America's Hidden History | Constitution Day | TBN

America's Hidden History | Constitution Day

Watch America's Hidden History | Constitution Day
September 17, 2018
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America's Hidden History

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America's Hidden History | Constitution Day

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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - Hey, I'm Tim Barton and I'm David Barton.
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  • We're here in Philadelphia and this is behind us,
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  • Independence Hall.
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  • This is the place where they actually constructed
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  • the Constitution and you know, today,
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  • many people don't even know what the Constitution is,
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  • what it says, what stands for, but behind us is where
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  • they put all that together.
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  • - And it's a remarkable document.
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  • The rest of the world goes through a new constitution
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  • every 17 years and we've had the same one
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  • for over two centuries.
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  • Why and what do we know about those who put together
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  • this document?
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  • - This is America's hidden history.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - [Narrator] Modern historians have revised, rewritten,
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  • and even deleted entire chapters of American history.
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  • So what are we missing?
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  • What happened to the history that didn't make the books?
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  • Join historian David Barton, Tim Barton,
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  • and special guests as they uncover the facts
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  • some historians don't want you to know.
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  • This is American's hidden history.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - On September 17, 1787, the U.S. Constitution was signed
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  • and since we're talking about Constitution Day,
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  • it's a good time to look back on the anniversary
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  • of the Constitution and say, so what is this all about,
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  • why do we do a Constitution, where did it come from,
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  • why was it important?
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  • - Well, we did the Constitution because we wanted
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  • a governing document that was written, that gave fixed laws,
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  • as John Adams told us, this was gonna be government
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  • of laws not of men, and so we had fixed laws
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  • that would apply to everyone.
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  • So writing it down was very important to these guys.
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  • Now, once you have it written down, you need to know
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  • what's there, otherwise you can't enforce the previsions
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  • of the law and that's where it kinda gets tricky today
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  • because previous generations, we really did emphasize
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  • knowing the Constitution.
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  • If you go all the way back to the 1940s,
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  • there was what was called Citizenship Day,
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  • and that was a celebration of the Constitution
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  • but it particularly because Americans already knew
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  • the Constitution, but all these immigrants that come in,
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  • they've learned the Constitution, they want to be citizens,
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  • so we called Constitution Day Citizenship Day.
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  • In 1952 under Harry Truman, they expanded it
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  • and they made it Constitution and Citizenship Day.
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  • So we wanted to emphasize the Constitution
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  • but also citizenship that goes with it
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  • and then we got so bad as Americans not knowing our own
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  • document, that by the time you get to 2004,
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  • Senator Robert Bird, out of West Virginia,
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  • added provision and said okay, here's the deal,
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  • if you get federal funds, if you're a federal agency
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  • or if you're a school that gets federal funds,
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  • on September 17th, at your school, you're going to have
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  • a special program on the Constitution,
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  • make sure every student knows it.
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  • So that's what really led to Constitution Day,
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  • officially still called Citizenship and Constitution Day,
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  • but knowing the Constitution's always been seen
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  • as something very important for Americans.
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  • - Well even though that became law in 2004,
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  • still not many Americans today know much about
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  • the U.S. Constitution.
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  • In fact, if you look at the First Amendment,
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  • there are five freedoms protected in the First Amendment
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  • only one in 1.000 people can name all five.
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  • So here's trivia.
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  • How many can you name?
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  • If you go in order, you have religion,
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  • you have speech, you have press,
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  • you have assembly, and you have petition.
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  • But only one in 1.000 people even know what's there.
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  • In fact, if you look at something even easier,
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  • the three branches of government, 62% of Americans
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  • cannot identify, cannot name,
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  • the three branches of government.
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  • That's not really hard, I mean, there's three.
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  • Right, you have the executive, the legislative,
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  • and judicial.
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  • - And that's the first three articles of the Constitution.
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  • First article of the Constitution is about the legislative.
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  • Second article is about the executive,
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  • and the third article is about the judiciary,
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  • so that's most of the Constitution right there.
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  • - And yet most Americans cannot name that
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  • and actually-- - It gets worse than that.
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  • 48% of the elected officials cannot name the three
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  • branches of government.
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  • - Yeah, and if you don't know what's in the Constitution,
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  • you certainly don't know what your rights are,
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  • you don't even know what your responsibilities are
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  • and we're certainly not going to protect and defend
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  • what should be our rights and freedoms if we don't even
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  • know what's there.
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  • So, what we need to do, is let's take a little look back.
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  • Let's go back and study the men who gave us the Constitution
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  • and let's study some details of the Constitution
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  • to know what this document is all about.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - We're in the home of Gunning Bedford Jr.
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  • Gunning Bedford Jr. was a signer of the Constitution
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  • from Delaware.
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  • Now, interestingly enough, Delaware wasn't a state
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  • when the American Revolution started.
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  • They were considered the lower counties of Pennsylvania
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  • but when we separated from Great Britain
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  • Delaware became its own independent state.
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  • This is called Lombardy Hall.
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  • This is where Gunning Bedford moved in 1793.
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  • He was born in 1947 and he went to Princeton University
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  • and he graduated in 1771.
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  • One his fellow graduates that year was James Madison,
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  • who another signer of the Constitution.
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  • They were both taught by
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  • the Reverend Doctor John Witherspoon,
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  • who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
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  • Well, after he finishes school, he comes back,
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  • he becomes an attorney and shortly after he becomes
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  • an attorney the American Revolution breaks out.
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  • Gunning becomes a soldier in the American Revolution
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  • and actually according to his daughter,
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  • he was aid to George Washington during the Revolution.
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  • In the midst of the Revolution, he is elected the first
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  • attorney general of Delaware.
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  • In 1783 he's elected both to the State Assembly
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  • and to the Continental Congress.
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  • Being in the Continental Congress, he gets to see
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  • first hand the difficulties with the national government
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  • under the Articles of Confederation.
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  • So he's one of the guys that works to move
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  • to a new government and in 1787 he's one of the delegates
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  • at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
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  • He was one of the most consistent members there.
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  • He was there just time after time, day after day.
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  • The attendance records show that he was there,
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  • he was a faithful attendant, and he so liked the
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  • Constitution that when it came to the states
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  • for ratification he's one of the very few delegates
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  • who had signed the Constitution who went into the state
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  • to be a ratifying delegate for the Constitution.
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  • When the Constitution took effect in 1789,
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  • George Washington appointed Gunning Bedford Jr.
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  • as the first federal judge over Delaware,
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  • and that's a position he held for the rest of his life.
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  • Interesting, through his later years,
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  • he was very involved in the abolition movement.
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  • In fact, in Delaware, he was one of the key members
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  • of the Delaware Abolition Society
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  • and he was also very outspoken about his faith.
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  • For example, when George Washington died in 1799,
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  • Gunning Bedford gave the oration here
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  • commemorating George Washington.
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  • That was his Commander in Chief, that was president
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  • of the Constitutional Convention,
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  • he was the father of his country,
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  • and when Gunning Bedford had gone through all this
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  • about George Washington, recalling into all,
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  • everyone knew him back then.
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  • I mean, he was most famous guy of the day.
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  • When Gunning Bedford finished that oration
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  • this is the way he closed, he said,
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  • "Now to the triune God, the Father, the Son,
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  • "and the Holy Ghost,
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  • "be ascribed all honor and dominion forevermore, amen."
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  • What a way to close the oration of the most famous
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  • man of the day, but that was part of the faith
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  • of Gunning Bedford Jr., who's one of the signers
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  • of the Constitution and sadly, he's one of the guys
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  • we rarely hear about today.
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  • There were 39 guys who signed the Constitution,
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  • 55 helped write it.
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  • We know to or three generally today,
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  • but we don't know Gunning Bedford, we should.
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  • He's one of the strong founding fathers who helped
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  • make us the nation that we are today.
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  • (dramatic music)
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  • - So we are at the home, or at least the location
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  • where it used to the home, of Benjamin Franklin.
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  • You see the metal structures behind me,
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  • those are the outline of the buildings that used to be
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  • here that Benjamin Franklin built.
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  • Now Benjamin Franklin was a guy who'd signed
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  • the Declaration, went on and signed the Constitution,
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  • one of very few guys that actually did that,
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  • but Benjamin Franklin was a noted leader throughout
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  • our nation for a lot of years
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  • now, people recognize today, he was a printer.
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  • During the Revolution did a lot of printing
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  • and throughout his time as a printer,
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  • he actually became friends with a man named
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  • George Whitefield.
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  • Now George Whitefield was the famous evangelist
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  • from the First Great Awakening.
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  • Franklin printed a lot of Whitefield's sermons
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  • and in printing his sermons,
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  • he read a lot of Whitefield's sermons.
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  • He and Whitefield became friends.
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  • In fact, Franklin wanted to build an addition on his house
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  • to give Whitefield a place to live and stay.
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  • So Whitefield had a major influence in Franklin's life.
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  • When early on, he lived a fairly secular life.
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  • In fact, we could joke and call him maybe like,
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  • the early Donald Trump of his era in some of the way
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  • he lived, but after George Whitefield,
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  • you see a decided change in his life.
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  • We separated from Great Britain in 1776.
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  • Franklin's one of the guys that helped do
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  • the Pennsylvania Constitution.
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  • He's a leader in Pennsylvania at the time.
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  • He is a governor of Pennsylvania.
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  • Goes on to the Constitution.
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  • Now the Constitution, when things are working,
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  • and it seems like everything's falling apart,
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  • there's so much frustration, so many problems,
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  • Franklin's the guy that suggests, you know,
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  • maybe we ought to pray and ask God for help.
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  • In fact, the longest speech he gave
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  • at the Constitutional Convention was the challenging
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  • of the other delegates that let's pray and ask God
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  • for help because without God's help we're not
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  • gonna succeed in this.
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  • Franklin's a really interesting guy.
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  • Today, although he's recognizable in name,
  • 00:09:26.020 --> 00:09:28.160
  • a lot of people don't know his contributions
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  • and especially the fact that even though he was
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  • the least religious founding father,
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  • he still believed we needed God to be a part
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  • of what we did in the nation or we wouldn't be successful.
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  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:09:38.240 --> 00:09:41.170
  • - We are just outside of Dover, Delaware,
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  • at the home of John Dickinson,
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  • a signer of the U.S. Constitution.
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  • John Dickinson is not one we really talk about today,
  • 00:10:05.050 --> 00:10:08.030
  • but we should.
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  • He was a huge factor in the American founding.
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  • He was a name that was well-known back in his day.
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  • He's a name worth rediscovering today.
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  • Let's go inside and show you some more.
  • 00:10:16.070 --> 00:10:17.180
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:10:17.180 --> 00:10:20.040
  • John Dickinson is known as the Founding Father
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  • from Delaware, but actually, at the time of the
  • 00:10:22.140 --> 00:10:25.070
  • American Revolution, Delaware was part of Pennsylvania.
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  • It was considered the lower counties of Pennsylvania.
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  • In 1776, when we declared independence,
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  • Delaware became its own state.
  • 00:10:32.140 --> 00:10:35.060
  • So he was born in 1732, and in growing up,
  • 00:10:35.060 --> 00:10:38.160
  • he grew up largely right here in this house.
  • 00:10:38.160 --> 00:10:41.060
  • He was home educated and he had an inclination
  • 00:10:41.060 --> 00:10:44.000
  • to study law, so he began studying the law.
  • 00:10:44.000 --> 00:10:46.100
  • He actually went to England and studied law in England.
  • 00:10:46.100 --> 00:10:48.290
  • He came back and in 1757 he was licensed as an attorney.
  • 00:10:48.290 --> 00:10:52.150
  • Within only five years he was such an exceptional attorney
  • 00:10:52.150 --> 00:10:56.020
  • that he was already arguing cases
  • 00:10:56.020 --> 00:10:57.290
  • at the Colonial Supreme Court, which is a big deal.
  • 00:10:57.290 --> 00:11:01.080
  • Only three years later the tensions between
  • 00:11:01.080 --> 00:11:03.170
  • America and Great Britain were growing to the point
  • 00:11:03.170 --> 00:11:05.130
  • that we had what was called the Stamp Act
  • 00:11:05.130 --> 00:11:07.070
  • and the Nonimportation Agreements, et cetera,
  • 00:11:07.070 --> 00:11:09.040
  • and he early took the side of the colonists
  • 00:11:09.040 --> 00:11:12.000
  • against the British.
  • 00:11:12.000 --> 00:11:13.060
  • As a matter of fact, he began writing pieces
  • 00:11:13.060 --> 00:11:15.180
  • in favor of the colonists.
  • 00:11:15.180 --> 00:11:16.250
  • These are some of the early pieces he did.
  • 00:11:16.250 --> 00:11:19.060
  • These are from 1768.
  • 00:11:19.060 --> 00:11:21.140
  • These are letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania
  • 00:11:21.140 --> 00:11:23.200
  • to the British citizens.
  • 00:11:23.200 --> 00:11:25.250
  • So he's explaining the problems that we're having
  • 00:11:25.250 --> 00:11:29.020
  • and why we have this conflict going on.
  • 00:11:29.020 --> 00:11:31.040
  • And by the way, pieces like that is what caused him
  • 00:11:31.040 --> 00:11:33.150
  • to be called the Penman of the American Revolution.
  • 00:11:33.150 --> 00:11:36.160
  • It seemed like that if there were something that needed
  • 00:11:36.160 --> 00:11:38.100
  • to be said, he wrote it down and Congress said,
  • 00:11:38.100 --> 00:11:40.250
  • that's what we wanted to say.
  • 00:11:40.250 --> 00:11:42.150
  • So time after time after time, he was the one
  • 00:11:42.150 --> 00:11:46.010
  • who wrote the official letters going to the King
  • 00:11:46.010 --> 00:11:48.150
  • or the petitions to the King.
  • 00:11:48.150 --> 00:11:50.010
  • He was just really, he was the penman
  • 00:11:50.010 --> 00:11:51.270
  • of the American Revolution.
  • 00:11:51.270 --> 00:11:53.130
  • It's interesting that being in Pennsylvania, as he was,
  • 00:11:53.130 --> 00:11:55.220
  • and then in Delaware after 1776,
  • 00:11:55.220 --> 00:11:58.180
  • he's in the same state with Ben Franklin,
  • 00:11:58.180 --> 00:12:00.180
  • but he and Ben Franklin were often on opposite sides
  • 00:12:00.180 --> 00:12:03.160
  • of many many issues.
  • 00:12:03.160 --> 00:12:05.100
  • They both love America, both great guys,
  • 00:12:05.100 --> 00:12:07.010
  • but you had John Dickinson, who as much more cautious,
  • 00:12:07.010 --> 00:12:11.140
  • much more reserved and you had Ben Franklin,
  • 00:12:11.140 --> 00:12:14.080
  • who was much more bold and much more decisive.
  • 00:12:14.080 --> 00:12:16.060
  • So whereas John Dickinson wanted to try to reconcile
  • 00:12:16.060 --> 00:12:19.200
  • and conciliate, Ben Franklin's saying let's separate,
  • 00:12:19.200 --> 00:12:22.140
  • let's be independent.
  • 00:12:22.140 --> 00:12:23.120
  • So as this goes back and forth,
  • 00:12:23.120 --> 00:12:25.130
  • when you get to the time of 1776,
  • 00:12:25.130 --> 00:12:27.270
  • when we did the Declaration of Independence,
  • 00:12:27.270 --> 00:12:29.250
  • John Dickinson is a delegate there.
  • 00:12:29.250 --> 00:12:31.190
  • At the time, we vote for independence,
  • 00:12:31.190 --> 00:12:33.120
  • except he did not vote for independence.
  • 00:12:33.120 --> 00:12:35.240
  • John Dickinson did not vote
  • 00:12:35.240 --> 00:12:37.020
  • to do the Declaration of Independence.
  • 00:12:37.020 --> 00:12:38.140
  • He thought it was premature, we needed more time.
  • 00:12:38.140 --> 00:12:41.160
  • Of course, Ben Franklin did vote for the Declaration,
  • 00:12:41.160 --> 00:12:43.070
  • so it's significant that at that point you see
  • 00:12:43.070 --> 00:12:46.000
  • kinda the character of these two guys
  • 00:12:46.000 --> 00:12:48.050
  • and it wasn't that John Dickinson was afraid of what
  • 00:12:48.050 --> 00:12:51.090
  • was coming, because right after we approved
  • 00:12:51.090 --> 00:12:53.290
  • the Declaration he goes out and picks up a gun
  • 00:12:53.290 --> 00:12:55.280
  • and he goes out to take on the British.
  • 00:12:55.280 --> 00:12:58.040
  • As a matter of fact, out of all the guys who approved
  • 00:12:58.040 --> 00:13:00.060
  • the Declaration, only two guys picked up guns
  • 00:13:00.060 --> 00:13:02.210
  • to go after the British.
  • 00:13:02.210 --> 00:13:04.060
  • One was Thomas McKey, and also from here in Delaware,
  • 00:13:04.060 --> 00:13:06.160
  • and the other was John Dickinson.
  • 00:13:06.160 --> 00:13:08.210
  • So these two guys are very strong patriots
  • 00:13:08.210 --> 00:13:11.170
  • and it's interesting that John Dickinson,
  • 00:13:11.170 --> 00:13:13.040
  • with all his notoriety, he went in as a private.
  • 00:13:13.040 --> 00:13:15.080
  • He just went in the military as a private
  • 00:13:15.080 --> 00:13:17.100
  • and before long, he's all the way up to a general.
  • 00:13:17.100 --> 00:13:19.040
  • So a very significant guy.
  • 00:13:19.040 --> 00:13:21.080
  • But once the America Revolution is over,
  • 00:13:21.080 --> 00:13:23.200
  • he's been in the Continental Congress,
  • 00:13:23.200 --> 00:13:25.190
  • he saw the problems we had with the government,
  • 00:13:25.190 --> 00:13:27.160
  • the Articles of Confederation.
  • 00:13:27.160 --> 00:13:28.280
  • He knew that we needed something better
  • 00:13:28.280 --> 00:13:30.150
  • and so he starts being part of the movement
  • 00:13:30.150 --> 00:13:33.000
  • to get toward a constitution.
  • 00:13:33.000 --> 00:13:34.250
  • That began with the Annapolis Convention of 1786
  • 00:13:34.250 --> 00:13:37.150
  • and by the way, 1786 is also when John Dickinson
  • 00:13:37.150 --> 00:13:40.060
  • freed his slaves.
  • 00:13:40.060 --> 00:13:42.000
  • Well in 1787 we moved from the Annapolis Convention
  • 00:13:42.000 --> 00:13:44.230
  • to the Constitutional Convention
  • 00:13:44.230 --> 00:13:46.140
  • and John Dickinson is a delegate
  • 00:13:46.140 --> 00:13:48.100
  • to the Constitution Convention.
  • 00:13:48.100 --> 00:13:49.280
  • He spoke 50 times throughout the Convention.
  • 00:13:49.280 --> 00:13:52.140
  • He was an active participant in it.
  • 00:13:52.140 --> 00:13:53.270
  • When the Constitution was finally written
  • 00:13:53.270 --> 00:13:55.280
  • and everybody approved it, he was one of the 39 signers.
  • 00:13:55.280 --> 00:13:58.220
  • It then went to the states to be ratified.
  • 00:13:58.220 --> 00:14:01.050
  • When it went to the states, here came his penmanship again,
  • 00:14:01.050 --> 00:14:04.190
  • because he starts writing more pieces,
  • 00:14:04.190 --> 00:14:06.120
  • explaining to the people why this needs to be ratified,
  • 00:14:06.120 --> 00:14:09.080
  • why we need this Constitution
  • 00:14:09.080 --> 00:14:11.080
  • and the Constitution does eventually get ratified.
  • 00:14:11.080 --> 00:14:14.080
  • In 1791 he was actually the president of the convention
  • 00:14:14.080 --> 00:14:17.010
  • that wrote the Delaware Constitution.
  • 00:14:17.010 --> 00:14:19.060
  • So he has a long political life, was involved in many things
  • 00:14:19.060 --> 00:14:22.080
  • and after you get to 1791, the next 17 years of his life
  • 00:14:22.080 --> 00:14:26.200
  • he's really not much involved in political things anymore.
  • 00:14:26.200 --> 00:14:29.190
  • Now he's still very active and still does a lot of stuff,
  • 00:14:29.190 --> 00:14:31.250
  • but think about this guy.
  • 00:14:31.250 --> 00:14:33.110
  • He was from Pennsylvania but then Delaware became a state
  • 00:14:33.110 --> 00:14:37.060
  • so now he's from Delaware.
  • 00:14:37.060 --> 00:14:38.150
  • But even being from Delaware, it's amazing.
  • 00:14:38.150 --> 00:14:41.000
  • He was elected to the state legislature from both
  • 00:14:41.000 --> 00:14:43.250
  • Delaware and from Pennsylvania.
  • 00:14:43.250 --> 00:14:45.240
  • He was elected to the Continental Congress
  • 00:14:45.240 --> 00:14:47.250
  • both by Delaware and by Pennsylvania
  • 00:14:47.250 --> 00:14:50.280
  • and he served in the Continental Army both as a soldier
  • 00:14:50.280 --> 00:14:54.060
  • from Delaware and a soldier from Pennsylvania
  • 00:14:54.060 --> 00:14:56.170
  • and he was the governor of Delaware, elected by the people,
  • 00:14:56.170 --> 00:14:59.200
  • and he was elected by Pennsylvania to be the governor
  • 00:14:59.200 --> 00:15:01.210
  • of Pennsylvania.
  • 00:15:01.210 --> 00:15:03.040
  • You can't find another governor who's been governor
  • 00:15:03.040 --> 00:15:05.020
  • of two separate states like that.
  • 00:15:05.020 --> 00:15:06.280
  • I mean, what an amazing guy.
  • 00:15:06.280 --> 00:15:08.070
  • But both states loved him,
  • 00:15:08.070 --> 00:15:09.150
  • both states saw him as very significant.
  • 00:15:09.150 --> 00:15:11.050
  • He also was a strong man of faith.
  • 00:15:11.050 --> 00:15:13.160
  • A lot of ways to illustrate that.
  • 00:15:13.160 --> 00:15:15.080
  • One of the things he did was he was one of the funders
  • 00:15:15.080 --> 00:15:17.250
  • of the 1798 bible that was known as the Hot Press Bible.
  • 00:15:17.250 --> 00:15:22.040
  • That Bible was the largest bible ever done in America
  • 00:15:22.040 --> 00:15:24.270
  • to that point and he's one of the guys who helped fund it.
  • 00:15:24.270 --> 00:15:27.110
  • This is also a proclamation that he did while he was
  • 00:15:27.110 --> 00:15:30.180
  • governor of Pennsylvania and it's a proclamation
  • 00:15:30.180 --> 00:15:33.070
  • saying hey guys, we need to observe the Sabbath.
  • 00:15:33.070 --> 00:15:36.130
  • Sabbath is really important that we observe it.
  • 00:15:36.130 --> 00:15:38.260
  • Here's the governor calling the people to observe
  • 00:15:38.260 --> 00:15:41.050
  • the Sabbath in Pennsylvania.
  • 00:15:41.050 --> 00:15:43.150
  • So his faith was very evident but there's no question
  • 00:15:43.150 --> 00:15:45.260
  • that John Dickinson was a very significant founding father.
  • 00:15:45.260 --> 00:15:49.080
  • We don't know much about him today, which is unfortunate,
  • 00:15:49.080 --> 00:15:51.050
  • we should because he played a huge role
  • 00:15:51.050 --> 00:15:54.090
  • in making us the nation that we are today,
  • 00:15:54.090 --> 00:15:56.170
  • with the freedoms and liberties that we celebrate
  • 00:15:56.170 --> 00:15:58.200
  • on Constitution Day.
  • 00:15:58.200 --> 00:16:00.090
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:16:00.090 --> 00:16:03.020
  • - There's no more famous name in American history
  • 00:16:21.020 --> 00:16:22.270
  • than that of George Washington and rightfully so.
  • 00:16:22.270 --> 00:16:25.160
  • If you go back in American history,
  • 00:16:25.160 --> 00:16:27.010
  • nobody was more involved, from the America Revolution,
  • 00:16:27.010 --> 00:16:29.060
  • to the Constitutional Convention,
  • 00:16:29.060 --> 00:16:30.240
  • all the way up to when we become a nation and we have
  • 00:16:30.240 --> 00:16:32.140
  • a president, nobody did more than George Washington.
  • 00:16:32.140 --> 00:16:34.160
  • So it's fair that his name would be the most famous
  • 00:16:34.160 --> 00:16:37.070
  • and yet with a famous name, very few people know
  • 00:16:37.070 --> 00:16:40.190
  • the story of George Washington.
  • 00:16:40.190 --> 00:16:42.240
  • Very few people know that he was a boy his father died.
  • 00:16:42.240 --> 00:16:45.070
  • In fact, living on a farm, he and his brother and his mom,
  • 00:16:45.070 --> 00:16:48.190
  • they're trying to figure things out.
  • 00:16:48.190 --> 00:16:50.040
  • When he was just a teenager, he starts off his business
  • 00:16:50.040 --> 00:16:52.230
  • as a surveyor and that's what he does full time.
  • 00:16:52.230 --> 00:16:55.160
  • One of the cool things he did, he did a book
  • 00:16:55.160 --> 00:16:57.120
  • that's known today as Washington's Rules of Civility.
  • 00:16:57.120 --> 00:17:01.020
  • It's actually a 110 lessons on manners and moral decency
  • 00:17:01.020 --> 00:17:04.210
  • of good behavior and company.
  • 00:17:04.210 --> 00:17:07.060
  • So what should you do around people?
  • 00:17:07.060 --> 00:17:09.060
  • Well, he wrote a book on exactly what you should do,
  • 00:17:09.060 --> 00:17:11.180
  • actually, he copied 110 of these virtues.
  • 00:17:11.180 --> 00:17:13.120
  • Nonetheless, this became very famous from Washington.
  • 00:17:13.120 --> 00:17:16.060
  • Well Washington, then as a young man,
  • 00:17:16.060 --> 00:17:18.130
  • he's part of the military,
  • 00:17:18.130 --> 00:17:19.180
  • he's part of the French and Indian War,
  • 00:17:19.180 --> 00:17:20.250
  • becomes a colonel in the French and Indian War.
  • 00:17:20.250 --> 00:17:22.140
  • After the French and Indian War he retires,
  • 00:17:22.140 --> 00:17:23.290
  • he goes back and he lives on a farm in Mt. Vernon
  • 00:17:23.290 --> 00:17:25.280
  • and he's there really, until the American Revolution
  • 00:17:25.280 --> 00:17:28.190
  • breaks out.
  • 00:17:28.190 --> 00:17:29.260
  • He's member of the First Continental Congress.
  • 00:17:29.260 --> 00:17:31.120
  • He was unanimously selected to be the Commander in Chief
  • 00:17:31.120 --> 00:17:34.010
  • of our military, gets us all the way through
  • 00:17:34.010 --> 00:17:36.050
  • the Revolution, turns in his commission at the end
  • 00:17:36.050 --> 00:17:38.260
  • of the Revolution.
  • 00:17:38.260 --> 00:17:40.050
  • After he's led our military to victory,
  • 00:17:40.050 --> 00:17:41.210
  • many of the officers said,
  • 00:17:41.210 --> 00:17:43.190
  • "Washington, you should just be the king
  • 00:17:43.190 --> 00:17:45.220
  • "because we don't trust Congress.
  • 00:17:45.220 --> 00:17:47.020
  • "Those guys are corrupt, we don't like em,
  • 00:17:47.020 --> 00:17:49.070
  • "you just be our king."
  • 00:17:49.070 --> 00:17:51.070
  • And he said guys, "We fought a war to get out from under
  • 00:17:51.070 --> 00:17:53.230
  • "kings, we don't need a king."
  • 00:17:53.230 --> 00:17:55.100
  • He turned in his resignation.
  • 00:17:55.100 --> 00:17:56.280
  • Amazing act of humility.
  • 00:17:56.280 --> 00:17:59.040
  • Recognition of what our nation needed.
  • 00:17:59.040 --> 00:18:01.000
  • Well, he then goes back home.
  • 00:18:01.000 --> 00:18:03.080
  • When we realize after the Articles of Confederation
  • 00:18:03.080 --> 00:18:06.070
  • have failed, and we need something more,
  • 00:18:06.070 --> 00:18:08.000
  • he is then chosen to be the leader at the
  • 00:18:08.000 --> 00:18:10.090
  • Constitutional Convention, after a state says actually,
  • 00:18:10.090 --> 00:18:12.200
  • we want you to go be a delegate for us.
  • 00:18:12.200 --> 00:18:14.050
  • Represent our state.
  • 00:18:14.050 --> 00:18:15.100
  • The Constitution Convention, they say,
  • 00:18:15.100 --> 00:18:16.150
  • we need you to lead this.
  • 00:18:16.150 --> 00:18:17.290
  • It was his leadership that led all of the men in the room
  • 00:18:17.290 --> 00:18:21.240
  • who had different opinions, they argued constantly
  • 00:18:21.240 --> 00:18:24.140
  • for weeks they argued, over what should be done.
  • 00:18:24.140 --> 00:18:27.010
  • It was George Washington's leadership that actually led
  • 00:18:27.010 --> 00:18:29.160
  • to us having a constitution.
  • 00:18:29.160 --> 00:18:31.010
  • At the end of the Constitution Convention,
  • 00:18:31.010 --> 00:18:32.260
  • George Washington was then unanimously elected
  • 00:18:32.260 --> 00:18:35.040
  • to be the president.
  • 00:18:35.040 --> 00:18:36.170
  • In fact, he was unanimously elected a second time
  • 00:18:36.170 --> 00:18:38.270
  • to be the president.
  • 00:18:38.270 --> 00:18:40.040
  • People recognized this man as amazing.
  • 00:18:40.040 --> 00:18:42.070
  • He's an incredible leader and at the end of two terms,
  • 00:18:42.070 --> 00:18:45.040
  • he was actually chosen to reign again, as the case were,
  • 00:18:45.040 --> 00:18:48.250
  • to be president again.
  • 00:18:48.250 --> 00:18:50.100
  • He says, "Guys, no, no, no, don't vote for me again.
  • 00:18:50.100 --> 00:18:52.060
  • "We don't need to have somebody who is constantly in power.
  • 00:18:52.060 --> 00:18:55.130
  • "We need a turnover of power, that way we can protect
  • 00:18:55.130 --> 00:18:57.220
  • "our republic."
  • 00:18:57.220 --> 00:18:59.090
  • So he steps down after two terms.
  • 00:18:59.090 --> 00:19:01.130
  • This man's leadership was absolutely amazing and yet, again,
  • 00:19:01.130 --> 00:19:05.150
  • today, so few people know many of his stories.
  • 00:19:05.150 --> 00:19:08.010
  • One of my favorite stories when it comes to his military
  • 00:19:08.010 --> 00:19:10.080
  • services goes back to when he was just a young colonel
  • 00:19:10.080 --> 00:19:12.260
  • in the French and Indian War.
  • 00:19:12.260 --> 00:19:14.100
  • In fact at this time, when General Braddock was sent over
  • 00:19:14.100 --> 00:19:17.100
  • by the British, there was a battle going on
  • 00:19:17.100 --> 00:19:19.110
  • for the middle territory in the U.S. at the time
  • 00:19:19.110 --> 00:19:22.220
  • and the French were fighting the British for who was
  • 00:19:22.220 --> 00:19:25.210
  • gonna get much of there territory.
  • 00:19:25.210 --> 00:19:27.050
  • So when General Braddock, who was the British Commander
  • 00:19:27.050 --> 00:19:29.260
  • came to America, he'd heard stories of George Washington
  • 00:19:29.260 --> 00:19:33.020
  • and was told you need him on your staff.
  • 00:19:33.020 --> 00:19:35.080
  • George Washington became his aide to camp
  • 00:19:35.080 --> 00:19:37.220
  • for the British general.
  • 00:19:37.220 --> 00:19:39.070
  • Well, when Washington came to fame, was actually a moment
  • 00:19:39.070 --> 00:19:42.130
  • when the British general, they were sent to to to
  • 00:19:42.130 --> 00:19:44.230
  • Fort Decane and drive out the French forces.
  • 00:19:44.230 --> 00:19:47.270
  • On the way Washington, who's in charge of the Virginia
  • 00:19:47.270 --> 00:19:50.130
  • Buckskins, who is apparently like a bunch of rednecks
  • 00:19:50.130 --> 00:19:53.100
  • with guns who join the military, join the British,
  • 00:19:53.100 --> 00:19:56.220
  • General Braddock is told that there might be
  • 00:19:56.220 --> 00:20:00.050
  • some Indians and some French hiding in the woods
  • 00:20:00.050 --> 00:20:03.080
  • to ambush us.
  • 00:20:03.080 --> 00:20:04.210
  • Maybe we should send delegation ahead, a scouting party,
  • 00:20:04.210 --> 00:20:06.090
  • and go see.
  • 00:20:06.090 --> 00:20:07.240
  • General Braddock says, "Guys, we don't need to do that."
  • 00:20:07.240 --> 00:20:09.260
  • Told Washington we really don't need your help.
  • 00:20:09.260 --> 00:20:11.230
  • We don't need the help of your friendly Indians.
  • 00:20:11.230 --> 00:20:13.000
  • We're fine.
  • 00:20:13.000 --> 00:20:14.170
  • Well, the problem was, on the march to this fort,
  • 00:20:14.170 --> 00:20:16.240
  • they were ambushed.
  • 00:20:16.240 --> 00:20:18.080
  • The ambush was so significant that every single mounted
  • 00:20:18.080 --> 00:20:21.040
  • officer was killed in that battle except one.
  • 00:20:21.040 --> 00:20:23.250
  • George Washington was the only mounted officer
  • 00:20:23.250 --> 00:20:26.000
  • to survive that attack.
  • 00:20:26.000 --> 00:20:27.070
  • In fact, when General Braddock was shot down,
  • 00:20:27.070 --> 00:20:28.290
  • George Washington was assigned and given position
  • 00:20:28.290 --> 00:20:32.020
  • as commander of the forces.
  • 00:20:32.020 --> 00:20:33.160
  • Now, when Washington as given position of commander
  • 00:20:33.160 --> 00:20:35.180
  • he realized this is a terrible situation.
  • 00:20:35.180 --> 00:20:37.030
  • We need to get outta here.
  • 00:20:37.030 --> 00:20:38.280
  • He led the retreat back to the fort
  • 00:20:38.280 --> 00:20:40.030
  • where they had come from.
  • 00:20:40.030 --> 00:20:41.180
  • When he got back to the fort, he said he took off
  • 00:20:41.180 --> 00:20:44.000
  • his jacket and there were four bullet holes
  • 00:20:44.000 --> 00:20:46.040
  • through his jacket.
  • 00:20:46.040 --> 00:20:47.120
  • Another report says that he was brushing his hair
  • 00:20:47.120 --> 00:20:49.160
  • and bullet fragments came out of his hair.
  • 00:20:49.160 --> 00:20:51.130
  • He wrote that two horses had been shot out from under him.
  • 00:20:51.130 --> 00:20:53.160
  • This account was absolutely amazing.
  • 00:20:53.160 --> 00:20:56.050
  • In fact, what's even equally amazing, is several years later
  • 00:20:56.050 --> 00:20:58.180
  • there was a group of Indians that came and they met
  • 00:20:58.180 --> 00:21:01.010
  • George Washington in the woods.
  • 00:21:01.010 --> 00:21:02.160
  • They said you don't know us, but many years ago
  • 00:21:02.160 --> 00:21:05.070
  • we were in these very woods together and we were part of
  • 00:21:05.070 --> 00:21:08.130
  • the enemy that was fighting against you.
  • 00:21:08.130 --> 00:21:10.250
  • We told our braves to single you out and fire at you
  • 00:21:10.250 --> 00:21:13.150
  • because we knew if we could kill you we could scatter
  • 00:21:13.150 --> 00:21:15.190
  • the troops, we could massacre them all.
  • 00:21:15.190 --> 00:21:17.010
  • One chief said, "I personally fired my rifle at you
  • 00:21:17.010 --> 00:21:19.120
  • "17 times.
  • 00:21:19.120 --> 00:21:21.150
  • "A rifle which but for you, knew not how to miss."
  • 00:21:21.150 --> 00:21:24.100
  • He said, "I came all this way just to meet the man
  • 00:21:24.100 --> 00:21:27.030
  • "that God would not let die in battle."
  • 00:21:27.030 --> 00:21:29.070
  • And true to the story, George Washington never
  • 00:21:29.070 --> 00:21:31.270
  • died in battle.
  • 00:21:31.270 --> 00:21:33.120
  • His entire military career, so many close encounters,
  • 00:21:33.120 --> 00:21:35.270
  • and yet God kept him safe through every bit of it.
  • 00:21:35.270 --> 00:21:39.180
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:21:39.180 --> 00:21:42.100
  • Among the many impressive character traits
  • 00:21:42.100 --> 00:21:43.250
  • of George Washington that are largely forgotten today,
  • 00:21:43.250 --> 00:21:45.210
  • one of those is his faith.
  • 00:21:45.210 --> 00:21:47.050
  • Now, today some people might acknowledge that
  • 00:21:47.050 --> 00:21:49.270
  • oh, he believed in God, maybe like divine providence,
  • 00:21:49.270 --> 00:21:52.110
  • really probably though it's more accurate to describe him
  • 00:21:52.110 --> 00:21:54.190
  • as a deist.
  • 00:21:54.190 --> 00:21:56.050
  • At least that's what some people might argue today.
  • 00:21:56.050 --> 00:21:57.100
  • What's interesting though, is historically,
  • 00:21:57.100 --> 00:21:59.080
  • George Washington was always considered a Christian.
  • 00:21:59.080 --> 00:22:01.170
  • In fact, really, there wasn't a lot of doubt in that
  • 00:22:01.170 --> 00:22:04.080
  • for especially the people that knew him.
  • 00:22:04.080 --> 00:22:06.160
  • In fact, there were many books written about
  • 00:22:06.160 --> 00:22:08.100
  • George Washington and his Christian faith.
  • 00:22:08.100 --> 00:22:09.280
  • One of the guys who did the most, probably,
  • 00:22:09.280 --> 00:22:12.160
  • with the writings of George Washington was a guy
  • 00:22:12.160 --> 00:22:14.040
  • named Jared Sparks.
  • 00:22:14.040 --> 00:22:15.190
  • In fact, he's the first guy to ever really compile
  • 00:22:15.190 --> 00:22:17.080
  • the writings of George Washington and it was a mini-volume
  • 00:22:17.080 --> 00:22:19.160
  • set because there were a lot of letters
  • 00:22:19.160 --> 00:22:21.070
  • of George Washington.
  • 00:22:21.070 --> 00:22:22.190
  • Now, the writings of Washington have grown since
  • 00:22:22.190 --> 00:22:24.060
  • the original works of Jared Sparks because there have
  • 00:22:24.060 --> 00:22:26.200
  • been many more letters that people have found
  • 00:22:26.200 --> 00:22:28.120
  • from George Washington, so those have been added
  • 00:22:28.120 --> 00:22:30.050
  • to the list.
  • 00:22:30.050 --> 00:22:31.120
  • One of the cool things Jared Sparks did though,
  • 00:22:31.120 --> 00:22:32.200
  • was he actually wrote the people
  • 00:22:32.200 --> 00:22:34.090
  • that knew George Washington personally.
  • 00:22:34.090 --> 00:22:35.250
  • He wrote other generals.
  • 00:22:35.250 --> 00:22:37.060
  • He wrote other political leaders.
  • 00:22:37.060 --> 00:22:38.210
  • He even wrote family members and said hey, can you tell me
  • 00:22:38.210 --> 00:22:40.120
  • what did George Washington think about this issue
  • 00:22:40.120 --> 00:22:42.150
  • or this topic or this subject.
  • 00:22:42.150 --> 00:22:44.290
  • One of the things that Jared Sparks wanted to know
  • 00:22:44.290 --> 00:22:46.260
  • was where did Washington really stand when it comes
  • 00:22:46.260 --> 00:22:48.190
  • to Christianity, 'cause he knew the impression he had.
  • 00:22:48.190 --> 00:22:50.230
  • But he thought, I want to know what the people
  • 00:22:50.230 --> 00:22:52.130
  • that knew George Washington thought about him.
  • 00:22:52.130 --> 00:22:53.280
  • One of the family members he wrote to was Nelly Park Custis.
  • 00:22:53.280 --> 00:22:57.100
  • Now, Nelly Park Custis was actually the granddaughter
  • 00:22:57.100 --> 00:23:00.080
  • of George Washington's wife, Martha Custis,
  • 00:23:00.080 --> 00:23:03.000
  • and George Washington and Martha actually adopted her
  • 00:23:03.000 --> 00:23:05.110
  • and she came and lived with them and their family.
  • 00:23:05.110 --> 00:23:07.130
  • Well after living with George Washington for many years,
  • 00:23:07.130 --> 00:23:09.140
  • she had a pretty good look into his life.
  • 00:23:09.140 --> 00:23:11.020
  • So Jared Sparks wrote and said, "Can you tell me
  • 00:23:11.020 --> 00:23:14.010
  • "about his Christian faith.
  • 00:23:14.010 --> 00:23:15.150
  • "Was he a Christian, did he really believe in that?"
  • 00:23:15.150 --> 00:23:16.210
  • And I want to read you part of a letter,
  • 00:23:16.210 --> 00:23:18.100
  • what she wrote back to Jared Sparks about the faith
  • 00:23:18.100 --> 00:23:21.060
  • of George Washington.
  • 00:23:21.060 --> 00:23:22.200
  • She said, "I should have thought it a greatest heresy
  • 00:23:22.200 --> 00:23:24.250
  • "to doubt his firm belief in Christianity.
  • 00:23:24.250 --> 00:23:27.050
  • "His life, his writings, prove that he was a Christian."
  • 00:23:27.050 --> 00:23:30.260
  • She says in my mind, there's no doubt.
  • 00:23:30.260 --> 00:23:32.140
  • Now she gives several examples why, but here's how
  • 00:23:32.140 --> 00:23:35.160
  • she concludes the letter, she says,
  • 00:23:35.160 --> 00:23:37.200
  • "Is it necessary that anyone should certify
  • 00:23:37.200 --> 00:23:40.210
  • "General Washington avowed himself to me,
  • 00:23:40.210 --> 00:23:42.290
  • "a believer in Christianity.
  • 00:23:42.290 --> 00:23:44.140
  • "As well, may we question his patriotism."
  • 00:23:44.140 --> 00:23:47.190
  • According to Nelly Custis, you might as well question
  • 00:23:47.190 --> 00:23:50.050
  • the patriotism of George Washington if you start
  • 00:23:50.050 --> 00:23:52.050
  • questioning his Christianity.
  • 00:23:52.050 --> 00:23:53.260
  • That's how clear his Christianity was,
  • 00:23:53.260 --> 00:23:56.000
  • because nobody is gonna question the patriotism
  • 00:23:56.000 --> 00:23:58.050
  • of George Washington, but neither should we question
  • 00:23:58.050 --> 00:24:01.120
  • his Christianity.
  • 00:24:01.120 --> 00:24:02.090
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:24:02.090 --> 00:24:05.010
  • - We now find ourself in Orange County, Virginia
  • 00:24:22.280 --> 00:24:25.240
  • and right behind me is Montpelier.
  • 00:24:25.240 --> 00:24:27.290
  • That is the home of James Madison, who was a signer
  • 00:24:27.290 --> 00:24:30.190
  • of the Constitution, he's also the fourth president
  • 00:24:30.190 --> 00:24:32.190
  • of the United States.
  • 00:24:32.190 --> 00:24:34.040
  • Now, the center part of the house, the taller part there,
  • 00:24:34.040 --> 00:24:35.210
  • kind of block in the middle was built by his father,
  • 00:24:35.210 --> 00:24:38.000
  • James Madison Sr.
  • 00:24:38.000 --> 00:24:39.210
  • The two wings were added by James Madison Jr.,
  • 00:24:39.210 --> 00:24:42.090
  • the signer and the president, when he came back
  • 00:24:42.090 --> 00:24:44.030
  • after his presidency.
  • 00:24:44.030 --> 00:24:46.110
  • Interesting bit of trivia, in the home behind us here,
  • 00:24:46.110 --> 00:24:49.010
  • Montpelier, actually lived a big Hollywood A-list star,
  • 00:24:49.010 --> 00:24:52.220
  • Randolph Scott who had more than 100 movies.
  • 00:24:52.220 --> 00:24:54.290
  • He was married to one of the Madison descendants.
  • 00:24:54.290 --> 00:24:57.030
  • In 1817, having finished his presidency,
  • 00:24:57.030 --> 00:25:00.020
  • James Madison retired back to Montpelier after 40 years
  • 00:25:00.020 --> 00:25:03.080
  • of public service.
  • 00:25:03.080 --> 00:25:04.220
  • But that doesn't mean he was retired and not doing anything.
  • 00:25:04.220 --> 00:25:07.210
  • As a matter of fact, he came back in time to help his friend
  • 00:25:07.210 --> 00:25:09.270
  • Thomas Jefferson, who had recently founded
  • 00:25:09.270 --> 00:25:11.250
  • the University of Virginia.
  • 00:25:11.250 --> 00:25:13.020
  • James Madison became a visitor or a regent
  • 00:25:13.020 --> 00:25:15.170
  • for the University of Virginia and Thomas Jefferson
  • 00:25:15.170 --> 00:25:17.260
  • assigned him with finding good theological books
  • 00:25:17.260 --> 00:25:20.100
  • to put in the library and James Madison, with his prior
  • 00:25:20.100 --> 00:25:22.120
  • study as a minister, when he thought he might be a minister,
  • 00:25:22.120 --> 00:25:25.240
  • knew all sorts of books,
  • 00:25:25.240 --> 00:25:27.010
  • so got that in the university library.
  • 00:25:27.010 --> 00:25:28.140
  • Then when Thomas Jefferson died, James Madison
  • 00:25:28.140 --> 00:25:30.100
  • actually became the second rector
  • 00:25:30.100 --> 00:25:32.220
  • for the University of Virginia.
  • 00:25:32.220 --> 00:25:34.020
  • Also, while he was retired back here,
  • 00:25:34.020 --> 00:25:36.140
  • the Missouri Compromise question came up.
  • 00:25:36.140 --> 00:25:38.200
  • Prior to the Missouri Compromise of 1820,
  • 00:25:38.200 --> 00:25:40.290
  • the Congress, the National Congress had been working
  • 00:25:40.290 --> 00:25:43.140
  • to end slavery.
  • 00:25:43.140 --> 00:25:44.270
  • So you had the northwest ordinance said you can't have
  • 00:25:44.270 --> 00:25:46.130
  • any federal territory with slavery.
  • 00:25:46.130 --> 00:25:48.140
  • You had the banning the exportation of slaves,
  • 00:25:48.140 --> 00:25:50.280
  • banning the importation of slaves.
  • 00:25:50.280 --> 00:25:52.070
  • They were trying to reduce it.
  • 00:25:52.070 --> 00:25:53.250
  • In 1820 Congress said no, let's go the other way.
  • 00:25:53.250 --> 00:25:56.080
  • Let's expand slavery.
  • 00:25:56.080 --> 00:25:57.230
  • So what they said is, these federal territories where
  • 00:25:57.230 --> 00:26:00.080
  • we said you couldn't have slavery,
  • 00:26:00.080 --> 00:26:01.120
  • let's let some slaves be there.
  • 00:26:01.120 --> 00:26:03.120
  • So we started accepting states in the United States
  • 00:26:03.120 --> 00:26:06.040
  • that were pro-slavery and instead of slavery reducing
  • 00:26:06.040 --> 00:26:08.080
  • it as now growing and that as a great concern
  • 00:26:08.080 --> 00:26:10.160
  • to James Madison.
  • 00:26:10.160 --> 00:26:11.230
  • He actually predicted that that would lead
  • 00:26:11.230 --> 00:26:14.040
  • to a conflict between the free states and the slave states,
  • 00:26:14.040 --> 00:26:16.250
  • a civil war and so he was accurate in that.
  • 00:26:16.250 --> 00:26:19.100
  • You look at all he did, as a signer of the Constitution,
  • 00:26:19.100 --> 00:26:21.220
  • as one of the master builders of the Constitution,
  • 00:26:21.220 --> 00:26:24.170
  • as a leader in securing religious liberties,
  • 00:26:24.170 --> 00:26:26.240
  • and also as a leader in trying to secure the end of slavery,
  • 00:26:26.240 --> 00:26:30.070
  • James Madison was a significant founding father.
  • 00:26:30.070 --> 00:26:33.160
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:26:33.160 --> 00:26:35.200
  • James Madison, like many of Virginia's founding fathers,
  • 00:26:35.200 --> 00:26:37.160
  • owned slaves.
  • 00:26:37.160 --> 00:26:39.160
  • In fact, you can see some of the slave quarters
  • 00:26:39.160 --> 00:26:41.100
  • right here behind me at Montpelier.
  • 00:26:41.100 --> 00:26:43.070
  • Now, Madison, like many of Virginia's founding fathers,
  • 00:26:43.070 --> 00:26:45.240
  • did not like slavery, did not want to be part of slavery,
  • 00:26:45.240 --> 00:26:48.090
  • but they were.
  • 00:26:48.090 --> 00:26:49.250
  • James Madison actually said he went off to study for the law
  • 00:26:49.250 --> 00:26:52.290
  • because he wanted to have some trade that did not
  • 00:26:52.290 --> 00:26:55.070
  • depend on slaves.
  • 00:26:55.070 --> 00:26:56.280
  • So if he owned slave though, why not just set em free?
  • 00:26:56.280 --> 00:27:00.190
  • Because in Virginia, the state law was very, very,
  • 00:27:00.190 --> 00:27:03.100
  • very complicated.
  • 00:27:03.100 --> 00:27:04.160
  • It's kinda like the IRS code today.
  • 00:27:04.160 --> 00:27:06.010
  • I mean, there's so many provisions.
  • 00:27:06.010 --> 00:27:07.170
  • There was a period in 1782 they passed the emancipation
  • 00:27:07.170 --> 00:27:09.290
  • law that you could set your slaves free,
  • 00:27:09.290 --> 00:27:11.140
  • but in 1785 they repealed that and it just went on and on.
  • 00:27:11.140 --> 00:27:14.170
  • If you had dowry slaves, which are slaves inherited
  • 00:27:14.170 --> 00:27:17.050
  • by the wife, then they can never be freed.
  • 00:27:17.050 --> 00:27:19.180
  • If you wanted a slave free they had to be from meritorious
  • 00:27:19.180 --> 00:27:22.020
  • service and the legislature had to determine that.
  • 00:27:22.020 --> 00:27:25.020
  • Matter of fact, one of the great black heroes
  • 00:27:25.020 --> 00:27:27.050
  • of the American Revolution, James Armistead,
  • 00:27:27.050 --> 00:27:28.290
  • his owner freed him a the end of the Revolution.
  • 00:27:28.290 --> 00:27:30.230
  • But he still wasn't free because it took an act
  • 00:27:30.230 --> 00:27:33.110
  • of the Virginia legislature individually to free him.
  • 00:27:33.110 --> 00:27:35.220
  • As an example of how complicated the laws were,
  • 00:27:35.220 --> 00:27:38.240
  • in 1791, Robert Carter,
  • 00:27:38.240 --> 00:27:40.290
  • who owned 500 slaves here in Virginia,
  • 00:27:40.290 --> 00:27:42.230
  • was part of a revival meeting where he heard the gospel
  • 00:27:42.230 --> 00:27:45.270
  • of Christ, he became a Christian, he said I'm going
  • 00:27:45.270 --> 00:27:48.120
  • to release all 500 of my slaves.
  • 00:27:48.120 --> 00:27:50.090
  • He was very wealthy.
  • 00:27:50.090 --> 00:27:51.080
  • He released them all.
  • 00:27:51.080 --> 00:27:52.160
  • 60 years later, they're still working to release
  • 00:27:52.160 --> 00:27:56.140
  • the 500 slaves that he freed.
  • 00:27:56.140 --> 00:27:58.030
  • So it's a very complicated situation and that's really
  • 00:27:58.030 --> 00:28:01.120
  • where Madison found himself.
  • 00:28:01.120 --> 00:28:03.090
  • In this part of the country, they had a different approach.
  • 00:28:03.090 --> 00:28:05.040
  • Up north, they wanted emancipation period.
  • 00:28:05.040 --> 00:28:07.080
  • There never was a time in Massachusetts when blacks
  • 00:28:07.080 --> 00:28:09.210
  • couldn't vote.
  • 00:28:09.210 --> 00:28:11.040
  • In the deep south, there's never going to be emancipation.
  • 00:28:11.040 --> 00:28:13.100
  • But here in the central colonies, it's like,
  • 00:28:13.100 --> 00:28:15.100
  • we want slaves freed but man, there's so much racism here
  • 00:28:15.100 --> 00:28:18.240
  • that I guess the best way to do that is maybe
  • 00:28:18.240 --> 00:28:21.050
  • have colonization societies and send them back to Africa,
  • 00:28:21.050 --> 00:28:23.280
  • where's there not so much prejudice.
  • 00:28:23.280 --> 00:28:26.030
  • So there really were different approaches to how
  • 00:28:26.030 --> 00:28:27.280
  • to solve the problem.
  • 00:28:27.280 --> 00:28:29.140
  • So James Madison, looking at this, was really kind of stuck
  • 00:28:29.140 --> 00:28:32.280
  • with something he didn't want, didn't want to be part of,
  • 00:28:32.280 --> 00:28:35.080
  • but he had it.
  • 00:28:35.080 --> 00:28:36.210
  • He worked at the Constitution Convention to make sure
  • 00:28:36.210 --> 00:28:38.020
  • the word slavery did not enter the Constitution,
  • 00:28:38.020 --> 00:28:40.130
  • as he said the didn't want the Constitution tainted
  • 00:28:40.130 --> 00:28:43.040
  • with that word.
  • 00:28:43.040 --> 00:28:44.170
  • So he kept the word out because he did think that slavery
  • 00:28:44.170 --> 00:28:46.110
  • was a taint on America and he didn't want it tainting
  • 00:28:46.110 --> 00:28:48.280
  • the Constitution.
  • 00:28:48.280 --> 00:28:50.060
  • He also worked on antislavery laws.
  • 00:28:50.060 --> 00:28:51.250
  • Now, being in Virginia, none of them got passed.
  • 00:28:51.250 --> 00:28:54.120
  • Thomas Jefferson introduced an abolition law here,
  • 00:28:54.120 --> 00:28:56.020
  • it got voted down in the legislature.
  • 00:28:56.020 --> 00:28:58.160
  • George Washington worked for abolition, it got voted down.
  • 00:28:58.160 --> 00:29:01.000
  • So in Virginia, they could not get those policies passed,
  • 00:29:01.000 --> 00:29:04.020
  • but Madison stuck with having this great evil
  • 00:29:04.020 --> 00:29:07.060
  • that he didn't like, actually did what he could to a degree.
  • 00:29:07.060 --> 00:29:10.290
  • I mean, he still had slavery and that's still bad,
  • 00:29:10.290 --> 00:29:13.080
  • but he looked at the slaves as if they were members
  • 00:29:13.080 --> 00:29:16.070
  • of his family.
  • 00:29:16.070 --> 00:29:17.050
  • He called them his family.
  • 00:29:17.050 --> 00:29:18.190
  • Actually, he would not allow any slave to be sold
  • 00:29:18.190 --> 00:29:21.130
  • unless with the permission of that slave.
  • 00:29:21.130 --> 00:29:23.270
  • So working in a really bad system with really bad evil,
  • 00:29:23.270 --> 00:29:27.020
  • he did what he could, but he certainly tried to work
  • 00:29:27.020 --> 00:29:30.080
  • to do what he could to bring emancipation.
  • 00:29:30.080 --> 00:29:33.010
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:29:33.010 --> 00:29:35.230
  • - Knowing they were people who cared about faith,
  • 00:29:37.250 --> 00:29:40.020
  • because you see proclamations, you see bibles
  • 00:29:40.020 --> 00:29:42.210
  • and bible societies, then it's no surprise that when
  • 00:29:42.210 --> 00:29:45.200
  • we look at the Constitution, we actually find
  • 00:29:45.200 --> 00:29:47.220
  • the influence of the bible in the Constitution.
  • 00:29:47.220 --> 00:29:50.240
  • - We've had our Constitution now for centuries, literally.
  • 00:29:50.240 --> 00:29:53.260
  • We are the oldest ongoing constitutional republic
  • 00:29:53.260 --> 00:29:57.030
  • in the history of the world.
  • 00:29:57.030 --> 00:29:58.190
  • You know what the average length of a constitution
  • 00:29:58.190 --> 00:30:00.110
  • in the history of the world is?
  • 00:30:00.110 --> 00:30:02.050
  • Every other nation, average length of a constitution
  • 00:30:02.050 --> 00:30:04.040
  • is 17 years.
  • 00:30:04.040 --> 00:30:05.270
  • Oh my gosh.
  • 00:30:05.270 --> 00:30:07.230
  • In the same period of time we've had our constitution,
  • 00:30:07.230 --> 00:30:09.260
  • France has had 15.
  • 00:30:09.260 --> 00:30:12.020
  • I mean, you just go through the other nations
  • 00:30:12.020 --> 00:30:14.030
  • and we are so different, we're so blessed.
  • 00:30:14.030 --> 00:30:16.270
  • And so, political scientists say America Constitution's
  • 00:30:16.270 --> 00:30:20.230
  • different from everybody else's, it works different.
  • 00:30:20.230 --> 00:30:23.120
  • Where'd they get their ideas?
  • 00:30:23.120 --> 00:30:24.280
  • So political science professors said you know,
  • 00:30:24.280 --> 00:30:28.040
  • if we read the writings of the founding fathers
  • 00:30:28.040 --> 00:30:30.110
  • and see who they quoted, we'll know where they got
  • 00:30:30.110 --> 00:30:32.120
  • their ideas.
  • 00:30:32.120 --> 00:30:33.260
  • So their idea was, we'll take 15.000 of their writings,
  • 00:30:33.260 --> 00:30:37.110
  • we'll read those writings and see who they quote
  • 00:30:37.110 --> 00:30:39.280
  • and they did.
  • 00:30:39.280 --> 00:30:41.130
  • They found 3.154 direct quotes in those writings.
  • 00:30:41.130 --> 00:30:45.150
  • They took every one of those quotes back to their
  • 00:30:45.150 --> 00:30:47.130
  • original sources.
  • 00:30:47.130 --> 00:30:48.200
  • It took em 10 years to do it, but they did it.
  • 00:30:48.200 --> 00:30:50.050
  • This is the report that they came out with,
  • 00:30:50.050 --> 00:30:52.250
  • The Origins of American Constitutionalism.
  • 00:30:52.250 --> 00:30:54.280
  • Now, given the fact that you have millions of books
  • 00:30:54.280 --> 00:30:57.210
  • that have been written over all recorded history,
  • 00:30:57.210 --> 00:31:00.030
  • and you got a lot of people you can quote from,
  • 00:31:00.030 --> 00:31:03.060
  • you might have tens of thousands of sources of ideas.
  • 00:31:03.060 --> 00:31:06.030
  • What they found was the number one person quoted
  • 00:31:06.030 --> 00:31:09.200
  • most often was Charles Montesquieu.
  • 00:31:09.200 --> 00:31:12.060
  • He did these books right here,
  • 00:31:12.060 --> 00:31:14.070
  • this is Spirit of Laws from 1750.
  • 00:31:14.070 --> 00:31:16.200
  • He got 8.3% of all the quotes.
  • 00:31:16.200 --> 00:31:19.080
  • The second most quoted source was William Blackstone,
  • 00:31:19.080 --> 00:31:22.220
  • commentaries on the laws.
  • 00:31:22.220 --> 00:31:24.100
  • They were 7.9% of the quotes.
  • 00:31:24.100 --> 00:31:26.200
  • The third most quoted individual was John Locke.
  • 00:31:26.200 --> 00:31:30.050
  • This book goes back to 1690.
  • 00:31:30.050 --> 00:31:32.110
  • So those are your top three cited individuals
  • 00:31:32.110 --> 00:31:36.130
  • but that was not the most cited source.
  • 00:31:36.130 --> 00:31:38.170
  • Four times more often than any individual,
  • 00:31:38.170 --> 00:31:40.250
  • is they cited the bible.
  • 00:31:40.250 --> 00:31:42.230
  • So oh my gosh, there's a lot of ideas that came
  • 00:31:42.230 --> 00:31:46.120
  • out of the bible, yeah there is.
  • 00:31:46.120 --> 00:31:48.200
  • As a matter of fact, a lot of governments had three branches
  • 00:31:48.200 --> 00:31:52.240
  • of government, and that goes back to Isaiah 33:22,
  • 00:31:52.240 --> 00:31:55.160
  • but nobody had done what America did of separating
  • 00:31:55.160 --> 00:31:57.250
  • the branches and having checks and balances.
  • 00:31:57.250 --> 00:32:00.210
  • You know, it's interesting that John Adams wrote about
  • 00:32:00.210 --> 00:32:04.060
  • that and why they did checks and balances.
  • 00:32:04.060 --> 00:32:06.070
  • He pointed to Jeremiah 17:9 as the reason that we created
  • 00:32:06.070 --> 00:32:11.040
  • checks and balances and separation of powers.
  • 00:32:12.090 --> 00:32:13.240
  • Now, how many today would know that Jeremiah 17:9
  • 00:32:13.240 --> 00:32:17.040
  • played such a substantial role?
  • 00:32:17.040 --> 00:32:18.270
  • - Sure, and he wasn't the only one that did that.
  • 00:32:18.270 --> 00:32:20.070
  • 'Cause he actually wrote three letters,
  • 00:32:20.070 --> 00:32:21.220
  • where he says the reason we can't centralize power
  • 00:32:21.220 --> 00:32:24.070
  • is because the heart of man is wicked and deceitful
  • 00:32:24.070 --> 00:32:26.220
  • and you can't trust the heart of man.
  • 00:32:26.220 --> 00:32:28.200
  • Well, that's actually what Jeremiah 17:9 says,
  • 00:32:28.200 --> 00:32:31.040
  • but George Washington wrote that,
  • 00:32:31.040 --> 00:32:33.020
  • Alexander Hamilton wrote that.
  • 00:32:33.020 --> 00:32:34.230
  • The founding fathers were pretty clear on this idea
  • 00:32:34.230 --> 00:32:36.260
  • of why we had to separate powers, of checks and balances,
  • 00:32:36.260 --> 00:32:39.240
  • and it was because of what the bible taught
  • 00:32:39.240 --> 00:32:41.120
  • in Jeremiah 17:9.
  • 00:32:41.120 --> 00:32:43.100
  • - And you find provisions in the Constitution,
  • 00:32:43.100 --> 00:32:45.090
  • for example, the Constitution addressed death penalty twice.
  • 00:32:45.090 --> 00:32:47.150
  • When it talks about death penalty like with treason,
  • 00:32:47.150 --> 00:32:50.040
  • it says you cannot put anybody to death for treason.
  • 00:32:50.040 --> 00:32:52.120
  • You can't use the death penalty unless you have
  • 00:32:52.120 --> 00:32:53.270
  • two overt eye witnesses to the act.
  • 00:32:53.270 --> 00:32:56.030
  • - Now, that wasn't true in Europe.
  • 00:32:56.030 --> 00:32:57.290
  • In Europe you could make an accusation.
  • 00:32:57.290 --> 00:33:00.190
  • In fact, you didn't have to prove em guilty.
  • 00:33:00.190 --> 00:33:02.210
  • There wasn't even a real court of law
  • 00:33:02.210 --> 00:33:04.130
  • and the process of facing your accusers,
  • 00:33:04.130 --> 00:33:06.150
  • we did it different in America.
  • 00:33:06.150 --> 00:33:08.010
  • You said you have to have at least two witnesses.
  • 00:33:08.010 --> 00:33:09.230
  • - And the bible says you can't put someone to death
  • 00:33:09.230 --> 00:33:11.150
  • unless you have two witnesses, Deuteronomy 17.
  • 00:33:11.150 --> 00:33:14.110
  • If you read that article in the Constitution
  • 00:33:14.110 --> 00:33:16.140
  • and you read Deuteronomy 17, you go,
  • 00:33:16.140 --> 00:33:18.110
  • that's the same wording!
  • 00:33:18.110 --> 00:33:19.240
  • Yes it is.
  • 00:33:19.240 --> 00:33:21.090
  • - One of the other provisions you see in the Constitution
  • 00:33:21.090 --> 00:33:22.230
  • is something related to the way we would even choose
  • 00:33:22.230 --> 00:33:25.270
  • a leader and the reason we choose a leader,
  • 00:33:25.270 --> 00:33:28.090
  • actually, as president, you have to be a natural born
  • 00:33:28.090 --> 00:33:32.000
  • American citizen.
  • 00:33:32.000 --> 00:33:33.140
  • Why would we say in America, I mean I guess it kinda
  • 00:33:33.140 --> 00:33:36.120
  • makes sense, you should be born here,
  • 00:33:36.120 --> 00:33:37.280
  • but what if you immigrated here and you've been here
  • 00:33:37.280 --> 00:33:40.170
  • for several years, why do you have to be born here?
  • 00:33:40.170 --> 00:33:42.180
  • - Yeah, I mean, for a senator or representative
  • 00:33:42.180 --> 00:33:44.170
  • you don't have to be a natural born citizen.
  • 00:33:44.170 --> 00:33:46.190
  • - Well, this is when you back up to Deuteronomy,
  • 00:33:46.190 --> 00:33:48.080
  • and what did God tell the Israelites?
  • 00:33:48.080 --> 00:33:50.100
  • When you have someone rule over you, they need to be
  • 00:33:50.100 --> 00:33:53.170
  • someone who's been born among you.
  • 00:33:53.170 --> 00:33:55.260
  • A natural born citizen.
  • 00:33:55.260 --> 00:33:57.150
  • It's just interesting as we study the Constitution,
  • 00:33:57.150 --> 00:34:00.080
  • as we study the men who gave us the Constitution,
  • 00:34:00.080 --> 00:34:02.270
  • as we see they are people of faith
  • 00:34:02.270 --> 00:34:04.100
  • and they declare proclamations and bibles
  • 00:34:04.100 --> 00:34:06.090
  • and bible societies, all the things that as we study
  • 00:34:06.090 --> 00:34:09.000
  • the Constitution, the Constitution itself has even
  • 00:34:09.000 --> 00:34:12.170
  • been shaped by principles from the bible.
  • 00:34:12.170 --> 00:34:14.220
  • - And it's interesting that even some of our most
  • 00:34:14.220 --> 00:34:16.250
  • secular Supreme Court Justices acknowledge that.
  • 00:34:16.250 --> 00:34:19.160
  • For example, Justice Steven Breyer and no one is going
  • 00:34:19.160 --> 00:34:23.010
  • to say he's a religious man, because there's been
  • 00:34:23.010 --> 00:34:25.020
  • no evidence of that at all, he's one of the more secular
  • 00:34:25.020 --> 00:34:27.170
  • justices we've had, even he says,
  • 00:34:27.170 --> 00:34:29.090
  • of course we all know that the due process clauses
  • 00:34:29.090 --> 00:34:33.040
  • and Bill of Right came out of the bible.
  • 00:34:33.040 --> 00:34:35.070
  • Oh do we?
  • 00:34:35.070 --> 00:34:36.150
  • - Yeah, I remember when he said that.
  • 00:34:36.150 --> 00:34:37.200
  • We were going, we didn't know that's what.
  • 00:34:37.200 --> 00:34:39.030
  • That's so interesting.
  • 00:34:39.030 --> 00:34:40.100
  • He even said where to find information on it.
  • 00:34:40.100 --> 00:34:42.080
  • - It turns out, it's in this, it's called
  • 00:34:42.080 --> 00:34:44.230
  • The Federal Practice and Procedure.
  • 00:34:44.230 --> 00:34:46.160
  • Now, if you practice federal law, you recognize this.
  • 00:34:46.160 --> 00:34:48.170
  • This is a set of volumes that go way down the road,
  • 00:34:48.170 --> 00:34:52.010
  • I mean it's a long set.
  • 00:34:52.010 --> 00:34:53.140
  • But, volume 30 is on the rules of evidence.
  • 00:34:53.140 --> 00:34:56.260
  • As you go into what he talked about,
  • 00:34:56.260 --> 00:34:59.030
  • this talks about how that indeed, all of the due process
  • 00:34:59.030 --> 00:35:03.040
  • clauses in the Bill of Rights,
  • 00:35:03.040 --> 00:35:04.140
  • and that's the 4th to the 8th amendment,
  • 00:35:04.140 --> 00:35:06.020
  • the right to a trial by jury,
  • 00:35:06.020 --> 00:35:07.160
  • the right to confront your accusers,
  • 00:35:07.160 --> 00:35:08.290
  • the right to compel witnesses on your behalf,
  • 00:35:08.290 --> 00:35:10.160
  • the right not to incriminate yourself.
  • 00:35:10.160 --> 00:35:12.160
  • You can't have hearsay testimony.
  • 00:35:12.160 --> 00:35:13.240
  • All of that goes back to this.
  • 00:35:13.240 --> 00:35:16.080
  • This Federal Practices and Procedure says,
  • 00:35:16.080 --> 00:35:19.040
  • well, it all goes back to two other books.
  • 00:35:19.040 --> 00:35:21.040
  • And it goes back to the Geneva bible,
  • 00:35:21.040 --> 00:35:24.070
  • which is the bible the Pilgrims and Puritans
  • 00:35:24.070 --> 00:35:25.250
  • brought to America.
  • 00:35:25.250 --> 00:35:27.020
  • This is a 1599 Geneva bible.
  • 00:35:27.020 --> 00:35:29.020
  • The Geneva bible's famous because of all the commentaries
  • 00:35:29.020 --> 00:35:33.040
  • that go down the side of the pages.
  • 00:35:33.040 --> 00:35:34.140
  • These commentaries, they were at the time,
  • 00:35:34.140 --> 00:35:37.040
  • this was done back in the 14, 1500s, they were saying,
  • 00:35:37.040 --> 00:35:41.120
  • man, we have not been following the bible for
  • 00:35:41.120 --> 00:35:43.050
  • a thousand years.
  • 00:35:43.050 --> 00:35:44.120
  • So here they said, look in the justice system,
  • 00:35:44.120 --> 00:35:47.050
  • the justice system in Europe's not doing what the bible
  • 00:35:47.050 --> 00:35:49.170
  • says on justice.
  • 00:35:49.170 --> 00:35:50.230
  • So the commentaries pointed out how that the
  • 00:35:50.230 --> 00:35:53.050
  • European justice system was doing it wrong.
  • 00:35:53.050 --> 00:35:55.270
  • So this is the right way to do justice
  • 00:35:55.270 --> 00:35:58.120
  • according to the bible.
  • 00:35:58.120 --> 00:35:59.200
  • Well this is what the Pilgrims and Puritans
  • 00:35:59.200 --> 00:36:01.060
  • brought to America and they start a new legal system
  • 00:36:01.060 --> 00:36:03.240
  • quite different from that of Europe.
  • 00:36:03.240 --> 00:36:05.190
  • They said the other that all Americans knew thoroughly
  • 00:36:05.190 --> 00:36:08.090
  • was Fox's Book of Martyrs.
  • 00:36:08.090 --> 00:36:09.240
  • Now Fox's Book of Martyrs, this is a list
  • 00:36:09.240 --> 00:36:12.250
  • and this is done in the 1500s and this is a listing
  • 00:36:12.250 --> 00:36:15.280
  • of all of those who had been martyred
  • 00:36:15.280 --> 00:36:17.270
  • for the Christian faith.
  • 00:36:17.270 --> 00:36:19.120
  • Guess who the first martyr of the Christian faith was?
  • 00:36:19.120 --> 00:36:21.120
  • - Well, Jesus. - Jesus.
  • 00:36:21.120 --> 00:36:23.260
  • He's martyr number one in the book.
  • 00:36:23.260 --> 00:36:26.130
  • Then it lists all the martyrs of the Christian faith
  • 00:36:26.130 --> 00:36:28.180
  • and interesting thing, all these people who got
  • 00:36:28.180 --> 00:36:32.130
  • put to death wrongly were put to death by government
  • 00:36:32.130 --> 00:36:35.100
  • because government did not use due process rights.
  • 00:36:35.100 --> 00:36:38.170
  • Even the trial of Jesus was not conducted according
  • 00:36:38.170 --> 00:36:40.250
  • to the laws at the time.
  • 00:36:40.250 --> 00:36:42.250
  • So they point out, here's what courts have done bad.
  • 00:36:42.250 --> 00:36:46.140
  • The bible says here's what courts are supposed to do.
  • 00:36:46.140 --> 00:36:49.080
  • Here's what justice is supposed to look like.
  • 00:36:49.080 --> 00:36:51.000
  • So we get to confront our accusers, which according
  • 00:36:51.000 --> 00:36:55.210
  • to the Federal Practices and Procedure,
  • 00:36:55.210 --> 00:36:57.070
  • comes out of John 8:10.
  • 00:36:57.070 --> 00:36:58.200
  • Even Jesus said to the woman, where's your accuser?
  • 00:36:58.200 --> 00:37:01.090
  • You're supposed to be able to confront your accusers.
  • 00:37:01.090 --> 00:37:02.230
  • - [Tim] Well, if no one condemns you well then neither do I.
  • 00:37:02.230 --> 00:37:04.290
  • - That's it.
  • 00:37:04.290 --> 00:37:06.140
  • And then we get to compel witnesses on our behalf
  • 00:37:06.140 --> 00:37:08.060
  • because the bible says Proverbs 18:17,
  • 00:37:08.060 --> 00:37:10.060
  • one side sounds good until the other side.
  • 00:37:10.060 --> 00:37:13.220
  • So the prosecution doesn't get to present all the witnesses.
  • 00:37:13.220 --> 00:37:16.080
  • So all these provisions we have in due process clause,
  • 00:37:16.080 --> 00:37:19.050
  • even Justice Breyer acknowledges that they come
  • 00:37:19.050 --> 00:37:22.100
  • out of the bible.
  • 00:37:22.100 --> 00:37:23.220
  • So there's so much on Constitution Day that we just
  • 00:37:23.220 --> 00:37:26.160
  • don't think about anymore, so much that goes back
  • 00:37:26.160 --> 00:37:29.090
  • to men of faith, that goes back to the bible.
  • 00:37:29.090 --> 00:37:31.110
  • The influence of the bible, it's not a secular document
  • 00:37:31.110 --> 00:37:34.140
  • in the sense that we are told today.
  • 00:37:34.140 --> 00:37:36.150
  • It really is a document that's faith filled
  • 00:37:36.150 --> 00:37:38.230
  • and it's built on faith.
  • 00:37:38.230 --> 00:37:39.290
  • - There's no doubt that these were guys who
  • 00:37:39.290 --> 00:37:41.190
  • certainly influenced by faith.
  • 00:37:41.190 --> 00:37:43.220
  • We could argue today, well, maybe not all of them
  • 00:37:43.220 --> 00:37:46.100
  • were Christians, but it's pretty clear
  • 00:37:46.100 --> 00:37:48.060
  • that the vast majority were people of faith.
  • 00:37:48.060 --> 00:37:50.040
  • In fact, if you want to know more about the Constitution,
  • 00:37:50.040 --> 00:37:52.100
  • a pretty good thing to do, Constitution Day,
  • 00:37:52.100 --> 00:37:54.000
  • is to read the Constitution.
  • 00:37:54.000 --> 00:37:55.150
  • Maybe if you read it and go, I really don't understand
  • 00:37:55.150 --> 00:37:58.080
  • a lot of what I'm reading, we actually have something
  • 00:37:58.080 --> 00:38:01.040
  • that might be very helpful for you.
  • 00:38:01.040 --> 00:38:02.170
  • It's called Constitutional Life,
  • 00:38:02.170 --> 00:38:04.010
  • where we actually go through and give a big picture
  • 00:38:04.010 --> 00:38:06.070
  • of what the Constitution looks like,
  • 00:38:06.070 --> 00:38:07.180
  • of how it operates and actually show a lot of original
  • 00:38:07.180 --> 00:38:10.140
  • document explaining how the process works.
  • 00:38:10.140 --> 00:38:13.040
  • And, as we've even mentioned the bible shaped so much
  • 00:38:13.040 --> 00:38:17.020
  • of the Constitution, we have a bible that's called
  • 00:38:17.020 --> 00:38:19.190
  • the Founder's Bible, and in this, we actually document
  • 00:38:19.190 --> 00:38:22.150
  • when they talk about how a verse shaped a policy,
  • 00:38:22.150 --> 00:38:26.000
  • a law, education, government, we put their quote
  • 00:38:26.000 --> 00:38:29.030
  • beside the verse.
  • 00:38:29.030 --> 00:38:30.090
  • So not only are you able to read the bible,
  • 00:38:30.090 --> 00:38:32.160
  • which every Christian should read the bible.
  • 00:38:32.160 --> 00:38:34.230
  • So that's another thing we'd encourage you to do.
  • 00:38:34.230 --> 00:38:36.210
  • Make sure you're reading the bible.
  • 00:38:36.210 --> 00:38:37.280
  • But in the midst of reading the bible,
  • 00:38:37.280 --> 00:38:39.180
  • you can see how the bible literally shaped our nation
  • 00:38:39.180 --> 00:38:42.110
  • with the original quotes from the founding fathers
  • 00:38:42.110 --> 00:38:45.270
  • themselves, but on Constitution Day,
  • 00:38:45.270 --> 00:38:47.170
  • we would definitely encourage, take this time to get to know
  • 00:38:47.170 --> 00:38:51.200
  • some of the guys who gave us a Constitution.
  • 00:38:51.200 --> 00:38:54.100
  • Learn more about the Constitution, our system of government,
  • 00:38:54.100 --> 00:38:57.080
  • and you'll understand a little more about why America
  • 00:38:57.080 --> 00:39:00.100
  • has been such a special nation.
  • 00:39:00.100 --> 00:39:02.090
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:39:02.090 --> 00:39:05.010
  • - James Madison was very attached to the Christian faith.
  • 00:39:12.120 --> 00:39:15.010
  • In fact, after he finished at Princeton,
  • 00:39:15.010 --> 00:39:16.210
  • he graduated, he spent an extra year there studying under
  • 00:39:16.210 --> 00:39:19.150
  • the Reverend Doctor John Witherspoon.
  • 00:39:19.150 --> 00:39:21.000
  • He studied Hebrew and he studied ethics.
  • 00:39:21.000 --> 00:39:22.180
  • Looked like he's studying for the ministry.
  • 00:39:22.180 --> 00:39:24.010
  • He told one of his friends there at Princeton,
  • 00:39:24.010 --> 00:39:25.230
  • he said look, you need to be really bold about your faith.
  • 00:39:25.230 --> 00:39:28.260
  • Everybody needs to know it that you're a Christian.
  • 00:39:28.260 --> 00:39:30.210
  • Actually, that guy became an attorney general
  • 00:39:30.210 --> 00:39:32.130
  • of the United States, William Bradford.
  • 00:39:32.130 --> 00:39:34.060
  • Then he came back and got involved in Virginia politics,
  • 00:39:34.060 --> 00:39:36.170
  • and he actually is one of the guys who helps write
  • 00:39:36.170 --> 00:39:39.080
  • the original Virginia Constitution of 1776.
  • 00:39:39.080 --> 00:39:42.010
  • In that Virginia Constitution they helped start
  • 00:39:42.010 --> 00:39:44.210
  • disestablishing the Anglican church,
  • 00:39:44.210 --> 00:39:46.160
  • because here in Virginia, the state established church
  • 00:39:46.160 --> 00:39:49.000
  • was the Anglican church.
  • 00:39:49.000 --> 00:39:50.170
  • So if you're a Baptist or a Methodist or a Presbyterian
  • 00:39:50.170 --> 00:39:53.140
  • or a Quaker or something else,
  • 00:39:53.140 --> 00:39:55.040
  • you were persecuted, you were fined,
  • 00:39:55.040 --> 00:39:57.110
  • and in some cases you were even killed, you were jailed,
  • 00:39:57.110 --> 00:39:59.160
  • because you're not of the Anglican denomination.
  • 00:39:59.160 --> 00:40:02.040
  • You don't have a Anglican license.
  • 00:40:02.040 --> 00:40:03.150
  • Well, Madison started pushing against that.
  • 00:40:03.150 --> 00:40:05.240
  • In 1779, it was Thomas Jefferson who introduced
  • 00:40:05.240 --> 00:40:09.050
  • the Virginia statue of religious liberties
  • 00:40:09.050 --> 00:40:10.260
  • that put all Christian denominations in the same
  • 00:40:10.260 --> 00:40:12.250
  • equal footing.
  • 00:40:12.250 --> 00:40:13.230
  • It didn't get passed, but later,
  • 00:40:13.230 --> 00:40:15.120
  • James Madison picks that up.
  • 00:40:15.120 --> 00:40:16.270
  • He does a great piece called the Memorial and Remonstrance
  • 00:40:16.270 --> 00:40:19.290
  • where he goes through and he lays out all the principles
  • 00:40:19.290 --> 00:40:21.190
  • of religious liberty that free exercise of religion,
  • 00:40:21.190 --> 00:40:24.160
  • that's an inalienable right given by God.
  • 00:40:24.160 --> 00:40:26.060
  • It's not granted by government.
  • 00:40:26.060 --> 00:40:27.120
  • So we have to recognize what God's given us
  • 00:40:27.120 --> 00:40:29.050
  • and that bill eventually gets passed in 1784.
  • 00:40:29.050 --> 00:40:31.120
  • What Jefferson started, Madison helped get finished.
  • 00:40:31.120 --> 00:40:34.050
  • Madison's also a member of the Continental Congress
  • 00:40:34.050 --> 00:40:37.020
  • and as a member of a Continental Congress,
  • 00:40:37.020 --> 00:40:39.070
  • they appropriated money where that they actually paid
  • 00:40:39.070 --> 00:40:41.280
  • missionaries to go work among native American tribes.
  • 00:40:41.280 --> 00:40:44.280
  • Then after we move into the federal government ,
  • 00:40:44.280 --> 00:40:47.240
  • Madison is there to help with the First Amendment,
  • 00:40:47.240 --> 00:40:50.200
  • the Bill of Rights guaranteeing religious liberty.
  • 00:40:50.200 --> 00:40:53.040
  • He also is there to help make sure that the chaplains
  • 00:40:53.040 --> 00:40:55.250
  • actually are paid by federal funds and so we have chaplains
  • 00:40:55.250 --> 00:40:58.090
  • in the House and Senate.
  • 00:40:58.090 --> 00:40:59.220
  • Then, you move into the time when he's Secretary of State.
  • 00:41:01.080 --> 00:41:03.290
  • As Secretary of State under Thomas Jefferson,
  • 00:41:03.290 --> 00:41:05.230
  • what he's able to do is he administers what's going on
  • 00:41:05.230 --> 00:41:09.080
  • in Washington D.C. and so they start church services
  • 00:41:09.080 --> 00:41:12.000
  • at the War Department and at the Treasury Department
  • 00:41:12.000 --> 00:41:14.110
  • and at the Navy Yard.
  • 00:41:14.110 --> 00:41:15.250
  • When he becomes President of the United States,
  • 00:41:15.250 --> 00:41:18.000
  • it's interesting to see where James Madison attended church.
  • 00:41:18.000 --> 00:41:20.130
  • He attended church at the U.S. capital because every Sunday
  • 00:41:20.130 --> 00:41:24.040
  • the hall of the House of Representatives
  • 00:41:24.040 --> 00:41:25.200
  • became a church and up to 2.000 people a week
  • 00:41:25.200 --> 00:41:28.180
  • would meet there.
  • 00:41:28.180 --> 00:41:29.250
  • Visitors and observers said that James Madison
  • 00:41:29.250 --> 00:41:32.090
  • would come in with a big carriage and white horses,
  • 00:41:32.090 --> 00:41:34.200
  • so it was really obvious when President Madison
  • 00:41:34.200 --> 00:41:36.130
  • got there to church.
  • 00:41:36.130 --> 00:41:37.200
  • Then as President of the United States,
  • 00:41:37.200 --> 00:41:39.130
  • where in the War of 1812, on numerous occasions,
  • 00:41:39.130 --> 00:41:42.030
  • he actually issued calls for days of fasting and prayer
  • 00:41:42.030 --> 00:41:45.130
  • because the war we were in.
  • 00:41:45.130 --> 00:41:46.200
  • So he turned to God openly, publicly.
  • 00:41:46.200 --> 00:41:48.100
  • He also was a lifetime member of the Virginia Bible Society
  • 00:41:48.100 --> 00:41:51.080
  • and he even signed a bill that Congress passed
  • 00:41:51.080 --> 00:41:54.000
  • to economically assist the Bible Society
  • 00:41:54.000 --> 00:41:56.160
  • in importing bibles in to America.
  • 00:41:56.160 --> 00:41:58.090
  • The Philadelphia Bible Society.
  • 00:41:58.090 --> 00:41:59.280
  • So he was a strong and open professor
  • 00:41:59.280 --> 00:42:02.010
  • of the Christian faith.
  • 00:42:02.010 --> 00:42:03.040
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:42:03.040 --> 00:42:05.190
  • So Madison had a very open, very public life
  • 00:42:05.190 --> 00:42:07.260
  • with lots of religious activities, lots of religious belief
  • 00:42:07.260 --> 00:42:11.040
  • expressions, lots of public church attendance
  • 00:42:11.040 --> 00:42:13.100
  • and other things that he did with both state
  • 00:42:13.100 --> 00:42:15.210
  • and federal governments, and when he came back
  • 00:42:15.210 --> 00:42:17.270
  • here, after retired as president,
  • 00:42:17.270 --> 00:42:20.030
  • somewhere over the next three years he wrote what is now
  • 00:42:20.030 --> 00:42:22.000
  • called the Detached Memorandum.
  • 00:42:22.000 --> 00:42:23.260
  • It may have been a policy paper he was working on it.
  • 00:42:23.260 --> 00:42:26.220
  • It may be something he intended for distribution maybe not.
  • 00:42:26.220 --> 00:42:30.030
  • But for whatever reason, it just flat didn't get out.
  • 00:42:30.030 --> 00:42:33.070
  • But in it, he kind of backtracks from some things
  • 00:42:33.070 --> 00:42:35.160
  • he's been doing, say I'm not sure that chaplains ought
  • 00:42:35.160 --> 00:42:37.250
  • to be paid by federal monies.
  • 00:42:37.250 --> 00:42:39.100
  • Have chaplains, but just not federal monies.
  • 00:42:39.100 --> 00:42:41.230
  • I don't know that you really need national proclamation
  • 00:42:41.230 --> 00:42:44.160
  • for days of, these are all things he did.
  • 00:42:44.160 --> 00:42:46.170
  • Now he looks like he's backtracking from that
  • 00:42:47.230 --> 00:42:50.020
  • and the first time ever that that paper was published
  • 00:42:50.020 --> 00:42:53.030
  • was in 1946.
  • 00:42:53.030 --> 00:42:54.280
  • When it came out that was the middle of kind of
  • 00:42:54.280 --> 00:42:57.270
  • the judicial activism that was going on at the time
  • 00:42:57.270 --> 00:43:00.130
  • where courts were starting to say hey,
  • 00:43:00.130 --> 00:43:02.000
  • let's be secular, let's get religion out of schools.
  • 00:43:02.000 --> 00:43:04.060
  • So some courts latched on to that and said oh look
  • 00:43:04.060 --> 00:43:07.130
  • what James Madison said, he said you shouldn't have
  • 00:43:07.130 --> 00:43:10.070
  • the government involved with religion
  • 00:43:10.070 --> 00:43:11.210
  • and that means you shouldn't be praying at schools
  • 00:43:11.210 --> 00:43:13.290
  • and that means you shouldn't have God at graduation.
  • 00:43:13.290 --> 00:43:16.040
  • So they started going in that tone, in that direction.
  • 00:43:16.040 --> 00:43:18.150
  • They're using James Madison as the guy.
  • 00:43:18.150 --> 00:43:21.000
  • There's so many guys involved with writing the Constitution.
  • 00:43:21.000 --> 00:43:23.050
  • 55 wrote it, 39 signed it,
  • 00:43:23.050 --> 00:43:25.150
  • 90 guys did the Bill of Rights.
  • 00:43:25.150 --> 00:43:27.020
  • There's a whole bunch of guys that did and suddenly
  • 00:43:27.020 --> 00:43:29.100
  • Madison's the only spokesman for it.
  • 00:43:29.100 --> 00:43:31.210
  • Not only are they just using that piece,
  • 00:43:31.210 --> 00:43:34.090
  • that Detach Memorandum, they're ignoring the other
  • 00:43:34.090 --> 00:43:36.250
  • 40 years that came before.
  • 00:43:36.250 --> 00:43:38.090
  • All the public things he did, all of his other writings.
  • 00:43:38.090 --> 00:43:40.130
  • So instead of looking at the entirety of what he did
  • 00:43:40.130 --> 00:43:43.070
  • and trying to figure out how it comes together
  • 00:43:43.070 --> 00:43:44.220
  • they just took that one piece and said, oh, that's it.
  • 00:43:44.220 --> 00:43:46.260
  • We can't have prayer in schools anymore.
  • 00:43:46.260 --> 00:43:48.090
  • At that point is when the courts and others
  • 00:43:48.090 --> 00:43:51.100
  • started calling him the Chief Architect of the Constitution.
  • 00:43:51.100 --> 00:43:54.050
  • Granted, he was a really important guy
  • 00:43:54.050 --> 00:43:57.070
  • and he's one of five that used to be called
  • 00:43:57.070 --> 00:43:59.130
  • the Master Builders of the Constitution.
  • 00:43:59.130 --> 00:44:01.090
  • You had five guys, really important.
  • 00:44:01.090 --> 00:44:03.030
  • You had George Washington and James Wilson,
  • 00:44:03.030 --> 00:44:05.020
  • Roger Sherman, Charles Pinckney,
  • 00:44:05.020 --> 00:44:06.170
  • and James Madison but Madison wasn't the guy.
  • 00:44:06.170 --> 00:44:09.280
  • As a matter of fact, he made 70 motions at the
  • 00:44:09.280 --> 00:44:11.290
  • Constitution Convention and 40 of them were voted down
  • 00:44:11.290 --> 00:44:14.160
  • by the other delegates.
  • 00:44:14.160 --> 00:44:16.000
  • Now he's a huge influence, no question about it,
  • 00:44:16.000 --> 00:44:18.130
  • but today we consider him to be the Chief Architect
  • 00:44:18.130 --> 00:44:21.130
  • the only guy responsible.
  • 00:44:21.130 --> 00:44:22.260
  • That's just not historically what's there.
  • 00:44:22.260 --> 00:44:24.280
  • When you look at Madison, this is another one of those
  • 00:44:24.280 --> 00:44:27.140
  • things that people are complicated.
  • 00:44:27.140 --> 00:44:29.130
  • They're not just one single letter here or one there.
  • 00:44:29.130 --> 00:44:31.200
  • You got 40 years of behavior and then you got
  • 00:44:31.200 --> 00:44:32.270
  • the Detached Memorandum and you have to kind
  • 00:44:32.270 --> 00:44:35.190
  • put all that together and see how it works out.
  • 00:44:35.190 --> 00:44:37.160
  • But, it's interesting the way that we latch on to
  • 00:44:37.160 --> 00:44:39.230
  • one thing today, like that Detached Memorandum
  • 00:44:39.230 --> 00:44:42.000
  • and suddenly he's the only guy capable of speaking
  • 00:44:42.000 --> 00:44:44.130
  • about the Constitution.
  • 00:44:44.130 --> 00:44:45.220
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:44:45.220 --> 00:44:48.010
  • So in looking at James Madison, very notable,
  • 00:44:48.010 --> 00:44:50.120
  • very famous founding father, huge significance.
  • 00:44:50.120 --> 00:44:52.220
  • He was born in 1751 and he graduated from Princeton
  • 00:44:52.220 --> 00:44:57.010
  • 20 years later, 1771.
  • 00:44:57.010 --> 00:44:59.190
  • Within five years he was intimately involved
  • 00:44:59.190 --> 00:45:02.010
  • in the America Revolution.
  • 00:45:02.010 --> 00:45:03.170
  • He came back here to Orange County and in Orange County
  • 00:45:03.170 --> 00:45:04.290
  • elected him to the committee of safety, 1776.
  • 00:45:04.290 --> 00:45:07.180
  • Then they sent him to the Constitutional Convention
  • 00:45:07.180 --> 00:45:10.050
  • to write the very first constitution for Virginia.
  • 00:45:10.050 --> 00:45:12.190
  • He's then elected to the first legislature
  • 00:45:12.190 --> 00:45:14.210
  • under that Constitution.
  • 00:45:14.210 --> 00:45:16.060
  • But then they send him on to the National Congress
  • 00:45:16.060 --> 00:45:18.110
  • and he's a member of the Continental Congress
  • 00:45:18.110 --> 00:45:19.280
  • and so while he's there, Continental Congress
  • 00:45:19.280 --> 00:45:22.000
  • governs itself under the Articles of Confederation.
  • 00:45:22.000 --> 00:45:24.020
  • So he sees that that National Congress
  • 00:45:24.020 --> 00:45:26.170
  • that document really, it's not a very good document.
  • 00:45:26.170 --> 00:45:29.250
  • It just is terrible to work under for all the states.
  • 00:45:29.250 --> 00:45:32.210
  • So he sees firsthand that we need some kind
  • 00:45:32.210 --> 00:45:34.200
  • of a different document.
  • 00:45:34.200 --> 00:45:35.290
  • So he starts working over the next years,
  • 00:45:35.290 --> 00:45:38.210
  • going to the Annapolis Convention, helping build consensus
  • 00:45:38.210 --> 00:45:41.000
  • to come up with a different government, different document.
  • 00:45:41.000 --> 00:45:43.160
  • He wrote a piece calling for a new government,
  • 00:45:43.160 --> 00:45:45.140
  • new document and that leads to eventually,
  • 00:45:45.140 --> 00:45:47.140
  • the Constitutional Convention.
  • 00:45:47.140 --> 00:45:48.270
  • Virginia sends him as a delegate to the Constitutional
  • 00:45:48.270 --> 00:45:51.090
  • Convention and while he's there,
  • 00:45:51.090 --> 00:45:52.250
  • he's really the chief scribe.
  • 00:45:52.250 --> 00:45:54.140
  • He's the guy that kept notes more than anybody else
  • 00:45:54.140 --> 00:45:56.040
  • on all the debates, all the arguments,
  • 00:45:56.040 --> 00:45:58.230
  • how the Constitution came to be, who was there
  • 00:45:58.230 --> 00:46:00.230
  • and what they said.
  • 00:46:00.230 --> 00:46:02.010
  • He's very active in that Convention.
  • 00:46:03.050 --> 00:46:05.010
  • As a matter of fact, his ideas that he introduced,
  • 00:46:05.010 --> 00:46:07.080
  • one of the things that he helped introduce
  • 00:46:07.080 --> 00:46:09.060
  • what's called the Virginia Plan.
  • 00:46:09.060 --> 00:46:10.220
  • The Virginia Plan said hey, let's not just take
  • 00:46:10.220 --> 00:46:12.240
  • around the edges with the Articles of Confederation,
  • 00:46:12.240 --> 00:46:15.140
  • let's just get rid of it and do something
  • 00:46:15.140 --> 00:46:16.260
  • totally new, totally different.
  • 00:46:16.260 --> 00:46:18.110
  • So George Washington from Virginia, stood up and told
  • 00:46:18.110 --> 00:46:20.260
  • the delegates, you need to be really bold.
  • 00:46:20.260 --> 00:46:23.000
  • We need to do something different.
  • 00:46:23.000 --> 00:46:24.140
  • As they keep moving toward the Constitution,
  • 00:46:24.140 --> 00:46:26.180
  • when they finally get it done, he's one of the guys
  • 00:46:26.180 --> 00:46:29.060
  • who helps get it ratified.
  • 00:46:29.060 --> 00:46:30.190
  • He writes what's called the Federalist papers.
  • 00:46:30.190 --> 00:46:32.100
  • Now Congress would meet in New York and the Federalist
  • 00:46:32.100 --> 00:46:34.180
  • papers were written and run in newspapers across New York
  • 00:46:34.180 --> 00:46:37.020
  • to convince people that we need to ratify the Constitution.
  • 00:46:37.020 --> 00:46:39.130
  • So James Madison served in the First Congress.
  • 00:46:39.130 --> 00:46:42.040
  • He served in the next three Congresses.
  • 00:46:42.040 --> 00:46:44.060
  • He was in Congress for eight years,
  • 00:46:44.060 --> 00:46:45.170
  • all under George Washington.
  • 00:46:45.170 --> 00:46:47.000
  • While he was in Congress, he married his wife
  • 00:46:47.000 --> 00:46:49.190
  • Dolly Payne and after finishing those eight years
  • 00:46:49.190 --> 00:46:52.040
  • in Congress, he goes home.
  • 00:46:52.040 --> 00:46:53.120
  • Then his friend Thomas Jefferson gets elected
  • 00:46:53.120 --> 00:46:55.040
  • as the third president of the United States
  • 00:46:55.040 --> 00:46:56.200
  • and James Madison comes back to be the Secretary of State
  • 00:46:56.200 --> 00:46:59.030
  • for Thomas Jefferson.
  • 00:46:59.030 --> 00:47:00.260
  • Then James Madison becomes the fourth president
  • 00:47:00.260 --> 00:47:02.260
  • of the United States.
  • 00:47:02.260 --> 00:47:04.100
  • While James Madison is president, we get involved
  • 00:47:04.100 --> 00:47:06.210
  • in the War of 1812.
  • 00:47:06.210 --> 00:47:08.060
  • It went from 1812 to 1815, the war against the British.
  • 00:47:08.060 --> 00:47:10.190
  • We win that, he gets that settled,
  • 00:47:10.190 --> 00:47:12.170
  • and then he goes right back to war again, 1815 and 1816.
  • 00:47:12.170 --> 00:47:16.030
  • It's a war against Muslim terrorists, it was part of
  • 00:47:16.030 --> 00:47:18.080
  • 32 years that America ended up fighting Muslim terrorists
  • 00:47:18.080 --> 00:47:21.050
  • beginning in 1784 and it ended in 1816 under James Madison.
  • 00:47:21.050 --> 00:47:25.260
  • So when you look at James Madison, he was involved
  • 00:47:25.260 --> 00:47:28.130
  • in so many key aspects of early American history.
  • 00:47:28.130 --> 00:47:31.180
  • He was one of the key founding fathers to help produce
  • 00:47:31.180 --> 00:47:34.160
  • the form of government that we still enjoy today,
  • 00:47:34.160 --> 00:47:36.210
  • over 200 years later.
  • 00:47:36.210 --> 00:47:38.050
  • He is a significant founding father to be observed
  • 00:47:38.050 --> 00:47:40.200
  • on Constitution Day.
  • 00:47:40.200 --> 00:47:41.290
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:47:41.290 --> 00:47:44.210
  • - We're in New York right now, actually in Central Park.
  • 00:48:01.290 --> 00:48:04.000
  • Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers,
  • 00:48:04.000 --> 00:48:05.190
  • who actually very largely responsible for a lot of us
  • 00:48:05.190 --> 00:48:09.000
  • even having the Constitution, his statue's right behind me,
  • 00:48:09.000 --> 00:48:11.120
  • which is appropriate, being from New York,
  • 00:48:11.120 --> 00:48:13.060
  • they're celebrating Alexander Hamilton.
  • 00:48:13.060 --> 00:48:14.200
  • Well, he's a name that a lot of people have at least
  • 00:48:14.200 --> 00:48:16.160
  • become familiar with today, but really we don't know
  • 00:48:16.160 --> 00:48:18.120
  • much of his story and it really is fascinating.
  • 00:48:18.120 --> 00:48:20.120
  • He was born in the West Indies, 1757.
  • 00:48:20.120 --> 00:48:22.260
  • His mom and dad had kind of a weird situation.
  • 00:48:22.260 --> 00:48:24.270
  • Dad leaves mom, dad really wasn't a good guy.
  • 00:48:24.270 --> 00:48:27.120
  • So he grows up in a single parent home.
  • 00:48:27.120 --> 00:48:29.250
  • His mom died when he was 11.
  • 00:48:29.250 --> 00:48:31.110
  • Well, at that point, he's more or less a orphan.
  • 00:48:31.110 --> 00:48:33.200
  • He's got some family, some aunts that are very supportive.
  • 00:48:33.200 --> 00:48:36.110
  • Well, he's very ambitious.
  • 00:48:36.110 --> 00:48:37.190
  • He wants to get a formal education.
  • 00:48:37.190 --> 00:48:39.090
  • So they send him to America.
  • 00:48:39.090 --> 00:48:40.280
  • From the West Indies he gets to New York
  • 00:48:40.280 --> 00:48:42.150
  • and actually, when he gets to New York
  • 00:48:42.150 --> 00:48:44.100
  • he's a young teenager, he meets some individuals
  • 00:48:44.100 --> 00:48:46.290
  • who would later go on to sign the Declaration,
  • 00:48:46.290 --> 00:48:48.230
  • the Constitution, what we would call founding fathers.
  • 00:48:48.230 --> 00:48:51.090
  • And in the midst of their relationship,
  • 00:48:51.090 --> 00:48:52.280
  • they're encouraging him to think differently
  • 00:48:52.280 --> 00:48:55.030
  • even about the notion of the British and oppression.
  • 00:48:55.030 --> 00:48:58.160
  • So he really joins on the American side,
  • 00:48:58.160 --> 00:49:00.140
  • becomes an early activist,
  • 00:49:00.140 --> 00:49:01.260
  • starts university at King's College which became
  • 00:49:01.260 --> 00:49:04.090
  • Columbia College.
  • 00:49:04.090 --> 00:49:05.160
  • But shortly after he started college,
  • 00:49:05.160 --> 00:49:07.170
  • the American Revolution starts to break out.
  • 00:49:07.170 --> 00:49:09.060
  • As the Revolution is now unfolding, it interrupts his school
  • 00:49:09.060 --> 00:49:12.270
  • but he decides, you know what, I'm gonna do something.
  • 00:49:12.270 --> 00:49:14.160
  • I'm gonna get involved.
  • 00:49:14.160 --> 00:49:16.000
  • At 17 he actually joined with another founding father
  • 00:49:16.000 --> 00:49:18.070
  • and they started a militia, when he was 17,
  • 00:49:18.070 --> 00:49:21.090
  • and so the following year he decides
  • 00:49:21.090 --> 00:49:23.060
  • I want to do this for real.
  • 00:49:23.060 --> 00:49:24.200
  • As an 18 year old he gets his first official commission
  • 00:49:24.200 --> 00:49:26.230
  • from the U.S. government to be an officer.
  • 00:49:26.230 --> 00:49:28.210
  • He's actually over an artillery company.
  • 00:49:28.210 --> 00:49:30.150
  • Well, this time he's 18, so he's still a very young officer
  • 00:49:30.150 --> 00:49:33.020
  • but Robert Morris, who's a founding father,
  • 00:49:33.020 --> 00:49:35.050
  • introduces him to George Washington.
  • 00:49:35.050 --> 00:49:36.240
  • Washington's super impressed with this Hamilton kid,
  • 00:49:36.240 --> 00:49:39.050
  • brings Hamilton on to be part of his staff.
  • 00:49:39.050 --> 00:49:41.230
  • He's the aide de camp for General George Washington.
  • 00:49:41.230 --> 00:49:43.220
  • Washington promotes him to be lieutenant colonel.
  • 00:49:43.220 --> 00:49:46.070
  • Through the Revolution,
  • 00:49:46.070 --> 00:49:47.140
  • him and Washington are very good friends.
  • 00:49:47.140 --> 00:49:48.220
  • He's giving Washington strategies and thoughts
  • 00:49:48.220 --> 00:49:51.080
  • and ideas for how they can improve militarily
  • 00:49:51.080 --> 00:49:53.130
  • and what they could do different.
  • 00:49:53.130 --> 00:49:54.290
  • So Hamilton and Washington become very good friends
  • 00:49:54.290 --> 00:49:56.110
  • during the Revolution.
  • 00:49:56.110 --> 00:49:57.190
  • In fact, Hamilton comes up with a lot of ideas
  • 00:49:57.190 --> 00:49:58.260
  • for ways they can improve the military.
  • 00:49:58.260 --> 00:50:00.200
  • Things they should do different and Washington embraces
  • 00:50:00.200 --> 00:50:02.210
  • the ideas and they were very good friends
  • 00:50:02.210 --> 00:50:04.050
  • until, there was a bit of a falling out.
  • 00:50:04.050 --> 00:50:06.010
  • Hamilton was supposed to meet Washington,
  • 00:50:06.010 --> 00:50:08.080
  • he shows up late and Washington scolds him for being late,
  • 00:50:08.080 --> 00:50:10.280
  • as he should have been scolded for being late.
  • 00:50:10.280 --> 00:50:12.210
  • Hamilton uses the opportunity,
  • 00:50:12.210 --> 00:50:14.060
  • really I say use the opportunity
  • 00:50:14.060 --> 00:50:16.220
  • he really was frustrated, he made a big scene,
  • 00:50:16.220 --> 00:50:19.050
  • kind of an emotional deal, but a lot of people believe
  • 00:50:19.050 --> 00:50:22.030
  • he was trying to get out from under Washington
  • 00:50:22.030 --> 00:50:23.170
  • because he wanted to be a commander of military.
  • 00:50:23.170 --> 00:50:26.000
  • Not just on military intelligence.
  • 00:50:26.000 --> 00:50:27.210
  • He wanted to go out in the field and fight.
  • 00:50:27.210 --> 00:50:29.130
  • So he used the opportunity to say you know what,
  • 00:50:29.130 --> 00:50:31.070
  • I just shouldn't be with you anymore.
  • 00:50:31.070 --> 00:50:33.000
  • Washington very graciously, instead of punishing him
  • 00:50:33.000 --> 00:50:35.290
  • as maybe he would have deserved for his behavior
  • 00:50:35.290 --> 00:50:38.040
  • and actions, Washington just reassigns him.
  • 00:50:38.040 --> 00:50:40.180
  • He puts him under General Lafayette and he's signed
  • 00:50:40.180 --> 00:50:42.180
  • over infantry under Lafayette.
  • 00:50:42.180 --> 00:50:44.150
  • Well, this is 1781, this is where the last major battle
  • 00:50:44.150 --> 00:50:47.190
  • of the Revolution happens, the battle of Yorktown.
  • 00:50:47.190 --> 00:50:49.120
  • Hamilton's very involved and does some really neat things
  • 00:50:49.120 --> 00:50:52.020
  • here, being very successful as a commander.
  • 00:50:52.020 --> 00:50:54.120
  • But when we defeated Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown,
  • 00:50:54.120 --> 00:50:56.170
  • it was kind of the end of the Revolution.
  • 00:50:56.170 --> 00:50:58.130
  • So at this point, Hamilton decides that he's gonna retire
  • 00:50:58.130 --> 00:51:01.070
  • to private life.
  • 00:51:01.070 --> 00:51:02.150
  • He goes back home, starts studying law.
  • 00:51:02.150 --> 00:51:04.250
  • He actually studies for five months and then goes takes
  • 00:51:04.250 --> 00:51:07.160
  • and passes the Bar to become a lawyer.
  • 00:51:07.160 --> 00:51:10.040
  • Well, he then is chosen to go back
  • 00:51:10.040 --> 00:51:12.100
  • to the Continental Congress to represent his state
  • 00:51:12.100 --> 00:51:14.170
  • and this is 1783, so this is the very end
  • 00:51:14.170 --> 00:51:16.280
  • of the Revolution, this is when we sign the Peace Treaty
  • 00:51:16.280 --> 00:51:18.130
  • of Paris, ending the Revolution.
  • 00:51:18.130 --> 00:51:20.000
  • So he's only there for a year.
  • 00:51:20.000 --> 00:51:21.080
  • He then goes back and he starts his law practice,
  • 00:51:21.080 --> 00:51:23.100
  • becomes very successful, pretty lucrative.
  • 00:51:23.100 --> 00:51:25.030
  • He's doing very well, but the whole time he's practicing
  • 00:51:25.030 --> 00:51:27.220
  • law he's trying to tell the people of New York
  • 00:51:27.220 --> 00:51:29.260
  • and America, we need a stronger, central government.
  • 00:51:29.260 --> 00:51:32.240
  • The Articles of Confederation, which is what they were under
  • 00:51:32.240 --> 00:51:34.280
  • at the time, just weren't strong enough.
  • 00:51:34.280 --> 00:51:36.180
  • He says we need a convention to write a new constitution.
  • 00:51:36.180 --> 00:51:39.170
  • Well, in 1787 there was a convention.
  • 00:51:39.170 --> 00:51:41.180
  • What they did was they wrote a new constitution.
  • 00:51:41.180 --> 00:51:43.150
  • During the Constitutional Convention, he wasn't there
  • 00:51:43.150 --> 00:51:45.190
  • for the whole time.
  • 00:51:45.190 --> 00:51:46.260
  • He was still very involved in law.
  • 00:51:46.260 --> 00:51:48.110
  • He was going home, he was working on his law practice,
  • 00:51:48.110 --> 00:51:49.220
  • but he was there to sign the Constitution.
  • 00:51:49.220 --> 00:51:52.040
  • After the Constitution was signed however,
  • 00:51:52.040 --> 00:51:54.160
  • it had to be ratified by the states.
  • 00:51:54.160 --> 00:51:56.010
  • At this point, New York was not in favor of ratifying it.
  • 00:51:56.010 --> 00:51:58.230
  • It was at this time that James Madison,
  • 00:51:58.230 --> 00:52:01.050
  • John Jay and Alexander Hamilton wrote this,
  • 00:52:01.050 --> 00:52:03.050
  • this is the Federalist papers.
  • 00:52:03.050 --> 00:52:04.210
  • Now, there's 85 different articles and essays
  • 00:52:04.210 --> 00:52:07.120
  • in the Federalist papers.
  • 00:52:07.120 --> 00:52:08.240
  • Alexander Hamilton wrote 51 of them by himself
  • 00:52:08.240 --> 00:52:11.250
  • and actually contributed on many others.
  • 00:52:11.250 --> 00:52:13.060
  • So he's the guy that's the most responsible
  • 00:52:13.060 --> 00:52:15.070
  • for the Federalist papers.
  • 00:52:15.070 --> 00:52:17.030
  • Well, New York finally goes in and they decide
  • 00:52:17.030 --> 00:52:20.050
  • they're gonna ratify the Constitution.
  • 00:52:20.050 --> 00:52:21.180
  • So we finally become a nation under the Constitution.
  • 00:52:21.180 --> 00:52:23.230
  • George Washington is chosen to be our president.
  • 00:52:23.230 --> 00:52:25.160
  • Alexander Hamilton is then chosen to be first
  • 00:52:25.160 --> 00:52:27.170
  • Secretary of the Treasury Department.
  • 00:52:27.170 --> 00:52:29.020
  • In fact, under Hamilton, we start the National Bank
  • 00:52:29.020 --> 00:52:32.100
  • and there's a lot of other things that happen
  • 00:52:32.100 --> 00:52:33.140
  • under Hamilton.
  • 00:52:33.140 --> 00:52:34.210
  • In fact, if you've ever seen a 10 dollar bill,
  • 00:52:34.210 --> 00:52:36.030
  • the reason it has Hamilton on it is because
  • 00:52:36.030 --> 00:52:38.130
  • he's the guy responsible for even some of our money.
  • 00:52:38.130 --> 00:52:41.020
  • In fact, on the back it has the Treasury Department.
  • 00:52:41.020 --> 00:52:43.050
  • Well, Hamilton does a lot as a leader under Washington,
  • 00:52:43.050 --> 00:52:46.070
  • but after several years he decides, you know,
  • 00:52:46.070 --> 00:52:48.080
  • I really want to retire, go back to private life.
  • 00:52:48.080 --> 00:52:50.150
  • I want to go back to being an attorney.
  • 00:52:50.150 --> 00:52:51.280
  • So, he resigns from serving under Washington
  • 00:52:51.280 --> 00:52:54.180
  • and goes back to become an attorney in New York.
  • 00:52:54.180 --> 00:52:56.110
  • But he's still very politically active.
  • 00:52:56.110 --> 00:52:57.260
  • In fact, he opposes John Adams on many situations.
  • 00:52:57.260 --> 00:53:01.030
  • Opposed Thomas Jefferson.
  • 00:53:01.030 --> 00:53:02.090
  • Opposed James Madison.
  • 00:53:02.090 --> 00:53:03.150
  • There was a lot of things they were doing
  • 00:53:03.150 --> 00:53:04.290
  • he just didn't like so he was very politically engaged.
  • 00:53:04.290 --> 00:53:06.270
  • He really kind of was an agitator at times.
  • 00:53:06.270 --> 00:53:08.280
  • He was a firebrand.
  • 00:53:08.280 --> 00:53:10.120
  • Was very willing to tell you exactly what he thought
  • 00:53:10.120 --> 00:53:12.090
  • all the time, which wasn't always popular.
  • 00:53:12.090 --> 00:53:14.020
  • In fact, one of the things that became very famous,
  • 00:53:14.020 --> 00:53:16.040
  • Thomas Jefferson was running for president
  • 00:53:16.040 --> 00:53:18.060
  • in the election of 1800.
  • 00:53:18.060 --> 00:53:19.130
  • Aaron Burr was also running for president.
  • 00:53:19.130 --> 00:53:20.290
  • At that time, the president would not pick
  • 00:53:20.290 --> 00:53:22.140
  • his vice president.
  • 00:53:22.140 --> 00:53:23.290
  • Whoever got the most votes would be the president.
  • 00:53:23.290 --> 00:53:25.120
  • Whoever got the second most votes
  • 00:53:25.120 --> 00:53:26.180
  • would be the vice president.
  • 00:53:26.180 --> 00:53:28.020
  • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency.
  • 00:53:28.020 --> 00:53:30.080
  • Now when a tie, goes to the U.S. Congress and the House,
  • 00:53:30.080 --> 00:53:32.110
  • it takes the vote on who's gonna be the president.
  • 00:53:32.110 --> 00:53:34.200
  • Hamilton used his influence that even though
  • 00:53:34.200 --> 00:53:36.290
  • he didn't like Jefferson, he said Burr is even worse.
  • 00:53:36.290 --> 00:53:40.130
  • This man is terrible, he's dangerous, he's corrupt,
  • 00:53:40.130 --> 00:53:42.270
  • which actually all those things turned out to be true.
  • 00:53:42.270 --> 00:53:45.050
  • But, Burr hated and despised him because he kept
  • 00:53:45.050 --> 00:53:49.050
  • Burr from being president.
  • 00:53:49.050 --> 00:53:50.200
  • Well, Burr was the first vice president
  • 00:53:50.200 --> 00:53:52.220
  • under Thomas Jefferson.
  • 00:53:52.220 --> 00:53:54.070
  • Under Jefferson, he actually then decides Burr decides,
  • 00:53:54.070 --> 00:53:57.270
  • he wants to run for governor of New York.
  • 00:53:57.270 --> 00:53:59.040
  • So he runs for governor of New York in 1804
  • 00:53:59.040 --> 00:54:01.230
  • but this is where Alexander Hamilton lives
  • 00:54:01.230 --> 00:54:03.210
  • and Hamilton goes, this is terrible.
  • 00:54:03.210 --> 00:54:05.090
  • We don't need this guy to be our governor.
  • 00:54:05.090 --> 00:54:06.230
  • He's so bad.
  • 00:54:06.230 --> 00:54:07.290
  • So he opposed his election for governor.
  • 00:54:07.290 --> 00:54:10.270
  • Burr doesn't become governor but Burr's offended
  • 00:54:10.270 --> 00:54:13.090
  • he challenges Hamilton to a duel.
  • 00:54:13.090 --> 00:54:15.170
  • Hamilton wrote and he said, I know that this guy
  • 00:54:15.170 --> 00:54:18.050
  • wants to kill me but I don't want to kill him.
  • 00:54:18.050 --> 00:54:20.000
  • He said so, I'm gonna fire my first round just in the air.
  • 00:54:20.000 --> 00:54:23.220
  • I'm not gonna shoot him.
  • 00:54:23.220 --> 00:54:25.050
  • He said in fact, I'm even willing to fire my second round
  • 00:54:25.050 --> 00:54:27.090
  • in the air.
  • 00:54:27.090 --> 00:54:28.150
  • Now, I don't know how that really works.
  • 00:54:28.150 --> 00:54:29.210
  • Like maybe if both guys miss the first shot
  • 00:54:29.210 --> 00:54:31.060
  • let's try again, let's take a second shot, apparently.
  • 00:54:31.060 --> 00:54:34.260
  • But he said I'm gonna fire both shots,
  • 00:54:34.260 --> 00:54:36.140
  • neither one at Aaron Burr.
  • 00:54:36.140 --> 00:54:38.030
  • Well, what he also knew was that if this is the end
  • 00:54:38.030 --> 00:54:41.010
  • of his life, this is something he wants to be ready
  • 00:54:41.010 --> 00:54:42.290
  • for eternity.
  • 00:54:42.290 --> 00:54:44.120
  • He actually called for a couple pastors.
  • 00:54:44.120 --> 00:54:46.120
  • They came and they met with him and said I want
  • 00:54:46.120 --> 00:54:48.220
  • to take communion.
  • 00:54:48.220 --> 00:54:50.050
  • They said well, we're happy to give you communion.
  • 00:54:50.050 --> 00:54:51.140
  • Now, he was a life long Episcopal.
  • 00:54:51.140 --> 00:54:52.260
  • So he's part of the Episcopal church and these were
  • 00:54:52.260 --> 00:54:55.000
  • Episcopal ministers and they said we're happy to give you
  • 00:54:55.000 --> 00:54:56.220
  • communion, but we need to understand that you know
  • 00:54:56.220 --> 00:54:59.250
  • exactly what communion means, because you have to repent
  • 00:54:59.250 --> 00:55:03.050
  • of your sins, you have to believe in God,
  • 00:55:03.050 --> 00:55:05.100
  • you have to believe in the atoning work of Jesus.
  • 00:55:05.100 --> 00:55:07.030
  • He said I believe in all those things.
  • 00:55:07.030 --> 00:55:08.080
  • They gave him communion.
  • 00:55:08.080 --> 00:55:09.260
  • He then goes out and he has a duel.
  • 00:55:09.260 --> 00:55:11.190
  • Aaron Burr shoots him right in the stomach
  • 00:55:11.190 --> 00:55:13.050
  • and this is a fatal injury, he died shortly after that.
  • 00:55:13.050 --> 00:55:17.040
  • Those same two ministers he called them back
  • 00:55:17.040 --> 00:55:19.030
  • and they came and they prayed with them.
  • 00:55:19.030 --> 00:55:20.240
  • He took communion again.
  • 00:55:20.240 --> 00:55:22.080
  • A lot of interesting things at the end of his life,
  • 00:55:22.080 --> 00:55:24.150
  • knowing it was the end of his life.
  • 00:55:24.150 --> 00:55:25.240
  • As I say this, there's a lot more to the story
  • 00:55:25.240 --> 00:55:28.270
  • of Hamilton and today a lot of people only know
  • 00:55:28.270 --> 00:55:31.110
  • a few details.
  • 00:55:31.110 --> 00:55:32.190
  • Hamilton actually, at one point in his life,
  • 00:55:32.190 --> 00:55:33.180
  • did have an affair.
  • 00:55:33.180 --> 00:55:34.260
  • There's some not good things about his life.
  • 00:55:34.260 --> 00:55:37.020
  • It's not dissimilar from like a story of King David,
  • 00:55:37.020 --> 00:55:39.120
  • where if you look at King David, there's some moments
  • 00:55:39.120 --> 00:55:41.130
  • when he does really great things and moments he doesn't.
  • 00:55:41.130 --> 00:55:43.180
  • Our founding fathers were people,
  • 00:55:43.180 --> 00:55:45.180
  • so not dissimilar from even the Hebrews
  • 00:55:45.180 --> 00:55:47.150
  • we read in the bible.
  • 00:55:47.150 --> 00:55:48.280
  • Hamilton's a great example of a guy like that,
  • 00:55:48.280 --> 00:55:50.040
  • who certainly, he had flaws in his life.
  • 00:55:50.040 --> 00:55:52.150
  • Certainly there's things that weren't good,
  • 00:55:52.150 --> 00:55:54.000
  • but he's the guy who without his work
  • 00:55:54.000 --> 00:55:57.130
  • on the Federalist papers, we might not have ever had
  • 00:55:57.130 --> 00:55:59.100
  • a Constitution, we might not ever become a nation.
  • 00:55:59.100 --> 00:56:01.060
  • This guy's largely responsible, not only for
  • 00:56:01.060 --> 00:56:03.190
  • the ratification of the Constitution, but for America
  • 00:56:03.190 --> 00:56:06.030
  • becoming a lot of who we became.
  • 00:56:06.030 --> 00:56:08.000
  • By the way, shortly before his death,
  • 00:56:08.000 --> 00:56:09.210
  • he started a new society.
  • 00:56:09.210 --> 00:56:11.110
  • A Constitutional Society for Electing Christians
  • 00:56:11.110 --> 00:56:14.030
  • who would uphold the Constitution.
  • 00:56:14.030 --> 00:56:16.000
  • He says the best thing we need, the thing we need the most
  • 00:56:16.000 --> 00:56:18.080
  • is Christians who will follow the Constitution,
  • 00:56:18.080 --> 00:56:22.010
  • uphold the values.
  • 00:56:22.010 --> 00:56:23.070
  • He says Christians will do that the best.
  • 00:56:23.070 --> 00:56:24.260
  • We need more Christians involved.
  • 00:56:24.260 --> 00:56:26.080
  • This is part of Hamilton's legacy that today,
  • 00:56:26.080 --> 00:56:28.090
  • sadly we just don't know much about.
  • 00:56:28.090 --> 00:56:30.210
  • But without Hamilton, we might not even become a nation.
  • 00:56:30.210 --> 00:56:34.030
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:56:34.030 --> 00:56:36.250
  • - So today you've seen some of the hidden history
  • 00:56:39.120 --> 00:56:40.270
  • of these signers of the U.S. Constitution.
  • 00:56:40.270 --> 00:56:43.120
  • Something about their lives, and their families,
  • 00:56:43.120 --> 00:56:45.250
  • and their accomplishments, their great wisdom.
  • 00:56:45.250 --> 00:56:47.130
  • And by the way, we've only scratched the surface.
  • 00:56:47.130 --> 00:56:49.120
  • You had 55 guys at the Constitutional Convention.
  • 00:56:49.120 --> 00:56:52.200
  • You had 39 who signed the document.
  • 00:56:52.200 --> 00:56:54.100
  • We've just looked at a few of them.
  • 00:56:54.100 --> 00:56:56.130
  • But you see something of the wisdom they had
  • 00:56:56.130 --> 00:56:58.140
  • in crafting the Constitution that now is the gold standard
  • 00:56:58.140 --> 00:57:01.130
  • for the rest of the world.
  • 00:57:01.130 --> 00:57:02.250
  • No one's been under a constitution as long as we've
  • 00:57:02.250 --> 00:57:04.240
  • been under this Constitution.
  • 00:57:04.240 --> 00:57:06.200
  • What a blessing.
  • 00:57:06.200 --> 00:57:08.040
  • If you want to learn more about what you've seen today,
  • 00:57:08.040 --> 00:57:09.210
  • you can catch us at wallbuilders.com.
  • 00:57:09.210 --> 00:57:11.060
  • We've got all the social media outlets you can use.
  • 00:57:11.060 --> 00:57:13.010
  • There's a lot more information you can learn about
  • 00:57:13.010 --> 00:57:15.080
  • Constitution Day.
  • 00:57:15.080 --> 00:57:16.240
  • In the meantime, stay tuned to TBN for another exciting
  • 00:57:16.240 --> 00:57:19.280
  • episode of America's Hidden History.
  • 00:57:19.280 --> 00:57:22.100
  • (dramatic music)
  • 00:57:22.100 --> 00:57:25.050