spiritual metaphor about someday
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  • seeing our true selves.
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  • "Now, we see only a reflection, as in a mirror,
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  • then we shall see face-to-face.
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  • Now I know in part, then I shall know fully,
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  • even as I am fully known," 1 Corinthians 13:12.
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  • Dave: Corinth's rivalry with the city-state of Athens lasted
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  • for hundreds of years.
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  • During the period of the Achaean League in the 3rd and 2nd
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  • centuries B.C., Corinth was the largest city and
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  • eventually made the capital.
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  • However, in 146 B.C., the Romans destroyed Corinth
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  • and it was mostly abandoned.
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  • Dave: About 100 years later, in 44 B.C.,
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  • Julius Caesar refounded Corinth.
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  • As a Roman colony, the city was soon filled with freed men,
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  • Roman army veterans, locals, and transplants from elsewhere.
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  • The character of the new city was changed into one that
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  • was very Roman.
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  • Then in 27 B.C., Augustus made Corinth the capital of
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  • the Achaea province.
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  • Dave: Roman Corinth was located on an isthmus with two
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  • harbors, making it one of the hubs of the Roman world.
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  • The harbor of Cenchreae on the east led to the Aegean Sea,
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  • and the harbor of Lechaeum on the west led to the Adriatic.
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  • A paved road called the Diolkos connected the two harbors,
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  • which allowed the movement of goods,
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  • animals, people, and small boats nearly 4 miles across
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  • the isthmus.
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  • As a major transit hub, commerce thrived and the government
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  • collected plenty of taxes.
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  • Dave: About 15 or so years ago,
  • 00:05:51.200 --> 00:05:53.170
  • I visited Corinth when doing a series on ancient Greece,
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  • and I learned the story of the great Corinth canal.
  • 00:05:57.100 --> 00:06:01.000
  • In short, the idea to build 4 miles of canal through this
  • 00:06:01.010 --> 00:06:05.230
  • strategic land goes all the way back to 602 B.C.
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  • when Periandros, the tyrant of Corinth,
  • 00:06:09.280 --> 00:06:12.290
  • wanted to accomplish the feat.
  • 00:06:13.000 --> 00:06:15.220
  • He was scared out of the project,
  • 00:06:15.230 --> 00:06:17.150
  • however, by a soothsayer who allegedly told him that building
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  • a canal through the isthmus would incur
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  • the rage of the gods.
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  • Dave: Thereafter, different leaders from different empires
  • 00:06:27.120 --> 00:06:30.180
  • made several different failed attempts.
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  • As you can see, you've gotta cut through a lot of rock.
  • 00:06:33.110 --> 00:06:36.230
  • It wasn't until 1893 and the invention of dynamite that the
  • 00:06:36.240 --> 00:06:41.250
  • Corinth canal was finally open.
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  • Dave: In 1858, Corinth was destroyed by a major earthquake.
  • 00:06:45.130 --> 00:06:50.070
  • As a result, the modern city of Corinth was rebuilt about
  • 00:06:50.080 --> 00:06:53.130
  • 3 miles northeast of here.
  • 00:06:53.140 --> 00:06:56.130
  • This allowed archeologists to start significant explorations
  • 00:06:56.140 --> 00:07:00.120
  • in the ancient city.
  • 00:07:00.130 --> 00:07:02.040
  • Excavations have now uncovered much of Roman-period Corinth,
  • 00:07:02.050 --> 00:07:06.160
  • including an agora, a forum, a city council building,
  • 00:07:06.170 --> 00:07:10.060
  • gymnasiums, baths, a 14.000-seat theater,
  • 00:07:10.070 --> 00:07:14.170
  • and multiple temples to mythological gods.
  • 00:07:14.180 --> 00:07:21.160
  • Dave: This was the Corinth that Paul visited when he
  • 00:07:21.170 --> 00:07:23.240
  • came here in 50 A.D.
  • 00:07:23.250 --> 00:07:26.020
  • It was the capital of Achaea province and the seat of Roman
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  • power in the region, being controlled by a proconsul.
  • 00:07:29.260 --> 00:07:34.080
  • Corinth was probably the fifth largest city in the Roman
  • 00:07:34.090 --> 00:07:37.120
  • Empire, behind Rome, Alexandria, Ephesus,
  • 00:07:37.130 --> 00:07:40.180
  • and Antioch.
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  • And since it was a hub of travel and commerce with a population
  • 00:07:42.000 --> 00:07:46.010
  • of over 200.000 people, it was yet another location for the
  • 00:07:46.020 --> 00:07:49.240
  • gospel to have far-reaching impact.
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  • Dave: Let's return to the Book of Acts.
  • 00:07:53.060 --> 00:07:55.170
  • "Paul left Athens and went to Corinth.
  • 00:07:55.180 --> 00:07:58.100
  • There, he met a Jew named Aquila,
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  • a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with
  • 00:08:00.280 --> 00:08:03.280
  • his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had ordered all
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  • Jews to leave Rome.
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  • Paul went to see them, and because he was a tentmaker as
  • 00:08:09.210 --> 00:08:13.000
  • they were, he stayed and worked with them.
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  • Every Sabbath, he reasoned in the synagogue,
  • 00:08:16.060 --> 00:08:19.130
  • trying to persuade Jews and Greeks," Acts 18:1-4.
  • 00:08:19.140 --> 00:08:25.250
  • Dave: Luke tells us that after Paul arrived in Corinth,
  • 00:08:25.260 --> 00:08:28.270
  • he soon met Priscilla and Aquila,
  • 00:08:28.280 --> 00:08:31.270
  • fellow tentmakers who had been deported from Rome
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  • by Emperor Claudius.
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  • According to 1st century records,
  • 00:08:36.220 --> 00:08:38.270
  • Claudius tried to rid Rome of Judeans and Christians in
  • 00:08:38.280 --> 00:08:43.040
  • about 49 A.D.
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  • Now, Paul and his new friends may have sold their tents right
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  • here in this location, in what would have been shops at the
  • 00:08:49.140 --> 00:08:52.210
  • western side of the forum.
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  • Paul also followed his normal custom of going to the synagogue
  • 00:08:54.250 --> 00:08:58.260
  • to preach the gospel.
  • 00:08:58.270 --> 00:09:00.140
  • 00:09:00.150 --> 00:09:04.290
  • Dave: There was at least one synagogue of the Jews
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  • here in Corinth.
  • 00:09:07.140 --> 00:09:08.270
  • This is demonstrated by a Greek inscription reading,
  • 00:09:08.280 --> 00:09:12.130
  • "Synagogue of the Hebrews," which was discovered here,
  • 00:09:12.140 --> 00:09:15.260
  • that's now housed at the Museum of Ancient Corinth.
  • 00:09:15.270 --> 00:09:19.040
  • Dave: This limestone block appears to be the lintel of a
  • 00:09:19.050 --> 00:09:21.280
  • doorway, and the Greek letters that can still be seen are alpha
  • 00:09:21.290 --> 00:09:26.280
  • gamma, omega, gamma, eta, epsilon, beta, rho.
  • 00:09:26.290 --> 00:09:33.210
  • In Greek, "Synagoge Ebraion" can be translated
  • 00:09:33.220 --> 00:09:37.230
  • as "Synagogue of the Hebrews."
  • 00:09:37.240 --> 00:09:40.050
  • Dave: Now, the inscription probably dates to the 4th
  • 00:09:40.060 --> 00:09:42.120
  • century A.D., but most ancient synagogues were constructed over
  • 00:09:42.130 --> 00:09:47.110
  • the earlier remains of earlier synagogues.
  • 00:09:47.120 --> 00:09:50.150
  • So, the 1st century synagogue was probably at the very same
  • 00:09:50.160 --> 00:09:54.020
  • location, just like we saw with the synagogue of Capernaum
  • 00:09:54.030 --> 00:09:57.210
  • in the Gospel series.
  • 00:09:57.220 --> 00:10:01.160
  • Dave: Here at Capernaum, this white limestone synagogue was
  • 00:10:01.170 --> 00:10:05.080
  • built right over an earlier black basalt synagogue.
  • 00:10:05.090 --> 00:10:11.260
  • Dave: Archeologists have also uncovered this decorative
  • 00:10:11.270 --> 00:10:14.230
  • architecture near the same location as
  • 00:10:14.240 --> 00:10:17.030
  • the synagogue inscription.
  • 00:10:17.040 --> 00:10:19.170
  • Dave: This marble relief shows three menorahs,
  • 00:10:19.180 --> 00:10:22.180
  • the seven branched candelabra used at the temple in Jerusalem.
  • 00:10:22.190 --> 00:10:26.170
  • Together, the synagogue inscription and this menorah
  • 00:10:26.180 --> 00:10:29.280
  • relief provide solid evidence for the Jewish population in
  • 00:10:29.290 --> 00:10:33.210
  • Corinth, some of which probably arrived with Priscilla and
  • 00:10:33.220 --> 00:10:37.180
  • Aquila after be expelled from Rome during the
  • 00:10:37.190 --> 00:10:40.170
  • reign of Claudius.
  • 00:10:40.180 --> 00:10:43.070
  • Okay, let's return to Luke's account in Acts.
  • 00:10:43.080 --> 00:10:46.140
  • "When Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia,
  • 00:10:46.150 --> 00:10:49.070
  • Paul devoted himself exclusively to preaching,
  • 00:10:49.080 --> 00:10:52.080
  • testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Messiah.
  • 00:10:52.090 --> 00:10:56.160
  • When they opposed Paul and became abusive,
  • 00:10:56.170 --> 00:10:58.280
  • he shook out his clothes in protest and said to them,
  • 00:10:58.290 --> 00:11:02.160
  • 'Your blood be on your own heads!
  • 00:11:02.170 --> 00:11:04.290
  • I am innocent of it.
  • 00:11:05.000 --> 00:11:06.170
  • From now on I will go to the Gentiles.'
  • 00:11:06.180 --> 00:11:09.270
  • Then Paul left the synagogue and
  • 00:11:09.280 --> 00:11:11.260
  • went next door to the house of Titius Justus,
  • 00:11:11.270 --> 00:11:15.010
  • a worshiper of God.
  • 00:11:15.020 --> 00:11:16.270
  • Crispus, the synagogue leader, and his entire household
  • 00:11:16.280 --> 00:11:20.110
  • believed in the Lord; and many of the Corinthians who heard
  • 00:11:20.120 --> 00:11:23.190
  • Paul believed and were baptized.
  • 00:11:23.200 --> 00:11:26.110
  • One night the Lord spoke to Paul in a vision: 'Do not be afraid;
  • 00:11:26.120 --> 00:11:30.130
  • keep on speaking, and do not be silent.
  • 00:11:30.140 --> 00:11:33.000
  • For I am with you, and no one is going to attack and harm you,
  • 00:11:33.010 --> 00:11:36.230
  • because I have many people in this city.'
  • 00:11:36.240 --> 00:11:39.030
  • So Paul stayed in Corinth for
  • 00:11:39.040 --> 00:11:41.010
  • a year and a half, teaching them the Word of God,"
  • 00:11:41.020 --> 00:11:44.120
  • Acts 18:5-11.
  • 00:11:44.130 --> 00:11:47.130
  • Dave: The church here in ancient Corinth continued to
  • 00:11:47.140 --> 00:11:50.040
  • grow, and it included all segments of society,
  • 00:11:50.050 --> 00:11:53.230
  • including government officials, wealthy businessmen,
  • 00:11:53.240 --> 00:11:56.180
  • freed men, and the poor.
  • 00:11:56.190 --> 00:11:58.190
  • Now, one of the first Christians was the city treasurer, named
  • 00:11:58.200 --> 00:12:02.090
  • Erastus, who is remembered in this
  • 00:12:02.100 --> 00:12:04.230
  • official Latin inscription from about 50 A.D.
  • 00:12:04.240 --> 00:12:08.230
  • This slab of pavement was discovered near the Corinthian
  • 00:12:08.240 --> 00:12:12.210
  • theater, and it translates to, "Erastus,
  • 00:12:12.220 --> 00:12:16.030
  • in return for his aedileship, laid the
  • 00:12:16.040 --> 00:12:19.030
  • pavement at his own expense."
  • 00:12:19.040 --> 00:12:24.160
  • In their biblical accounts, Luke and Paul refer to Erastus as the
  • 00:12:24.170 --> 00:12:29.160
  • manager of the city, or the treasurer of Corinth.
  • 00:12:29.170 --> 00:12:33.150
  • In Latin, this title is known as the "aedile," a city official
  • 00:12:33.160 --> 00:12:37.260
  • chosen annually to manage public works and commercial affairs.
  • 00:12:37.270 --> 00:12:43.000
  • Once again, we see something carved in stone that is evidence
  • 00:12:43.010 --> 00:12:46.160
  • of what we have in our Bibles.
  • 00:12:46.170 --> 00:12:52.030
  • Dave: Of course, there were many Jews who rejected the
  • 00:12:52.040 --> 00:12:54.230
  • message of Jesus preached by Paul.
  • 00:12:54.240 --> 00:12:57.140
  • Like in other cities, they eventually got fed up with the
  • 00:12:57.150 --> 00:13:00.270
  • visiting evangelist and looked for a way to stop him.
  • 00:13:00.280 --> 00:13:04.010
  • Here in Corinth, they eventually brought Paul before the Roman
  • 00:13:04.020 --> 00:13:07.160
  • proconsul at the judgment seat here in the forum,
  • 00:13:07.170 --> 00:13:11.090
  • known as the bema.
  • 00:13:11.100 --> 00:13:16.060
  • Dave: "When Gallio was proconsul of Achaea,
  • 00:13:16.070 --> 00:13:18.270
  • the Jews of Corinth made a united attack on Paul and
  • 00:13:18.280 --> 00:13:22.080
  • brought him to the place of judgment.
  • 00:13:22.090 --> 00:13:24.170
  • 'This man,' they charged, 'is persuading the people to worship
  • 00:13:24.180 --> 00:13:28.130
  • God in ways contrary to the law.'
  • 00:13:28.140 --> 00:13:31.220
  • Just as Paul was about to speak,
  • 00:13:31.230 --> 00:13:33.180
  • Gallio said to them, 'If you Jews were making a complaint
  • 00:13:33.190 --> 00:13:37.040
  • about some misdemeanor or serious crime,
  • 00:13:37.050 --> 00:13:39.280
  • it would be reasonable for me to listen to you.
  • 00:13:39.290 --> 00:13:42.140
  • But since it involves questions about words and names and your
  • 00:13:42.150 --> 00:13:45.130
  • own law--settle the matter yourselves.
  • 00:13:45.140 --> 00:13:48.180
  • I will not be a judge of these things.'
  • 00:13:48.190 --> 00:13:50.240
  • So he drove them off," Acts 18:12-16.
  • 00:13:50.250 --> 00:13:56.250
  • Dave: The bema in Corinth has been discovered here.
  • 00:13:56.260 --> 00:14:00.040
  • It's a platform on the south side of the forum.
  • 00:14:00.050 --> 00:14:03.290
  • An inscription has been uncovered near the platform
  • 00:14:04.000 --> 00:14:07.010
  • confirming its official use.
  • 00:14:07.020 --> 00:14:08.290
  • Now, as you can see, the platform rises about 7 1/2 feet
  • 00:14:09.000 --> 00:14:12.150
  • above the pavement of the forum, where the accused
  • 00:14:12.160 --> 00:14:15.240
  • and onlookers stood.
  • 00:14:15.250 --> 00:14:18.020
  • It was from here that the proconsul would address
  • 00:14:18.030 --> 00:14:20.270
  • citizens, settle disputes, and render verdicts in
  • 00:14:20.280 --> 00:14:24.260
  • criminal cases.
  • 00:14:24.270 --> 00:14:26.270
  • Dave: When Paul was living in Corinth,
  • 00:14:26.280 --> 00:14:28.160
  • Jewish leaders from the synagogue brought him before
  • 00:14:28.170 --> 00:14:31.060
  • Junius Gallio, the proconsul of the province.
  • 00:14:31.070 --> 00:14:34.110
  • Jewish leaders hoped that Paul would be punished and barred
  • 00:14:34.120 --> 00:14:37.200
  • from teaching Christianity.
  • 00:14:37.210 --> 00:14:39.230
  • According to Roman historians such as Tacitus,
  • 00:14:39.240 --> 00:14:42.030
  • we know that Gallio served a short term as proconsul of
  • 00:14:42.040 --> 00:14:45.240
  • Achaea from around 51 to 52 A.D.
  • 00:14:45.250 --> 00:14:50.060
  • And remarkably, a stone inscription has been discovered,
  • 00:14:50.070 --> 00:14:54.020
  • also stating that Junius Gallio was the proconsul of the
  • 00:14:54.030 --> 00:14:57.290
  • province of Achaea in 52 A.D.
  • 00:14:58.000 --> 00:15:01.210
  • The level of accuracy found in the Bible was
  • 00:15:01.220 --> 00:15:04.020
  • confirmed yet again.
  • 00:15:04.030 --> 00:15:05.250
  • New discoveries are made often and it never ceases to amaze me.
  • 00:15:05.260 --> 00:15:10.080
  • You can put your trust in the history of the Bible.
  • 00:15:10.090 --> 00:15:15.200
  • Dave: As the provincial governor,
  • 00:15:15.210 --> 00:15:17.070
  • Gallio would've spent part of his time at the bema in Corinth,
  • 00:15:17.080 --> 00:15:20.260
  • but since his time was limited, he would've only heard the most
  • 00:15:20.270 --> 00:15:23.170
  • important cases.
  • 00:15:23.180 --> 00:15:25.070
  • When the Jews dragged Paul before Gallio,
  • 00:15:25.080 --> 00:15:28.080
  • he proclaimed to them that it was an internal religious matter
  • 00:15:28.090 --> 00:15:31.230
  • and not a crime.
  • 00:15:31.240 --> 00:15:33.110
  • He told everyone that he was unwilling to pass judgment in
  • 00:15:33.120 --> 00:15:36.180
  • the matter and he drove them away from the bema.
  • 00:15:36.190 --> 00:15:40.210
  • Dave: According to Luke, Paul stayed in Corinth a full year
  • 00:15:43.290 --> 00:15:47.060
  • and a half.
  • 00:15:47.070 --> 00:15:48.160
  • This was really the first time that Paul was allowed to live
  • 00:15:48.170 --> 00:15:51.120
  • and teach in any one place as long as he wanted.
  • 00:15:51.130 --> 00:15:55.060
  • During his time here, besides establishing a church,
  • 00:15:55.070 --> 00:15:58.100
  • Paul wrote two letters back to the church at Thessalonica.
  • 00:15:58.110 --> 00:16:02.090
  • Paul was also in Corinth long enough to experience
  • 00:16:02.100 --> 00:16:05.100
  • the Isthmian Games.
  • 00:16:05.110 --> 00:16:06.280
  • Dave: The Isthmian Games were held at this location near
  • 00:16:06.290 --> 00:16:09.200
  • ancient Corinth every two years to honor Poseidon,
  • 00:16:09.210 --> 00:16:13.180
  • the mythological god of the sea.
  • 00:16:13.190 --> 00:16:16.010
  • They were second only to the Olympic Games,
  • 00:16:16.020 --> 00:16:18.190
  • which were held every four years.
  • 00:16:18.200 --> 00:16:20.110
  • Now, the Isthmian Games included contests such as equestrian,
  • 00:16:20.120 --> 00:16:24.220
  • gymnastics, music, poetry, boxing,
  • 00:16:24.230 --> 00:16:28.100
  • wrestling, running, and chariot racing.
  • 00:16:28.110 --> 00:16:32.030
  • Winners were given a wreath of pine leaves,
  • 00:16:32.040 --> 00:16:34.280
  • remission of taxes, fame, and possibly a victory ode.
  • 00:16:34.290 --> 00:16:40.040
  • Dave: Yea, an ode to Dave.
  • 00:16:40.050 --> 00:16:41.220
  • That's what this show really needs.
  • 00:16:41.230 --> 00:16:43.190
  • O Dave, O Dave, how you drive near and far.
  • 00:16:43.200 --> 00:16:47.260
  • How you wear cool sunglasses and how you drive a cool car.
  • 00:16:47.270 --> 00:16:52.130
  • O Dave, O Dave, you're a history analyzer and you never leave
  • 00:16:52.140 --> 00:16:58.060
  • home without hand sanitizer.
  • 00:16:58.070 --> 00:17:02.120
  • Oh yeah, nailed it.
  • 00:17:02.130 --> 00:17:05.230
  • Dave: According to historical accounts,
  • 00:17:05.240 --> 00:17:07.260
  • the Isthmian Games were held here in 51 A.D.
  • 00:17:07.270 --> 00:17:11.170
  • when Paul was living in ancient Corinth.
  • 00:17:11.180 --> 00:17:14.210
  • Paul later used the games to deliver a spiritual metaphor to
  • 00:17:14.220 --> 00:17:18.210
  • the Corinthian church about how to live the Christian life with
  • 00:17:18.220 --> 00:17:21.270
  • self-discipline, an ultimate goal and for an eternal
  • 00:17:21.280 --> 00:17:25.170
  • reward in heaven.
  • 00:17:25.180 --> 00:17:28.140
  • Dave: "Do you not know that in a race all the runners run,
  • 00:17:28.150 --> 00:17:31.220
  • but only one gets the prize?
  • 00:17:31.230 --> 00:17:33.260
  • Run in such a way as to get the prize.
  • 00:17:33.270 --> 00:17:36.120
  • Everyone who competes in the games goes into strict training.
  • 00:17:36.130 --> 00:17:40.000
  • They do it to get a crown that will not last,
  • 00:17:40.010 --> 00:17:42.190
  • but we do it to get a crown that will last forever.
  • 00:17:42.200 --> 00:17:46.120
  • Therefore I do not run like someone running aimlessly;
  • 00:17:46.130 --> 00:17:49.210
  • I do not fight like a boxer beating the air.
  • 00:17:49.220 --> 00:17:52.180
  • No, I strike a blow to my body and make it my slave so that
  • 00:17:52.190 --> 00:17:57.140
  • after I have preached to others, I myself will not become
  • 00:17:57.150 --> 00:18:01.220
  • disqualified for the prize," 1 Corinthians 9:24-27.
  • 00:18:01.230 --> 00:18:07.290
  • Dave: Historians and Bible scholars often stress the
  • 00:18:09.020 --> 00:18:11.250
  • immorality of ancient Corinth.
  • 00:18:11.260 --> 00:18:14.080
  • It was a very seedy city filled with
  • 00:18:14.090 --> 00:18:16.100
  • sailors and military veterans.
  • 00:18:16.110 --> 00:18:19.070
  • In fact, in ancient times, the phrase "Corinthian woman" was
  • 00:18:19.080 --> 00:18:22.150
  • used as a synonym for a prostitute or sexual immorality.
  • 00:18:22.160 --> 00:18:27.050
  • Corinth was a very Pagan city where the worship of
  • 00:18:27.060 --> 00:18:30.030
  • many deities was encouraged.
  • 00:18:30.040 --> 00:18:33.000
  • The place was immersed in immorality,
  • 00:18:33.010 --> 00:18:35.150
  • with idols and shrines everywhere.
  • 00:18:35.160 --> 00:18:38.180
  • The rough reality of ancient Corinth made life pretty
  • 00:18:38.190 --> 00:18:41.280
  • difficult for the young Christians living here.
  • 00:18:41.290 --> 00:18:45.080
  • This was the temple of Apollo, one of the oldest temples in
  • 00:18:45.090 --> 00:18:48.280
  • ancient Corinth and a major landmark for anyone walking
  • 00:18:48.290 --> 00:18:52.170
  • through the city.
  • 00:18:52.180 --> 00:18:53.270
  • It was located near the agora and synagogue,
  • 00:18:53.280 --> 00:18:57.100
  • and was constantly performing cult rituals,
  • 00:18:57.110 --> 00:19:00.080
  • known to cause problems for the young Christians here.
  • 00:19:00.090 --> 00:19:03.280
  • Now, this massive, rocky hill up there is called the Acrocorinth,
  • 00:19:03.290 --> 00:19:07.260
  • and at 1.886 feet, it has towered over this city for
  • 00:19:07.270 --> 00:19:13.000
  • a millennia.
  • 00:19:13.010 --> 00:19:14.110
  • During the time of Paul, there was a temple of Aphrodite up
  • 00:19:14.120 --> 00:19:17.220
  • there that employed over 1.000 prostitutes,
  • 00:19:17.230 --> 00:19:20.220
  • according to the historian Strabo.
  • 00:19:20.230 --> 00:19:23.060
  • That was another known stumbling block for the early Christians
  • 00:19:23.070 --> 00:19:26.160
  • living here in ancient Corinth.
  • 00:19:26.170 --> 00:19:28.240
  • Dave: Paul left Corinth in 52 A.D.
  • 00:19:29.100 --> 00:19:31.270
  • According to Acts chapter 18, he sailed east to Ephesus and
  • 00:19:31.280 --> 00:19:35.290
  • eventually arrived at Antioch.
  • 00:19:36.000 --> 00:19:38.170
  • Soon after leaving, Paul heard some disturbing reports about
  • 00:19:38.180 --> 00:19:41.230
  • the young Corinthian church and its struggles with the
  • 00:19:41.240 --> 00:19:44.170
  • Pagan practices in the city.
  • 00:19:44.180 --> 00:19:47.030
  • They were also full of pride and excusing sexual immorality.
  • 00:19:47.040 --> 00:19:52.050
  • Spiritual gifts were being used improperly,
  • 00:19:52.060 --> 00:19:55.060
  • and there was a total misunderstanding of key
  • 00:19:55.070 --> 00:19:57.290
  • Christian doctrines.
  • 00:19:58.000 --> 00:19:59.180
  • From Ephesus in about 53 A.D., Paul wrote his first letter back
  • 00:19:59.190 --> 00:20:04.270
  • to the Corinthians in an attempt to restore the Corinthian church
  • 00:20:04.280 --> 00:20:08.200
  • to its foundation, Jesus Christ.
  • 00:20:08.210 --> 00:20:11.090
  • Dave: The problems and questions that the Corinthian
  • 00:20:11.290 --> 00:20:14.030
  • church was dealing with are some of same struggles that
  • 00:20:14.040 --> 00:20:17.190
  • Christians deal with today.
  • 00:20:17.200 --> 00:20:19.270
  • The first letter to the Corinthians very well could have
  • 00:20:19.280 --> 00:20:22.150
  • been written to the church today,
  • 00:20:22.160 --> 00:20:24.130
  • and we would do well to heed its warnings and apply
  • 00:20:24.140 --> 00:20:27.040
  • them to ourselves.
  • 00:20:27.050 --> 00:20:28.180
  • But despite all the rebukes and corrections,
  • 00:20:28.190 --> 00:20:31.220
  • 1 Corinthians brings our focus back where it should be,
  • 00:20:31.230 --> 00:20:35.120
  • on Jesus, and teaches us that genuine Christian love is the
  • 00:20:35.130 --> 00:20:40.000
  • solution to many of our problems.
  • 00:20:40.010 --> 00:20:42.250
  • Paul's first letter to the Corinthians is well known
  • 00:20:42.260 --> 00:20:45.220
  • for its teaching about love.
  • 00:20:45.230 --> 00:20:47.260
  • In fact, you might have even heard this at a
  • 00:20:47.270 --> 00:20:50.010
  • wedding ceremony.
  • 00:20:50.020 --> 00:20:51.190
  • narrator: " Love is patient, love is kind.
  • 00:20:51.200 --> 00:20:54.240
  • It does not envy, it does not boast,
  • 00:20:54.250 --> 00:20:57.010
  • it is not proud.
  • 00:20:57.020 --> 00:20:58.200
  • It is not rude, it is not self-seeking,
  • 00:20:58.210 --> 00:21:01.180
  • it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs.
  • 00:21:01.190 --> 00:21:06.190
  • Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth.
  • 00:21:06.200 --> 00:21:10.260
  • It always protects, always trusts,
  • 00:21:10.270 --> 00:21:13.250
  • always hopes, always perseveres."
  • 00:21:13.260 --> 00:21:17.180
  • Dave: 1 Corinthians 13:4-7.
  • 00:21:17.190 --> 00:21:21.100
  • 1 Corinthians is also important for Paul's teaching on the
  • 00:21:21.110 --> 00:21:24.180
  • resurrection of Jesus.
  • 00:21:24.190 --> 00:21:27.020
  • "Now, brothers and sisters, I want to remind you of the gospel
  • 00:21:27.030 --> 00:21:30.170
  • I preached to you, which you received and on which you have
  • 00:21:30.180 --> 00:21:34.070
  • taken your stand.
  • 00:21:34.080 --> 00:21:36.040
  • By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I
  • 00:21:36.050 --> 00:21:41.030
  • preached to you.
  • 00:21:41.040 --> 00:21:42.190
  • Otherwise, you have believed in vain.
  • 00:21:42.200 --> 00:21:45.150
  • For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance:
  • 00:21:45.160 --> 00:21:50.010
  • that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,
  • 00:21:50.020 --> 00:21:53.200
  • that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day
  • 00:21:53.210 --> 00:21:57.130
  • according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Peter,
  • 00:21:57.140 --> 00:22:01.070
  • and then to the Twelve.
  • 00:22:01.080 --> 00:22:02.240
  • After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the
  • 00:22:02.250 --> 00:22:05.260
  • brothers and sisters at the same time,
  • 00:22:05.270 --> 00:22:08.140
  • most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep.
  • 00:22:08.150 --> 00:22:12.120
  • Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles,
  • 00:22:12.130 --> 00:22:15.270
  • and last of all he appeared to me also,
  • 00:22:15.280 --> 00:22:18.210
  • as to one abnormally born," 1 Corinthians 15:1-8.
  • 00:22:18.220 --> 00:22:24.210
  • Dave: Paul wrote this to the church in Corinth about 20 years
  • 00:22:24.220 --> 00:22:28.030
  • after the resurrection of Jesus.
  • 00:22:28.040 --> 00:22:30.100
  • Not only did Paul confirm the physical resurrection of Jesus
  • 00:22:30.110 --> 00:22:34.050
  • and his appearance to over 500 people,
  • 00:22:34.060 --> 00:22:37.000
  • but he goes on to explain how the resurrection of Jesus is of
  • 00:22:37.010 --> 00:22:40.130
  • utmost importance in demonstrating that Jesus
  • 00:22:40.140 --> 00:22:43.280
  • is God, Savior, and Messiah.
  • 00:22:43.290 --> 00:22:47.000
  • Paul was very clear that, "If Christ is not raised,
  • 00:22:47.010 --> 00:22:50.090
  • your faith is futile and you are still in your sins,"
  • 00:22:50.100 --> 00:22:53.210
  • 1 Corinthians 15:17.
  • 00:22:53.220 --> 00:22:56.170
  • Dave: Paul's words reminded the Corinthian believers that
  • 00:22:56.180 --> 00:22:59.100
  • their faith isn't based on some abstract philosophy,
  • 00:22:59.110 --> 00:23:02.250
  • but on an historical event, and that event can instill in the
  • 00:23:02.260 --> 00:23:07.070
  • Corinthians true hope and the will to live courageously in the
  • 00:23:07.080 --> 00:23:11.140
  • middle of a decadent and hostile culture.
  • 00:23:11.150 --> 00:23:14.030
  • Dave: Remarkably, even though the Gospels and many other New
  • 00:23:14.040 --> 00:23:17.070
  • Testament writings clearly document the historical,
  • 00:23:17.080 --> 00:23:20.170
  • bodily resurrection of Jesus and establish that there were
  • 00:23:20.180 --> 00:23:24.040
  • hundreds of eyewitnesses, that event is still rejected by many
  • 00:23:24.050 --> 00:23:28.110
  • skeptics who question the historical reliability of the
  • 00:23:28.120 --> 00:23:31.290
  • Bible, especially as it relates to supernatural events.
  • 00:23:32.000 --> 00:23:36.060
  • And even though six separate New Testament authors recorded the
  • 00:23:36.070 --> 00:23:40.150
  • physical resurrection of Jesus, and most of the apostles and
  • 00:23:40.160 --> 00:23:44.010
  • many of Christ's disciples we know from historical sources
  • 00:23:44.020 --> 00:23:47.290
  • gave their lives because of their belief in that event,
  • 00:23:48.000 --> 00:23:51.140
  • there is a growing trend to reject the truth of the
  • 00:23:51.150 --> 00:23:54.030
  • resurrection and its significance for humanity.
  • 00:23:54.040 --> 00:23:57.170
  • Dave: But the eyewitness testimony in the Bible about the
  • 00:23:57.180 --> 00:23:59.270
  • resurrection is so convincing that many who set out to
  • 00:23:59.280 --> 00:24:03.030
  • disprove it wind up believing in it.
  • 00:24:03.040 --> 00:24:06.000
  • Here, Paul is willing to refer to Christ's post-resurrection
  • 00:24:06.010 --> 00:24:09.260
  • appearances to eyewitnesses, some still alive,
  • 00:24:09.270 --> 00:24:13.040
  • who could confirm or deny his words.
  • 00:24:13.050 --> 00:24:16.120
  • It's ludicrous to imagine doing that if the story was made up.
  • 00:24:16.130 --> 00:24:20.260
  • So, what about Paul's second letter to the Corinthians?
  • 00:24:20.270 --> 00:24:24.100
  • This one was probably written two years later,
  • 00:24:24.110 --> 00:24:26.260
  • in about 55 A.D.
  • 00:24:26.270 --> 00:24:29.130
  • Paul's second letter expressed his relief and joy that the
  • 00:24:29.140 --> 00:24:32.210
  • Corinthians had received his, quote,
  • 00:24:32.220 --> 00:24:35.000
  • "severe letter," in a positive way.
  • 00:24:35.010 --> 00:24:38.050
  • This so-called "severe" letter was another letter Paul had
  • 00:24:38.060 --> 00:24:41.150
  • written that is lost to history, but it addressed issues that
  • 00:24:41.160 --> 00:24:45.080
  • were tearing the church apart, primarily the arrival of false
  • 00:24:45.090 --> 00:24:49.020
  • apostles who were assaulting Paul's character,
  • 00:24:49.030 --> 00:24:51.260
  • causing strife among the believers,
  • 00:24:51.270 --> 00:24:53.260
  • and teaching false doctrine.
  • 00:24:53.270 --> 00:24:56.060
  • There were also some church members who had not repented of
  • 00:24:56.070 --> 00:24:59.100
  • their immoral behavior.
  • 00:24:59.110 --> 00:25:01.090
  • Truth and lies cannot coexist in a healthy church.
  • 00:25:01.100 --> 00:25:05.220
  • Paul was teaching the Corinthians the difference.
  • 00:25:05.230 --> 00:25:10.100
  • Paul was truly happy to learn that the majority of Corinthians
  • 00:25:10.110 --> 00:25:13.200
  • repented of their bad behavior and turned
  • 00:25:13.210 --> 00:25:16.180
  • from their rebellion against Paul.
  • 00:25:16.190 --> 00:25:19.030
  • Paul spent much of his second letter encouraging them and
  • 00:25:19.040 --> 00:25:22.010
  • expressing his love.
  • 00:25:22.020 --> 00:25:24.060
  • He also used the opportunity to reconfirm his apostleship and
  • 00:25:24.070 --> 00:25:28.250
  • reestablish his authority in the church.
  • 00:25:28.260 --> 00:25:32.110
  • Dave: So, that takes us to the end of Paul's second
  • 00:25:35.050 --> 00:25:38.050
  • missionary journey between 49 and 52 A.D.
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  • It was a trip that took Paul and his companions from Antioch,
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  • through Cilicia, Galatia, Phrygia, and Asia Minor.
  • 00:25:46.160 --> 00:25:50.260
  • Then it was over the Aegean Sea to Macedonia and Achaea,
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  • from Philippi, to Thessalonica, to Athens.
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  • He ended the long journey with one and a half years in Corinth,
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  • and then made his way back to where he started, Antioch.
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  • According to Acts chapter 18, Paul stayed with the church at
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  • Antioch for quite some time, waiting for his next journey,
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  • his next adventure in sharing the gospel and expanding the
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  • Christian church.
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