America's Hidden History | Constitution Day | TBN

America's Hidden History | Constitution Day

Watch America's Hidden History | Constitution Day
September 17, 2018
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America's Hidden History

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America's Hidden History | Constitution Day

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  • (dramatic music)
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    • - Hey, I'm Tim Barton and I'm David Barton.
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    • - Hey, I'm Tim Barton and I'm David Barton.
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    • We're here in Philadelphia and this is behind us,
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    • We're here in Philadelphia and this is behind us,
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    • Independence Hall.
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    • Independence Hall.
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    • This is the place where they actually constructed
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    • This is the place where they actually constructed
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    • the Constitution and you know, today,
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    • the Constitution and you know, today,
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    • many people don't even know what the Constitution is,
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    • many people don't even know what the Constitution is,
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    • what it says, what stands for, but behind us is where
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    • what it says, what stands for, but behind us is where
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    • they put all that together.
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    • they put all that together.
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    • - And it's a remarkable document.
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    • - And it's a remarkable document.
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    • The rest of the world goes through a new constitution
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    • The rest of the world goes through a new constitution
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    • every 17 years and we've had the same one
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    • every 17 years and we've had the same one
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    • for over two centuries.
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    • for over two centuries.
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    • Why and what do we know about those who put together
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    • Why and what do we know about those who put together
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    • this document?
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    • this document?
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    • - This is America's hidden history.
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    • - This is America's hidden history.
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    • - [Narrator] Modern historians have revised, rewritten,
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    • - [Narrator] Modern historians have revised, rewritten,
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    • and even deleted entire chapters of American history.
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    • and even deleted entire chapters of American history.
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    • So what are we missing?
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    • So what are we missing?
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    • What happened to the history that didn't make the books?
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    • What happened to the history that didn't make the books?
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    • Join historian David Barton, Tim Barton,
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    • Join historian David Barton, Tim Barton,
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    • and special guests as they uncover the facts
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    • and special guests as they uncover the facts
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    • some historians don't want you to know.
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    • some historians don't want you to know.
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    • This is American's hidden history.
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    • This is American's hidden history.
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    • (dramatic music)
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    • - On September 17, 1787, the U.S. Constitution was signed
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    • - On September 17, 1787, the U.S. Constitution was signed
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    • and since we're talking about Constitution Day,
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    • and since we're talking about Constitution Day,
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    • it's a good time to look back on the anniversary
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    • it's a good time to look back on the anniversary
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    • of the Constitution and say, so what is this all about,
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    • of the Constitution and say, so what is this all about,
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    • why do we do a Constitution, where did it come from,
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    • why do we do a Constitution, where did it come from,
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    • why was it important?
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    • why was it important?
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    • - Well, we did the Constitution because we wanted
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    • - Well, we did the Constitution because we wanted
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    • a governing document that was written, that gave fixed laws,
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    • a governing document that was written, that gave fixed laws,
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    • as John Adams told us, this was gonna be government
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    • as John Adams told us, this was gonna be government
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    • of laws not of men, and so we had fixed laws
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    • of laws not of men, and so we had fixed laws
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    • that would apply to everyone.
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    • that would apply to everyone.
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    • So writing it down was very important to these guys.
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    • So writing it down was very important to these guys.
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    • Now, once you have it written down, you need to know
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    • Now, once you have it written down, you need to know
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    • what's there, otherwise you can't enforce the previsions
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    • what's there, otherwise you can't enforce the previsions
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    • of the law and that's where it kinda gets tricky today
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    • of the law and that's where it kinda gets tricky today
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    • because previous generations, we really did emphasize
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    • because previous generations, we really did emphasize
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    • knowing the Constitution.
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    • knowing the Constitution.
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    • If you go all the way back to the 1940s,
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    • If you go all the way back to the 1940s,
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    • there was what was called Citizenship Day,
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    • there was what was called Citizenship Day,
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    • and that was a celebration of the Constitution
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    • and that was a celebration of the Constitution
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    • but it particularly because Americans already knew
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    • but it particularly because Americans already knew
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    • the Constitution, but all these immigrants that come in,
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    • the Constitution, but all these immigrants that come in,
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    • they've learned the Constitution, they want to be citizens,
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    • they've learned the Constitution, they want to be citizens,
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    • so we called Constitution Day Citizenship Day.
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    • so we called Constitution Day Citizenship Day.
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    • In 1952 under Harry Truman, they expanded it
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    • In 1952 under Harry Truman, they expanded it
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    • and they made it Constitution and Citizenship Day.
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    • and they made it Constitution and Citizenship Day.
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    • So we wanted to emphasize the Constitution
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    • So we wanted to emphasize the Constitution
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    • but also citizenship that goes with it
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    • but also citizenship that goes with it
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    • and then we got so bad as Americans not knowing our own
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    • and then we got so bad as Americans not knowing our own
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    • document, that by the time you get to 2004,
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    • document, that by the time you get to 2004,
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    • Senator Robert Bird, out of West Virginia,
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    • Senator Robert Bird, out of West Virginia,
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    • added provision and said okay, here's the deal,
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    • added provision and said okay, here's the deal,
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    • if you get federal funds, if you're a federal agency
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    • if you get federal funds, if you're a federal agency
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    • or if you're a school that gets federal funds,
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    • or if you're a school that gets federal funds,
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    • on September 17th, at your school, you're going to have
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    • on September 17th, at your school, you're going to have
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    • a special program on the Constitution,
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    • a special program on the Constitution,
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    • make sure every student knows it.
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    • make sure every student knows it.
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    • So that's what really led to Constitution Day,
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    • So that's what really led to Constitution Day,
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    • officially still called Citizenship and Constitution Day,
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    • officially still called Citizenship and Constitution Day,
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    • but knowing the Constitution's always been seen
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    • but knowing the Constitution's always been seen
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    • as something very important for Americans.
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    • as something very important for Americans.
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    • - Well even though that became law in 2004,
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    • - Well even though that became law in 2004,
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    • still not many Americans today know much about
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    • still not many Americans today know much about
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    • the U.S. Constitution.
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    • the U.S. Constitution.
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    • In fact, if you look at the First Amendment,
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    • In fact, if you look at the First Amendment,
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    • there are five freedoms protected in the First Amendment
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    • there are five freedoms protected in the First Amendment
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    • only one in 1.000 people can name all five.
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    • only one in 1.000 people can name all five.
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    • So here's trivia.
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    • So here's trivia.
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    • How many can you name?
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    • How many can you name?
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    • If you go in order, you have religion,
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    • If you go in order, you have religion,
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    • you have speech, you have press,
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    • you have speech, you have press,
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    • you have assembly, and you have petition.
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    • you have assembly, and you have petition.
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    • But only one in 1.000 people even know what's there.
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    • But only one in 1.000 people even know what's there.
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    • In fact, if you look at something even easier,
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    • In fact, if you look at something even easier,
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    • the three branches of government, 62% of Americans
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    • the three branches of government, 62% of Americans
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    • cannot identify, cannot name,
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    • cannot identify, cannot name,
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    • the three branches of government.
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    • the three branches of government.
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    • That's not really hard, I mean, there's three.
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    • That's not really hard, I mean, there's three.
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    • Right, you have the executive, the legislative,
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    • Right, you have the executive, the legislative,
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    • and judicial.
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    • and judicial.
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    • 00:03:33.020 --> 00:03:34.170
    • -->
    • - And that's the first three articles of the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - And that's the first three articles of the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:03:34.170 --> 00:03:36.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:34.170 --> 00:03:36.050
    • -->
    • First article of the Constitution is about the legislative.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • First article of the Constitution is about the legislative.
    • -->
    • 00:03:36.050 --> 00:03:37.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:36.050 --> 00:03:37.270
    • -->
    • Second article is about the executive,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Second article is about the executive,
    • -->
    • 00:03:37.270 --> 00:03:39.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:37.270 --> 00:03:39.270
    • -->
    • and the third article is about the judiciary,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the third article is about the judiciary,
    • -->
    • 00:03:39.270 --> 00:03:42.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:39.270 --> 00:03:42.000
    • -->
    • so that's most of the Constitution right there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • so that's most of the Constitution right there.
    • -->
    • 00:03:42.000 --> 00:03:44.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:42.000 --> 00:03:44.080
    • -->
    • - And yet most Americans cannot name that
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - And yet most Americans cannot name that
    • -->
    • 00:03:44.080 --> 00:03:45.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:44.080 --> 00:03:45.220
    • -->
    • and actually-- - It gets worse than that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and actually-- - It gets worse than that.
    • -->
    • 00:03:45.220 --> 00:03:47.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:45.220 --> 00:03:47.150
    • -->
    • 48% of the elected officials cannot name the three
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 48% of the elected officials cannot name the three
    • -->
    • 00:03:47.150 --> 00:03:50.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:47.150 --> 00:03:50.280
    • -->
    • branches of government.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • branches of government.
    • -->
    • 00:03:50.280 --> 00:03:52.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:50.280 --> 00:03:52.250
    • -->
    • - Yeah, and if you don't know what's in the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Yeah, and if you don't know what's in the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:03:52.250 --> 00:03:54.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:52.250 --> 00:03:54.260
    • -->
    • you certainly don't know what your rights are,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you certainly don't know what your rights are,
    • -->
    • 00:03:54.260 --> 00:03:56.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:54.260 --> 00:03:56.280
    • -->
    • you don't even know what your responsibilities are
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you don't even know what your responsibilities are
    • -->
    • 00:03:56.280 --> 00:03:58.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:56.280 --> 00:03:58.260
    • -->
    • and we're certainly not going to protect and defend
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and we're certainly not going to protect and defend
    • -->
    • 00:03:58.260 --> 00:04:00.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:03:58.260 --> 00:04:00.220
    • -->
    • what should be our rights and freedoms if we don't even
    • " data-timeend="">
    • what should be our rights and freedoms if we don't even
    • -->
    • 00:04:00.220 --> 00:04:03.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:00.220 --> 00:04:03.040
    • -->
    • know what's there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • know what's there.
    • -->
    • 00:04:03.040 --> 00:04:04.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:03.040 --> 00:04:04.180
    • -->
    • So, what we need to do, is let's take a little look back.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So, what we need to do, is let's take a little look back.
    • -->
    • 00:04:04.180 --> 00:04:06.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:04.180 --> 00:04:06.020
    • -->
    • Let's go back and study the men who gave us the Constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Let's go back and study the men who gave us the Constitution
    • -->
    • 00:04:06.020 --> 00:04:08.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:06.020 --> 00:04:08.030
    • -->
    • and let's study some details of the Constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and let's study some details of the Constitution
    • -->
    • 00:04:08.030 --> 00:04:10.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:08.030 --> 00:04:10.140
    • -->
    • to know what this document is all about.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to know what this document is all about.
    • -->
    • 00:04:10.140 --> 00:04:12.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:10.140 --> 00:04:12.190
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:04:12.190 --> 00:04:15.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:12.190 --> 00:04:15.120
    • -->
    • - We're in the home of Gunning Bedford Jr.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - We're in the home of Gunning Bedford Jr.
    • -->
    • 00:04:33.070 --> 00:04:35.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:33.070 --> 00:04:35.090
    • -->
    • Gunning Bedford Jr. was a signer of the Constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Gunning Bedford Jr. was a signer of the Constitution
    • -->
    • 00:04:35.090 --> 00:04:38.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:35.090 --> 00:04:38.130
    • -->
    • from Delaware.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • from Delaware.
    • -->
    • 00:04:38.130 --> 00:04:39.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:38.130 --> 00:04:39.280
    • -->
    • Now, interestingly enough, Delaware wasn't a state
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, interestingly enough, Delaware wasn't a state
    • -->
    • 00:04:39.280 --> 00:04:42.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:39.280 --> 00:04:42.170
    • -->
    • when the American Revolution started.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when the American Revolution started.
    • -->
    • 00:04:42.170 --> 00:04:44.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:42.170 --> 00:04:44.020
    • -->
    • They were considered the lower counties of Pennsylvania
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They were considered the lower counties of Pennsylvania
    • -->
    • 00:04:44.020 --> 00:04:46.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:44.020 --> 00:04:46.080
    • -->
    • but when we separated from Great Britain
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but when we separated from Great Britain
    • -->
    • 00:04:46.080 --> 00:04:48.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:46.080 --> 00:04:48.100
    • -->
    • Delaware became its own independent state.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Delaware became its own independent state.
    • -->
    • 00:04:48.100 --> 00:04:50.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:48.100 --> 00:04:50.150
    • -->
    • This is called Lombardy Hall.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is called Lombardy Hall.
    • -->
    • 00:04:50.150 --> 00:04:52.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:50.150 --> 00:04:52.150
    • -->
    • This is where Gunning Bedford moved in 1793.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is where Gunning Bedford moved in 1793.
    • -->
    • 00:04:52.150 --> 00:04:56.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:52.150 --> 00:04:56.020
    • -->
    • He was born in 1947 and he went to Princeton University
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was born in 1947 and he went to Princeton University
    • -->
    • 00:04:56.020 --> 00:04:59.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:56.020 --> 00:04:59.150
    • -->
    • and he graduated in 1771.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he graduated in 1771.
    • -->
    • 00:04:59.150 --> 00:05:01.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:04:59.150 --> 00:05:01.270
    • -->
    • One his fellow graduates that year was James Madison,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One his fellow graduates that year was James Madison,
    • -->
    • 00:05:01.270 --> 00:05:05.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:01.270 --> 00:05:05.100
    • -->
    • who another signer of the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who another signer of the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:05:05.100 --> 00:05:07.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:05.100 --> 00:05:07.070
    • -->
    • They were both taught by
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They were both taught by
    • -->
    • 00:05:07.070 --> 00:05:09.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:07.070 --> 00:05:09.000
    • -->
    • the Reverend Doctor John Witherspoon,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Reverend Doctor John Witherspoon,
    • -->
    • 00:05:09.000 --> 00:05:10.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:09.000 --> 00:05:10.190
    • -->
    • who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
    • -->
    • 00:05:10.190 --> 00:05:13.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:10.190 --> 00:05:13.090
    • -->
    • Well, after he finishes school, he comes back,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, after he finishes school, he comes back,
    • -->
    • 00:05:13.090 --> 00:05:16.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:13.090 --> 00:05:16.130
    • -->
    • he becomes an attorney and shortly after he becomes
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he becomes an attorney and shortly after he becomes
    • -->
    • 00:05:16.130 --> 00:05:18.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:16.130 --> 00:05:18.270
    • -->
    • an attorney the American Revolution breaks out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • an attorney the American Revolution breaks out.
    • -->
    • 00:05:18.270 --> 00:05:21.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:18.270 --> 00:05:21.110
    • -->
    • Gunning becomes a soldier in the American Revolution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Gunning becomes a soldier in the American Revolution
    • -->
    • 00:05:21.110 --> 00:05:23.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:21.110 --> 00:05:23.160
    • -->
    • and actually according to his daughter,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and actually according to his daughter,
    • -->
    • 00:05:23.160 --> 00:05:25.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:23.160 --> 00:05:25.110
    • -->
    • he was aid to George Washington during the Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he was aid to George Washington during the Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:05:25.110 --> 00:05:28.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:25.110 --> 00:05:28.150
    • -->
    • In the midst of the Revolution, he is elected the first
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In the midst of the Revolution, he is elected the first
    • -->
    • 00:05:28.150 --> 00:05:31.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:28.150 --> 00:05:31.070
    • -->
    • attorney general of Delaware.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • attorney general of Delaware.
    • -->
    • 00:05:31.070 --> 00:05:33.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:31.070 --> 00:05:33.070
    • -->
    • In 1783 he's elected both to the State Assembly
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In 1783 he's elected both to the State Assembly
    • -->
    • 00:05:33.070 --> 00:05:36.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:33.070 --> 00:05:36.080
    • -->
    • and to the Continental Congress.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and to the Continental Congress.
    • -->
    • 00:05:36.080 --> 00:05:38.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:36.080 --> 00:05:38.150
    • -->
    • Being in the Continental Congress, he gets to see
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Being in the Continental Congress, he gets to see
    • -->
    • 00:05:38.150 --> 00:05:41.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:38.150 --> 00:05:41.010
    • -->
    • first hand the difficulties with the national government
    • " data-timeend="">
    • first hand the difficulties with the national government
    • -->
    • 00:05:41.010 --> 00:05:43.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:41.010 --> 00:05:43.220
    • -->
    • under the Articles of Confederation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • under the Articles of Confederation.
    • -->
    • 00:05:43.220 --> 00:05:45.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:43.220 --> 00:05:45.250
    • -->
    • So he's one of the guys that works to move
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he's one of the guys that works to move
    • -->
    • 00:05:45.250 --> 00:05:48.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:45.250 --> 00:05:48.000
    • -->
    • to a new government and in 1787 he's one of the delegates
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to a new government and in 1787 he's one of the delegates
    • -->
    • 00:05:48.000 --> 00:05:51.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:48.000 --> 00:05:51.270
    • -->
    • at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
    • -->
    • 00:05:51.270 --> 00:05:54.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:51.270 --> 00:05:54.260
    • -->
    • He was one of the most consistent members there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was one of the most consistent members there.
    • -->
    • 00:05:54.260 --> 00:05:57.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:54.260 --> 00:05:57.200
    • -->
    • He was there just time after time, day after day.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was there just time after time, day after day.
    • -->
    • 00:05:57.200 --> 00:06:00.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:05:57.200 --> 00:06:00.100
    • -->
    • The attendance records show that he was there,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The attendance records show that he was there,
    • -->
    • 00:06:00.100 --> 00:06:01.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:00.100 --> 00:06:01.220
    • -->
    • he was a faithful attendant, and he so liked the
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he was a faithful attendant, and he so liked the
    • -->
    • 00:06:01.220 --> 00:06:04.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:01.220 --> 00:06:04.140
    • -->
    • Constitution that when it came to the states
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Constitution that when it came to the states
    • -->
    • 00:06:04.140 --> 00:06:06.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:04.140 --> 00:06:06.160
    • -->
    • for ratification he's one of the very few delegates
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for ratification he's one of the very few delegates
    • -->
    • 00:06:06.160 --> 00:06:08.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:06.160 --> 00:06:08.130
    • -->
    • who had signed the Constitution who went into the state
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who had signed the Constitution who went into the state
    • -->
    • 00:06:08.130 --> 00:06:11.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:08.130 --> 00:06:11.160
    • -->
    • to be a ratifying delegate for the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be a ratifying delegate for the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:06:11.160 --> 00:06:14.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:11.160 --> 00:06:14.170
    • -->
    • When the Constitution took effect in 1789,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When the Constitution took effect in 1789,
    • -->
    • 00:06:14.170 --> 00:06:17.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:14.170 --> 00:06:17.050
    • -->
    • George Washington appointed Gunning Bedford Jr.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington appointed Gunning Bedford Jr.
    • -->
    • 00:06:17.050 --> 00:06:20.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:17.050 --> 00:06:20.040
    • -->
    • as the first federal judge over Delaware,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as the first federal judge over Delaware,
    • -->
    • 00:06:20.040 --> 00:06:23.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:20.040 --> 00:06:23.070
    • -->
    • and that's a position he held for the rest of his life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and that's a position he held for the rest of his life.
    • -->
    • 00:06:23.070 --> 00:06:26.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:23.070 --> 00:06:26.030
    • -->
    • Interesting, through his later years,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Interesting, through his later years,
    • -->
    • 00:06:26.030 --> 00:06:27.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:26.030 --> 00:06:27.260
    • -->
    • he was very involved in the abolition movement.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he was very involved in the abolition movement.
    • -->
    • 00:06:27.260 --> 00:06:30.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:27.260 --> 00:06:30.000
    • -->
    • In fact, in Delaware, he was one of the key members
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, in Delaware, he was one of the key members
    • -->
    • 00:06:30.000 --> 00:06:32.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:30.000 --> 00:06:32.200
    • -->
    • of the Delaware Abolition Society
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Delaware Abolition Society
    • -->
    • 00:06:32.200 --> 00:06:34.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:32.200 --> 00:06:34.070
    • -->
    • and he was also very outspoken about his faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he was also very outspoken about his faith.
    • -->
    • 00:06:34.070 --> 00:06:37.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:34.070 --> 00:06:37.140
    • -->
    • For example, when George Washington died in 1799,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • For example, when George Washington died in 1799,
    • -->
    • 00:06:37.140 --> 00:06:40.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:37.140 --> 00:06:40.230
    • -->
    • Gunning Bedford gave the oration here
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Gunning Bedford gave the oration here
    • -->
    • 00:06:40.230 --> 00:06:43.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:40.230 --> 00:06:43.060
    • -->
    • commemorating George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • commemorating George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:06:43.060 --> 00:06:44.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:43.060 --> 00:06:44.220
    • -->
    • That was his Commander in Chief, that was president
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That was his Commander in Chief, that was president
    • -->
    • 00:06:44.220 --> 00:06:46.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:44.220 --> 00:06:46.200
    • -->
    • of the Constitutional Convention,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Constitutional Convention,
    • -->
    • 00:06:46.200 --> 00:06:47.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:46.200 --> 00:06:47.270
    • -->
    • he was the father of his country,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he was the father of his country,
    • -->
    • 00:06:47.270 --> 00:06:49.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:47.270 --> 00:06:49.120
    • -->
    • and when Gunning Bedford had gone through all this
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and when Gunning Bedford had gone through all this
    • -->
    • 00:06:49.120 --> 00:06:51.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:49.120 --> 00:06:51.170
    • -->
    • about George Washington, recalling into all,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • about George Washington, recalling into all,
    • -->
    • 00:06:51.170 --> 00:06:53.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:51.170 --> 00:06:53.210
    • -->
    • everyone knew him back then.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • everyone knew him back then.
    • -->
    • 00:06:53.210 --> 00:06:55.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:53.210 --> 00:06:55.110
    • -->
    • I mean, he was most famous guy of the day.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I mean, he was most famous guy of the day.
    • -->
    • 00:06:55.110 --> 00:06:57.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:55.110 --> 00:06:57.000
    • -->
    • When Gunning Bedford finished that oration
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When Gunning Bedford finished that oration
    • -->
    • 00:06:57.000 --> 00:06:58.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:57.000 --> 00:06:58.250
    • -->
    • this is the way he closed, he said,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • this is the way he closed, he said,
    • -->
    • 00:06:58.250 --> 00:07:00.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:06:58.250 --> 00:07:00.200
    • -->
    • "Now to the triune God, the Father, the Son,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "Now to the triune God, the Father, the Son,
    • -->
    • 00:07:00.200 --> 00:07:04.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:00.200 --> 00:07:04.210
    • -->
    • "and the Holy Ghost,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "and the Holy Ghost,
    • -->
    • 00:07:04.210 --> 00:07:06.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:04.210 --> 00:07:06.060
    • -->
    • "be ascribed all honor and dominion forevermore, amen."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "be ascribed all honor and dominion forevermore, amen."
    • -->
    • 00:07:06.060 --> 00:07:10.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:06.060 --> 00:07:10.280
    • -->
    • What a way to close the oration of the most famous
    • " data-timeend="">
    • What a way to close the oration of the most famous
    • -->
    • 00:07:12.110 --> 00:07:13.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:12.110 --> 00:07:13.180
    • -->
    • man of the day, but that was part of the faith
    • " data-timeend="">
    • man of the day, but that was part of the faith
    • -->
    • 00:07:13.180 --> 00:07:15.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:13.180 --> 00:07:15.230
    • -->
    • of Gunning Bedford Jr., who's one of the signers
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of Gunning Bedford Jr., who's one of the signers
    • -->
    • 00:07:15.230 --> 00:07:17.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:15.230 --> 00:07:17.290
    • -->
    • of the Constitution and sadly, he's one of the guys
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Constitution and sadly, he's one of the guys
    • -->
    • 00:07:17.290 --> 00:07:20.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:17.290 --> 00:07:20.250
    • -->
    • we rarely hear about today.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we rarely hear about today.
    • -->
    • 00:07:20.250 --> 00:07:23.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:20.250 --> 00:07:23.040
    • -->
    • There were 39 guys who signed the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There were 39 guys who signed the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:07:23.040 --> 00:07:25.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:23.040 --> 00:07:25.150
    • -->
    • 55 helped write it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 55 helped write it.
    • -->
    • 00:07:25.150 --> 00:07:27.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:25.150 --> 00:07:27.040
    • -->
    • We know to or three generally today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We know to or three generally today,
    • -->
    • 00:07:27.040 --> 00:07:29.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:27.040 --> 00:07:29.030
    • -->
    • but we don't know Gunning Bedford, we should.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but we don't know Gunning Bedford, we should.
    • -->
    • 00:07:29.030 --> 00:07:32.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:29.030 --> 00:07:32.010
    • -->
    • He's one of the strong founding fathers who helped
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's one of the strong founding fathers who helped
    • -->
    • 00:07:32.010 --> 00:07:34.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:32.010 --> 00:07:34.030
    • -->
    • make us the nation that we are today.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • make us the nation that we are today.
    • -->
    • 00:07:34.030 --> 00:07:36.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:34.030 --> 00:07:36.000
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:07:36.000 --> 00:07:38.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:36.000 --> 00:07:38.220
    • -->
    • - So we are at the home, or at least the location
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - So we are at the home, or at least the location
    • -->
    • 00:07:57.100 --> 00:07:59.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:57.100 --> 00:07:59.210
    • -->
    • where it used to the home, of Benjamin Franklin.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where it used to the home, of Benjamin Franklin.
    • -->
    • 00:07:59.210 --> 00:08:01.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:07:59.210 --> 00:08:01.260
    • -->
    • You see the metal structures behind me,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You see the metal structures behind me,
    • -->
    • 00:08:01.260 --> 00:08:03.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:01.260 --> 00:08:03.180
    • -->
    • those are the outline of the buildings that used to be
    • " data-timeend="">
    • those are the outline of the buildings that used to be
    • -->
    • 00:08:03.180 --> 00:08:06.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:03.180 --> 00:08:06.090
    • -->
    • here that Benjamin Franklin built.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • here that Benjamin Franklin built.
    • -->
    • 00:08:06.090 --> 00:08:08.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:06.090 --> 00:08:08.040
    • -->
    • Now Benjamin Franklin was a guy who'd signed
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now Benjamin Franklin was a guy who'd signed
    • -->
    • 00:08:08.040 --> 00:08:09.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:08.040 --> 00:08:09.240
    • -->
    • the Declaration, went on and signed the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Declaration, went on and signed the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:08:09.240 --> 00:08:12.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:09.240 --> 00:08:12.040
    • -->
    • one of very few guys that actually did that,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • one of very few guys that actually did that,
    • -->
    • 00:08:12.040 --> 00:08:13.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:12.040 --> 00:08:13.220
    • -->
    • but Benjamin Franklin was a noted leader throughout
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but Benjamin Franklin was a noted leader throughout
    • -->
    • 00:08:13.220 --> 00:08:16.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:13.220 --> 00:08:16.130
    • -->
    • our nation for a lot of years
    • " data-timeend="">
    • our nation for a lot of years
    • -->
    • 00:08:16.130 --> 00:08:17.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:16.130 --> 00:08:17.200
    • -->
    • now, people recognize today, he was a printer.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • now, people recognize today, he was a printer.
    • -->
    • 00:08:17.200 --> 00:08:19.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:17.200 --> 00:08:19.180
    • -->
    • During the Revolution did a lot of printing
    • " data-timeend="">
    • During the Revolution did a lot of printing
    • -->
    • 00:08:19.180 --> 00:08:22.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:19.180 --> 00:08:22.010
    • -->
    • and throughout his time as a printer,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and throughout his time as a printer,
    • -->
    • 00:08:22.010 --> 00:08:23.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:22.010 --> 00:08:23.190
    • -->
    • he actually became friends with a man named
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he actually became friends with a man named
    • -->
    • 00:08:23.190 --> 00:08:25.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:23.190 --> 00:08:25.240
    • -->
    • George Whitefield.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Whitefield.
    • -->
    • 00:08:25.240 --> 00:08:27.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:25.240 --> 00:08:27.080
    • -->
    • Now George Whitefield was the famous evangelist
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now George Whitefield was the famous evangelist
    • -->
    • 00:08:27.080 --> 00:08:28.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:27.080 --> 00:08:28.240
    • -->
    • from the First Great Awakening.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • from the First Great Awakening.
    • -->
    • 00:08:28.240 --> 00:08:30.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:28.240 --> 00:08:30.090
    • -->
    • Franklin printed a lot of Whitefield's sermons
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Franklin printed a lot of Whitefield's sermons
    • -->
    • 00:08:30.090 --> 00:08:32.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:30.090 --> 00:08:32.090
    • -->
    • and in printing his sermons,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and in printing his sermons,
    • -->
    • 00:08:32.090 --> 00:08:33.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:32.090 --> 00:08:33.180
    • -->
    • he read a lot of Whitefield's sermons.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he read a lot of Whitefield's sermons.
    • -->
    • 00:08:33.180 --> 00:08:35.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:33.180 --> 00:08:35.030
    • -->
    • He and Whitefield became friends.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He and Whitefield became friends.
    • -->
    • 00:08:35.030 --> 00:08:36.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:35.030 --> 00:08:36.180
    • -->
    • In fact, Franklin wanted to build an addition on his house
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, Franklin wanted to build an addition on his house
    • -->
    • 00:08:36.180 --> 00:08:38.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:36.180 --> 00:08:38.160
    • -->
    • to give Whitefield a place to live and stay.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to give Whitefield a place to live and stay.
    • -->
    • 00:08:38.160 --> 00:08:41.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:38.160 --> 00:08:41.000
    • -->
    • So Whitefield had a major influence in Franklin's life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So Whitefield had a major influence in Franklin's life.
    • -->
    • 00:08:41.000 --> 00:08:43.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:41.000 --> 00:08:43.240
    • -->
    • When early on, he lived a fairly secular life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When early on, he lived a fairly secular life.
    • -->
    • 00:08:43.240 --> 00:08:46.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:43.240 --> 00:08:46.260
    • -->
    • In fact, we could joke and call him maybe like,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, we could joke and call him maybe like,
    • -->
    • 00:08:46.260 --> 00:08:48.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:46.260 --> 00:08:48.180
    • -->
    • the early Donald Trump of his era in some of the way
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the early Donald Trump of his era in some of the way
    • -->
    • 00:08:48.180 --> 00:08:51.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:48.180 --> 00:08:51.090
    • -->
    • he lived, but after George Whitefield,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he lived, but after George Whitefield,
    • -->
    • 00:08:51.090 --> 00:08:54.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:51.090 --> 00:08:54.010
    • -->
    • you see a decided change in his life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you see a decided change in his life.
    • -->
    • 00:08:54.010 --> 00:08:56.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:54.010 --> 00:08:56.010
    • -->
    • We separated from Great Britain in 1776.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We separated from Great Britain in 1776.
    • -->
    • 00:08:56.010 --> 00:08:58.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:56.010 --> 00:08:58.010
    • -->
    • Franklin's one of the guys that helped do
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Franklin's one of the guys that helped do
    • -->
    • 00:08:58.010 --> 00:08:59.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:58.010 --> 00:08:59.200
    • -->
    • the Pennsylvania Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Pennsylvania Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:08:59.200 --> 00:09:01.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:08:59.200 --> 00:09:01.030
    • -->
    • He's a leader in Pennsylvania at the time.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's a leader in Pennsylvania at the time.
    • -->
    • 00:09:01.030 --> 00:09:02.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:01.030 --> 00:09:02.070
    • -->
    • He is a governor of Pennsylvania.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He is a governor of Pennsylvania.
    • -->
    • 00:09:02.070 --> 00:09:04.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:02.070 --> 00:09:04.020
    • -->
    • Goes on to the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Goes on to the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:09:04.020 --> 00:09:05.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:04.020 --> 00:09:05.090
    • -->
    • Now the Constitution, when things are working,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now the Constitution, when things are working,
    • -->
    • 00:09:05.090 --> 00:09:07.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:05.090 --> 00:09:07.170
    • -->
    • and it seems like everything's falling apart,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and it seems like everything's falling apart,
    • -->
    • 00:09:07.170 --> 00:09:09.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:07.170 --> 00:09:09.050
    • -->
    • there's so much frustration, so many problems,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • there's so much frustration, so many problems,
    • -->
    • 00:09:09.050 --> 00:09:11.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:09.050 --> 00:09:11.040
    • -->
    • Franklin's the guy that suggests, you know,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Franklin's the guy that suggests, you know,
    • -->
    • 00:09:11.040 --> 00:09:13.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:11.040 --> 00:09:13.020
    • -->
    • maybe we ought to pray and ask God for help.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • maybe we ought to pray and ask God for help.
    • -->
    • 00:09:13.020 --> 00:09:16.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:13.020 --> 00:09:16.160
    • -->
    • In fact, the longest speech he gave
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, the longest speech he gave
    • -->
    • 00:09:16.160 --> 00:09:17.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:16.160 --> 00:09:17.280
    • -->
    • at the Constitutional Convention was the challenging
    • " data-timeend="">
    • at the Constitutional Convention was the challenging
    • -->
    • 00:09:17.280 --> 00:09:20.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:17.280 --> 00:09:20.040
    • -->
    • of the other delegates that let's pray and ask God
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the other delegates that let's pray and ask God
    • -->
    • 00:09:20.040 --> 00:09:21.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:20.040 --> 00:09:21.290
    • -->
    • for help because without God's help we're not
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for help because without God's help we're not
    • -->
    • 00:09:21.290 --> 00:09:23.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:21.290 --> 00:09:23.080
    • -->
    • gonna succeed in this.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • gonna succeed in this.
    • -->
    • 00:09:23.080 --> 00:09:24.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:23.080 --> 00:09:24.140
    • -->
    • Franklin's a really interesting guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Franklin's a really interesting guy.
    • -->
    • 00:09:24.140 --> 00:09:26.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:24.140 --> 00:09:26.020
    • -->
    • Today, although he's recognizable in name,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Today, although he's recognizable in name,
    • -->
    • 00:09:26.020 --> 00:09:28.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:26.020 --> 00:09:28.160
    • -->
    • a lot of people don't know his contributions
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a lot of people don't know his contributions
    • -->
    • 00:09:28.160 --> 00:09:30.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:28.160 --> 00:09:30.130
    • -->
    • and especially the fact that even though he was
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and especially the fact that even though he was
    • -->
    • 00:09:30.130 --> 00:09:32.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:30.130 --> 00:09:32.230
    • -->
    • the least religious founding father,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the least religious founding father,
    • -->
    • 00:09:32.230 --> 00:09:33.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:32.230 --> 00:09:33.290
    • -->
    • he still believed we needed God to be a part
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he still believed we needed God to be a part
    • -->
    • 00:09:33.290 --> 00:09:36.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:33.290 --> 00:09:36.160
    • -->
    • of what we did in the nation or we wouldn't be successful.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of what we did in the nation or we wouldn't be successful.
    • -->
    • 00:09:36.160 --> 00:09:38.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:36.160 --> 00:09:38.240
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:09:38.240 --> 00:09:41.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:38.240 --> 00:09:41.170
    • -->
    • - We are just outside of Dover, Delaware,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - We are just outside of Dover, Delaware,
    • -->
    • 00:09:59.130 --> 00:10:01.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:09:59.130 --> 00:10:01.190
    • -->
    • at the home of John Dickinson,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • at the home of John Dickinson,
    • -->
    • 00:10:01.190 --> 00:10:03.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:01.190 --> 00:10:03.140
    • -->
    • a signer of the U.S. Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a signer of the U.S. Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:10:03.140 --> 00:10:05.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:03.140 --> 00:10:05.050
    • -->
    • John Dickinson is not one we really talk about today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • John Dickinson is not one we really talk about today,
    • -->
    • 00:10:05.050 --> 00:10:08.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:05.050 --> 00:10:08.030
    • -->
    • but we should.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but we should.
    • -->
    • 00:10:08.030 --> 00:10:09.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:08.030 --> 00:10:09.110
    • -->
    • He was a huge factor in the American founding.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was a huge factor in the American founding.
    • -->
    • 00:10:09.110 --> 00:10:10.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:09.110 --> 00:10:10.270
    • -->
    • He was a name that was well-known back in his day.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was a name that was well-known back in his day.
    • -->
    • 00:10:10.270 --> 00:10:14.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:10.270 --> 00:10:14.010
    • -->
    • He's a name worth rediscovering today.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's a name worth rediscovering today.
    • -->
    • 00:10:14.010 --> 00:10:16.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:14.010 --> 00:10:16.070
    • -->
    • Let's go inside and show you some more.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Let's go inside and show you some more.
    • -->
    • 00:10:16.070 --> 00:10:17.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:16.070 --> 00:10:17.180
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:10:17.180 --> 00:10:20.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:17.180 --> 00:10:20.040
    • -->
    • John Dickinson is known as the Founding Father
    • " data-timeend="">
    • John Dickinson is known as the Founding Father
    • -->
    • 00:10:20.040 --> 00:10:22.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:20.040 --> 00:10:22.140
    • -->
    • from Delaware, but actually, at the time of the
    • " data-timeend="">
    • from Delaware, but actually, at the time of the
    • -->
    • 00:10:22.140 --> 00:10:25.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:22.140 --> 00:10:25.070
    • -->
    • American Revolution, Delaware was part of Pennsylvania.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • American Revolution, Delaware was part of Pennsylvania.
    • -->
    • 00:10:25.070 --> 00:10:27.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:25.070 --> 00:10:27.080
    • -->
    • It was considered the lower counties of Pennsylvania.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It was considered the lower counties of Pennsylvania.
    • -->
    • 00:10:27.080 --> 00:10:30.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:27.080 --> 00:10:30.150
    • -->
    • In 1776, when we declared independence,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In 1776, when we declared independence,
    • -->
    • 00:10:30.150 --> 00:10:32.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:30.150 --> 00:10:32.140
    • -->
    • Delaware became its own state.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Delaware became its own state.
    • -->
    • 00:10:32.140 --> 00:10:35.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:32.140 --> 00:10:35.060
    • -->
    • So he was born in 1732, and in growing up,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he was born in 1732, and in growing up,
    • -->
    • 00:10:35.060 --> 00:10:38.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:35.060 --> 00:10:38.160
    • -->
    • he grew up largely right here in this house.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he grew up largely right here in this house.
    • -->
    • 00:10:38.160 --> 00:10:41.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:38.160 --> 00:10:41.060
    • -->
    • He was home educated and he had an inclination
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was home educated and he had an inclination
    • -->
    • 00:10:41.060 --> 00:10:44.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:41.060 --> 00:10:44.000
    • -->
    • to study law, so he began studying the law.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to study law, so he began studying the law.
    • -->
    • 00:10:44.000 --> 00:10:46.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:44.000 --> 00:10:46.100
    • -->
    • He actually went to England and studied law in England.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He actually went to England and studied law in England.
    • -->
    • 00:10:46.100 --> 00:10:48.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:46.100 --> 00:10:48.290
    • -->
    • He came back and in 1757 he was licensed as an attorney.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He came back and in 1757 he was licensed as an attorney.
    • -->
    • 00:10:48.290 --> 00:10:52.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:48.290 --> 00:10:52.150
    • -->
    • Within only five years he was such an exceptional attorney
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Within only five years he was such an exceptional attorney
    • -->
    • 00:10:52.150 --> 00:10:56.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:52.150 --> 00:10:56.020
    • -->
    • that he was already arguing cases
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that he was already arguing cases
    • -->
    • 00:10:56.020 --> 00:10:57.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:56.020 --> 00:10:57.290
    • -->
    • at the Colonial Supreme Court, which is a big deal.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • at the Colonial Supreme Court, which is a big deal.
    • -->
    • 00:10:57.290 --> 00:11:01.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:10:57.290 --> 00:11:01.080
    • -->
    • Only three years later the tensions between
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Only three years later the tensions between
    • -->
    • 00:11:01.080 --> 00:11:03.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:01.080 --> 00:11:03.170
    • -->
    • America and Great Britain were growing to the point
    • " data-timeend="">
    • America and Great Britain were growing to the point
    • -->
    • 00:11:03.170 --> 00:11:05.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:03.170 --> 00:11:05.130
    • -->
    • that we had what was called the Stamp Act
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that we had what was called the Stamp Act
    • -->
    • 00:11:05.130 --> 00:11:07.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:05.130 --> 00:11:07.070
    • -->
    • and the Nonimportation Agreements, et cetera,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the Nonimportation Agreements, et cetera,
    • -->
    • 00:11:07.070 --> 00:11:09.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:07.070 --> 00:11:09.040
    • -->
    • and he early took the side of the colonists
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he early took the side of the colonists
    • -->
    • 00:11:09.040 --> 00:11:12.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:09.040 --> 00:11:12.000
    • -->
    • against the British.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • against the British.
    • -->
    • 00:11:12.000 --> 00:11:13.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:12.000 --> 00:11:13.060
    • -->
    • As a matter of fact, he began writing pieces
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As a matter of fact, he began writing pieces
    • -->
    • 00:11:13.060 --> 00:11:15.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:13.060 --> 00:11:15.180
    • -->
    • in favor of the colonists.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in favor of the colonists.
    • -->
    • 00:11:15.180 --> 00:11:16.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:15.180 --> 00:11:16.250
    • -->
    • These are some of the early pieces he did.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • These are some of the early pieces he did.
    • -->
    • 00:11:16.250 --> 00:11:19.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:16.250 --> 00:11:19.060
    • -->
    • These are from 1768.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • These are from 1768.
    • -->
    • 00:11:19.060 --> 00:11:21.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:19.060 --> 00:11:21.140
    • -->
    • These are letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania
    • " data-timeend="">
    • These are letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania
    • -->
    • 00:11:21.140 --> 00:11:23.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:21.140 --> 00:11:23.200
    • -->
    • to the British citizens.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the British citizens.
    • -->
    • 00:11:23.200 --> 00:11:25.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:23.200 --> 00:11:25.250
    • -->
    • So he's explaining the problems that we're having
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he's explaining the problems that we're having
    • -->
    • 00:11:25.250 --> 00:11:29.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:25.250 --> 00:11:29.020
    • -->
    • and why we have this conflict going on.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and why we have this conflict going on.
    • -->
    • 00:11:29.020 --> 00:11:31.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:29.020 --> 00:11:31.040
    • -->
    • And by the way, pieces like that is what caused him
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And by the way, pieces like that is what caused him
    • -->
    • 00:11:31.040 --> 00:11:33.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:31.040 --> 00:11:33.150
    • -->
    • to be called the Penman of the American Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be called the Penman of the American Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:11:33.150 --> 00:11:36.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:33.150 --> 00:11:36.160
    • -->
    • It seemed like that if there were something that needed
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It seemed like that if there were something that needed
    • -->
    • 00:11:36.160 --> 00:11:38.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:36.160 --> 00:11:38.100
    • -->
    • to be said, he wrote it down and Congress said,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be said, he wrote it down and Congress said,
    • -->
    • 00:11:38.100 --> 00:11:40.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:38.100 --> 00:11:40.250
    • -->
    • that's what we wanted to say.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that's what we wanted to say.
    • -->
    • 00:11:40.250 --> 00:11:42.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:40.250 --> 00:11:42.150
    • -->
    • So time after time after time, he was the one
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So time after time after time, he was the one
    • -->
    • 00:11:42.150 --> 00:11:46.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:42.150 --> 00:11:46.010
    • -->
    • who wrote the official letters going to the King
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who wrote the official letters going to the King
    • -->
    • 00:11:46.010 --> 00:11:48.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:46.010 --> 00:11:48.150
    • -->
    • or the petitions to the King.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • or the petitions to the King.
    • -->
    • 00:11:48.150 --> 00:11:50.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:48.150 --> 00:11:50.010
    • -->
    • He was just really, he was the penman
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was just really, he was the penman
    • -->
    • 00:11:50.010 --> 00:11:51.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:50.010 --> 00:11:51.270
    • -->
    • of the American Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the American Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:11:51.270 --> 00:11:53.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:51.270 --> 00:11:53.130
    • -->
    • It's interesting that being in Pennsylvania, as he was,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's interesting that being in Pennsylvania, as he was,
    • -->
    • 00:11:53.130 --> 00:11:55.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:53.130 --> 00:11:55.220
    • -->
    • and then in Delaware after 1776,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and then in Delaware after 1776,
    • -->
    • 00:11:55.220 --> 00:11:58.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:55.220 --> 00:11:58.180
    • -->
    • he's in the same state with Ben Franklin,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's in the same state with Ben Franklin,
    • -->
    • 00:11:58.180 --> 00:12:00.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:11:58.180 --> 00:12:00.180
    • -->
    • but he and Ben Franklin were often on opposite sides
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but he and Ben Franklin were often on opposite sides
    • -->
    • 00:12:00.180 --> 00:12:03.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:00.180 --> 00:12:03.160
    • -->
    • of many many issues.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of many many issues.
    • -->
    • 00:12:03.160 --> 00:12:05.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:03.160 --> 00:12:05.100
    • -->
    • They both love America, both great guys,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They both love America, both great guys,
    • -->
    • 00:12:05.100 --> 00:12:07.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:05.100 --> 00:12:07.010
    • -->
    • but you had John Dickinson, who as much more cautious,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but you had John Dickinson, who as much more cautious,
    • -->
    • 00:12:07.010 --> 00:12:11.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:07.010 --> 00:12:11.140
    • -->
    • much more reserved and you had Ben Franklin,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • much more reserved and you had Ben Franklin,
    • -->
    • 00:12:11.140 --> 00:12:14.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:11.140 --> 00:12:14.080
    • -->
    • who was much more bold and much more decisive.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who was much more bold and much more decisive.
    • -->
    • 00:12:14.080 --> 00:12:16.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:14.080 --> 00:12:16.060
    • -->
    • So whereas John Dickinson wanted to try to reconcile
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So whereas John Dickinson wanted to try to reconcile
    • -->
    • 00:12:16.060 --> 00:12:19.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:16.060 --> 00:12:19.200
    • -->
    • and conciliate, Ben Franklin's saying let's separate,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and conciliate, Ben Franklin's saying let's separate,
    • -->
    • 00:12:19.200 --> 00:12:22.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:19.200 --> 00:12:22.140
    • -->
    • let's be independent.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • let's be independent.
    • -->
    • 00:12:22.140 --> 00:12:23.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:22.140 --> 00:12:23.120
    • -->
    • So as this goes back and forth,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So as this goes back and forth,
    • -->
    • 00:12:23.120 --> 00:12:25.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:23.120 --> 00:12:25.130
    • -->
    • when you get to the time of 1776,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when you get to the time of 1776,
    • -->
    • 00:12:25.130 --> 00:12:27.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:25.130 --> 00:12:27.270
    • -->
    • when we did the Declaration of Independence,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when we did the Declaration of Independence,
    • -->
    • 00:12:27.270 --> 00:12:29.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:27.270 --> 00:12:29.250
    • -->
    • John Dickinson is a delegate there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • John Dickinson is a delegate there.
    • -->
    • 00:12:29.250 --> 00:12:31.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:29.250 --> 00:12:31.190
    • -->
    • At the time, we vote for independence,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At the time, we vote for independence,
    • -->
    • 00:12:31.190 --> 00:12:33.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:31.190 --> 00:12:33.120
    • -->
    • except he did not vote for independence.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • except he did not vote for independence.
    • -->
    • 00:12:33.120 --> 00:12:35.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:33.120 --> 00:12:35.240
    • -->
    • John Dickinson did not vote
    • " data-timeend="">
    • John Dickinson did not vote
    • -->
    • 00:12:35.240 --> 00:12:37.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:35.240 --> 00:12:37.020
    • -->
    • to do the Declaration of Independence.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to do the Declaration of Independence.
    • -->
    • 00:12:37.020 --> 00:12:38.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:37.020 --> 00:12:38.140
    • -->
    • He thought it was premature, we needed more time.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He thought it was premature, we needed more time.
    • -->
    • 00:12:38.140 --> 00:12:41.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:38.140 --> 00:12:41.160
    • -->
    • Of course, Ben Franklin did vote for the Declaration,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Of course, Ben Franklin did vote for the Declaration,
    • -->
    • 00:12:41.160 --> 00:12:43.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:41.160 --> 00:12:43.070
    • -->
    • so it's significant that at that point you see
    • " data-timeend="">
    • so it's significant that at that point you see
    • -->
    • 00:12:43.070 --> 00:12:46.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:43.070 --> 00:12:46.000
    • -->
    • kinda the character of these two guys
    • " data-timeend="">
    • kinda the character of these two guys
    • -->
    • 00:12:46.000 --> 00:12:48.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:46.000 --> 00:12:48.050
    • -->
    • and it wasn't that John Dickinson was afraid of what
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and it wasn't that John Dickinson was afraid of what
    • -->
    • 00:12:48.050 --> 00:12:51.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:48.050 --> 00:12:51.090
    • -->
    • was coming, because right after we approved
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was coming, because right after we approved
    • -->
    • 00:12:51.090 --> 00:12:53.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:51.090 --> 00:12:53.290
    • -->
    • the Declaration he goes out and picks up a gun
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Declaration he goes out and picks up a gun
    • -->
    • 00:12:53.290 --> 00:12:55.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:53.290 --> 00:12:55.280
    • -->
    • and he goes out to take on the British.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he goes out to take on the British.
    • -->
    • 00:12:55.280 --> 00:12:58.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:55.280 --> 00:12:58.040
    • -->
    • As a matter of fact, out of all the guys who approved
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As a matter of fact, out of all the guys who approved
    • -->
    • 00:12:58.040 --> 00:13:00.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:12:58.040 --> 00:13:00.060
    • -->
    • the Declaration, only two guys picked up guns
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Declaration, only two guys picked up guns
    • -->
    • 00:13:00.060 --> 00:13:02.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:00.060 --> 00:13:02.210
    • -->
    • to go after the British.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to go after the British.
    • -->
    • 00:13:02.210 --> 00:13:04.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:02.210 --> 00:13:04.060
    • -->
    • One was Thomas McKey, and also from here in Delaware,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One was Thomas McKey, and also from here in Delaware,
    • -->
    • 00:13:04.060 --> 00:13:06.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:04.060 --> 00:13:06.160
    • -->
    • and the other was John Dickinson.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the other was John Dickinson.
    • -->
    • 00:13:06.160 --> 00:13:08.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:06.160 --> 00:13:08.210
    • -->
    • So these two guys are very strong patriots
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So these two guys are very strong patriots
    • -->
    • 00:13:08.210 --> 00:13:11.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:08.210 --> 00:13:11.170
    • -->
    • and it's interesting that John Dickinson,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and it's interesting that John Dickinson,
    • -->
    • 00:13:11.170 --> 00:13:13.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:11.170 --> 00:13:13.040
    • -->
    • with all his notoriety, he went in as a private.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with all his notoriety, he went in as a private.
    • -->
    • 00:13:13.040 --> 00:13:15.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:13.040 --> 00:13:15.080
    • -->
    • He just went in the military as a private
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He just went in the military as a private
    • -->
    • 00:13:15.080 --> 00:13:17.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:15.080 --> 00:13:17.100
    • -->
    • and before long, he's all the way up to a general.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and before long, he's all the way up to a general.
    • -->
    • 00:13:17.100 --> 00:13:19.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:17.100 --> 00:13:19.040
    • -->
    • So a very significant guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So a very significant guy.
    • -->
    • 00:13:19.040 --> 00:13:21.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:19.040 --> 00:13:21.080
    • -->
    • But once the America Revolution is over,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But once the America Revolution is over,
    • -->
    • 00:13:21.080 --> 00:13:23.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:21.080 --> 00:13:23.200
    • -->
    • he's been in the Continental Congress,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's been in the Continental Congress,
    • -->
    • 00:13:23.200 --> 00:13:25.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:23.200 --> 00:13:25.190
    • -->
    • he saw the problems we had with the government,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he saw the problems we had with the government,
    • -->
    • 00:13:25.190 --> 00:13:27.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:25.190 --> 00:13:27.160
    • -->
    • the Articles of Confederation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Articles of Confederation.
    • -->
    • 00:13:27.160 --> 00:13:28.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:27.160 --> 00:13:28.280
    • -->
    • He knew that we needed something better
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He knew that we needed something better
    • -->
    • 00:13:28.280 --> 00:13:30.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:28.280 --> 00:13:30.150
    • -->
    • and so he starts being part of the movement
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and so he starts being part of the movement
    • -->
    • 00:13:30.150 --> 00:13:33.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:30.150 --> 00:13:33.000
    • -->
    • to get toward a constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to get toward a constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:13:33.000 --> 00:13:34.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:33.000 --> 00:13:34.250
    • -->
    • That began with the Annapolis Convention of 1786
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That began with the Annapolis Convention of 1786
    • -->
    • 00:13:34.250 --> 00:13:37.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:34.250 --> 00:13:37.150
    • -->
    • and by the way, 1786 is also when John Dickinson
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and by the way, 1786 is also when John Dickinson
    • -->
    • 00:13:37.150 --> 00:13:40.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:37.150 --> 00:13:40.060
    • -->
    • freed his slaves.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • freed his slaves.
    • -->
    • 00:13:40.060 --> 00:13:42.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:40.060 --> 00:13:42.000
    • -->
    • Well in 1787 we moved from the Annapolis Convention
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well in 1787 we moved from the Annapolis Convention
    • -->
    • 00:13:42.000 --> 00:13:44.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:42.000 --> 00:13:44.230
    • -->
    • to the Constitutional Convention
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the Constitutional Convention
    • -->
    • 00:13:44.230 --> 00:13:46.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:44.230 --> 00:13:46.140
    • -->
    • and John Dickinson is a delegate
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and John Dickinson is a delegate
    • -->
    • 00:13:46.140 --> 00:13:48.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:46.140 --> 00:13:48.100
    • -->
    • to the Constitution Convention.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the Constitution Convention.
    • -->
    • 00:13:48.100 --> 00:13:49.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:48.100 --> 00:13:49.280
    • -->
    • He spoke 50 times throughout the Convention.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He spoke 50 times throughout the Convention.
    • -->
    • 00:13:49.280 --> 00:13:52.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:49.280 --> 00:13:52.140
    • -->
    • He was an active participant in it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was an active participant in it.
    • -->
    • 00:13:52.140 --> 00:13:53.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:52.140 --> 00:13:53.270
    • -->
    • When the Constitution was finally written
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When the Constitution was finally written
    • -->
    • 00:13:53.270 --> 00:13:55.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:53.270 --> 00:13:55.280
    • -->
    • and everybody approved it, he was one of the 39 signers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and everybody approved it, he was one of the 39 signers.
    • -->
    • 00:13:55.280 --> 00:13:58.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:55.280 --> 00:13:58.220
    • -->
    • It then went to the states to be ratified.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It then went to the states to be ratified.
    • -->
    • 00:13:58.220 --> 00:14:01.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:13:58.220 --> 00:14:01.050
    • -->
    • When it went to the states, here came his penmanship again,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When it went to the states, here came his penmanship again,
    • -->
    • 00:14:01.050 --> 00:14:04.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:01.050 --> 00:14:04.190
    • -->
    • because he starts writing more pieces,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because he starts writing more pieces,
    • -->
    • 00:14:04.190 --> 00:14:06.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:04.190 --> 00:14:06.120
    • -->
    • explaining to the people why this needs to be ratified,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • explaining to the people why this needs to be ratified,
    • -->
    • 00:14:06.120 --> 00:14:09.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:06.120 --> 00:14:09.080
    • -->
    • why we need this Constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • why we need this Constitution
    • -->
    • 00:14:09.080 --> 00:14:11.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:09.080 --> 00:14:11.080
    • -->
    • and the Constitution does eventually get ratified.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the Constitution does eventually get ratified.
    • -->
    • 00:14:11.080 --> 00:14:14.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:11.080 --> 00:14:14.080
    • -->
    • In 1791 he was actually the president of the convention
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In 1791 he was actually the president of the convention
    • -->
    • 00:14:14.080 --> 00:14:17.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:14.080 --> 00:14:17.010
    • -->
    • that wrote the Delaware Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that wrote the Delaware Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:14:17.010 --> 00:14:19.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:17.010 --> 00:14:19.060
    • -->
    • So he has a long political life, was involved in many things
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he has a long political life, was involved in many things
    • -->
    • 00:14:19.060 --> 00:14:22.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:19.060 --> 00:14:22.080
    • -->
    • and after you get to 1791, the next 17 years of his life
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and after you get to 1791, the next 17 years of his life
    • -->
    • 00:14:22.080 --> 00:14:26.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:22.080 --> 00:14:26.200
    • -->
    • he's really not much involved in political things anymore.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's really not much involved in political things anymore.
    • -->
    • 00:14:26.200 --> 00:14:29.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:26.200 --> 00:14:29.190
    • -->
    • Now he's still very active and still does a lot of stuff,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now he's still very active and still does a lot of stuff,
    • -->
    • 00:14:29.190 --> 00:14:31.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:29.190 --> 00:14:31.250
    • -->
    • but think about this guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but think about this guy.
    • -->
    • 00:14:31.250 --> 00:14:33.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:31.250 --> 00:14:33.110
    • -->
    • He was from Pennsylvania but then Delaware became a state
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was from Pennsylvania but then Delaware became a state
    • -->
    • 00:14:33.110 --> 00:14:37.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:33.110 --> 00:14:37.060
    • -->
    • so now he's from Delaware.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • so now he's from Delaware.
    • -->
    • 00:14:37.060 --> 00:14:38.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:37.060 --> 00:14:38.150
    • -->
    • But even being from Delaware, it's amazing.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But even being from Delaware, it's amazing.
    • -->
    • 00:14:38.150 --> 00:14:41.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:38.150 --> 00:14:41.000
    • -->
    • He was elected to the state legislature from both
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was elected to the state legislature from both
    • -->
    • 00:14:41.000 --> 00:14:43.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:41.000 --> 00:14:43.250
    • -->
    • Delaware and from Pennsylvania.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Delaware and from Pennsylvania.
    • -->
    • 00:14:43.250 --> 00:14:45.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:43.250 --> 00:14:45.240
    • -->
    • He was elected to the Continental Congress
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was elected to the Continental Congress
    • -->
    • 00:14:45.240 --> 00:14:47.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:45.240 --> 00:14:47.250
    • -->
    • both by Delaware and by Pennsylvania
    • " data-timeend="">
    • both by Delaware and by Pennsylvania
    • -->
    • 00:14:47.250 --> 00:14:50.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:47.250 --> 00:14:50.280
    • -->
    • and he served in the Continental Army both as a soldier
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he served in the Continental Army both as a soldier
    • -->
    • 00:14:50.280 --> 00:14:54.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:50.280 --> 00:14:54.060
    • -->
    • from Delaware and a soldier from Pennsylvania
    • " data-timeend="">
    • from Delaware and a soldier from Pennsylvania
    • -->
    • 00:14:54.060 --> 00:14:56.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:54.060 --> 00:14:56.170
    • -->
    • and he was the governor of Delaware, elected by the people,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he was the governor of Delaware, elected by the people,
    • -->
    • 00:14:56.170 --> 00:14:59.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:56.170 --> 00:14:59.200
    • -->
    • and he was elected by Pennsylvania to be the governor
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he was elected by Pennsylvania to be the governor
    • -->
    • 00:14:59.200 --> 00:15:01.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:14:59.200 --> 00:15:01.210
    • -->
    • of Pennsylvania.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of Pennsylvania.
    • -->
    • 00:15:01.210 --> 00:15:03.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:01.210 --> 00:15:03.040
    • -->
    • You can't find another governor who's been governor
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You can't find another governor who's been governor
    • -->
    • 00:15:03.040 --> 00:15:05.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:03.040 --> 00:15:05.020
    • -->
    • of two separate states like that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of two separate states like that.
    • -->
    • 00:15:05.020 --> 00:15:06.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:05.020 --> 00:15:06.280
    • -->
    • I mean, what an amazing guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I mean, what an amazing guy.
    • -->
    • 00:15:06.280 --> 00:15:08.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:06.280 --> 00:15:08.070
    • -->
    • But both states loved him,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But both states loved him,
    • -->
    • 00:15:08.070 --> 00:15:09.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:08.070 --> 00:15:09.150
    • -->
    • both states saw him as very significant.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • both states saw him as very significant.
    • -->
    • 00:15:09.150 --> 00:15:11.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:09.150 --> 00:15:11.050
    • -->
    • He also was a strong man of faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He also was a strong man of faith.
    • -->
    • 00:15:11.050 --> 00:15:13.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:11.050 --> 00:15:13.160
    • -->
    • A lot of ways to illustrate that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • A lot of ways to illustrate that.
    • -->
    • 00:15:13.160 --> 00:15:15.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:13.160 --> 00:15:15.080
    • -->
    • One of the things he did was he was one of the funders
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of the things he did was he was one of the funders
    • -->
    • 00:15:15.080 --> 00:15:17.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:15.080 --> 00:15:17.250
    • -->
    • of the 1798 bible that was known as the Hot Press Bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the 1798 bible that was known as the Hot Press Bible.
    • -->
    • 00:15:17.250 --> 00:15:22.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:17.250 --> 00:15:22.040
    • -->
    • That Bible was the largest bible ever done in America
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That Bible was the largest bible ever done in America
    • -->
    • 00:15:22.040 --> 00:15:24.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:22.040 --> 00:15:24.270
    • -->
    • to that point and he's one of the guys who helped fund it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to that point and he's one of the guys who helped fund it.
    • -->
    • 00:15:24.270 --> 00:15:27.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:24.270 --> 00:15:27.110
    • -->
    • This is also a proclamation that he did while he was
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is also a proclamation that he did while he was
    • -->
    • 00:15:27.110 --> 00:15:30.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:27.110 --> 00:15:30.180
    • -->
    • governor of Pennsylvania and it's a proclamation
    • " data-timeend="">
    • governor of Pennsylvania and it's a proclamation
    • -->
    • 00:15:30.180 --> 00:15:33.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:30.180 --> 00:15:33.070
    • -->
    • saying hey guys, we need to observe the Sabbath.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • saying hey guys, we need to observe the Sabbath.
    • -->
    • 00:15:33.070 --> 00:15:36.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:33.070 --> 00:15:36.130
    • -->
    • Sabbath is really important that we observe it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Sabbath is really important that we observe it.
    • -->
    • 00:15:36.130 --> 00:15:38.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:36.130 --> 00:15:38.260
    • -->
    • Here's the governor calling the people to observe
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Here's the governor calling the people to observe
    • -->
    • 00:15:38.260 --> 00:15:41.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:38.260 --> 00:15:41.050
    • -->
    • the Sabbath in Pennsylvania.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Sabbath in Pennsylvania.
    • -->
    • 00:15:41.050 --> 00:15:43.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:41.050 --> 00:15:43.150
    • -->
    • So his faith was very evident but there's no question
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So his faith was very evident but there's no question
    • -->
    • 00:15:43.150 --> 00:15:45.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:43.150 --> 00:15:45.260
    • -->
    • that John Dickinson was a very significant founding father.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that John Dickinson was a very significant founding father.
    • -->
    • 00:15:45.260 --> 00:15:49.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:45.260 --> 00:15:49.080
    • -->
    • We don't know much about him today, which is unfortunate,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We don't know much about him today, which is unfortunate,
    • -->
    • 00:15:49.080 --> 00:15:51.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:49.080 --> 00:15:51.050
    • -->
    • we should because he played a huge role
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we should because he played a huge role
    • -->
    • 00:15:51.050 --> 00:15:54.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:51.050 --> 00:15:54.090
    • -->
    • in making us the nation that we are today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in making us the nation that we are today,
    • -->
    • 00:15:54.090 --> 00:15:56.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:54.090 --> 00:15:56.170
    • -->
    • with the freedoms and liberties that we celebrate
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with the freedoms and liberties that we celebrate
    • -->
    • 00:15:56.170 --> 00:15:58.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:56.170 --> 00:15:58.200
    • -->
    • on Constitution Day.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • on Constitution Day.
    • -->
    • 00:15:58.200 --> 00:16:00.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:15:58.200 --> 00:16:00.090
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:16:00.090 --> 00:16:03.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:00.090 --> 00:16:03.020
    • -->
    • - There's no more famous name in American history
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - There's no more famous name in American history
    • -->
    • 00:16:21.020 --> 00:16:22.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:21.020 --> 00:16:22.270
    • -->
    • than that of George Washington and rightfully so.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • than that of George Washington and rightfully so.
    • -->
    • 00:16:22.270 --> 00:16:25.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:22.270 --> 00:16:25.160
    • -->
    • If you go back in American history,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • If you go back in American history,
    • -->
    • 00:16:25.160 --> 00:16:27.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:25.160 --> 00:16:27.010
    • -->
    • nobody was more involved, from the America Revolution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • nobody was more involved, from the America Revolution,
    • -->
    • 00:16:27.010 --> 00:16:29.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:27.010 --> 00:16:29.060
    • -->
    • to the Constitutional Convention,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the Constitutional Convention,
    • -->
    • 00:16:29.060 --> 00:16:30.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:29.060 --> 00:16:30.240
    • -->
    • all the way up to when we become a nation and we have
    • " data-timeend="">
    • all the way up to when we become a nation and we have
    • -->
    • 00:16:30.240 --> 00:16:32.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:30.240 --> 00:16:32.140
    • -->
    • a president, nobody did more than George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a president, nobody did more than George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:16:32.140 --> 00:16:34.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:32.140 --> 00:16:34.160
    • -->
    • So it's fair that his name would be the most famous
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So it's fair that his name would be the most famous
    • -->
    • 00:16:34.160 --> 00:16:37.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:34.160 --> 00:16:37.070
    • -->
    • and yet with a famous name, very few people know
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and yet with a famous name, very few people know
    • -->
    • 00:16:37.070 --> 00:16:40.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:37.070 --> 00:16:40.190
    • -->
    • the story of George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the story of George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:16:40.190 --> 00:16:42.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:40.190 --> 00:16:42.240
    • -->
    • Very few people know that he was a boy his father died.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Very few people know that he was a boy his father died.
    • -->
    • 00:16:42.240 --> 00:16:45.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:42.240 --> 00:16:45.070
    • -->
    • In fact, living on a farm, he and his brother and his mom,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, living on a farm, he and his brother and his mom,
    • -->
    • 00:16:45.070 --> 00:16:48.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:45.070 --> 00:16:48.190
    • -->
    • they're trying to figure things out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they're trying to figure things out.
    • -->
    • 00:16:48.190 --> 00:16:50.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:48.190 --> 00:16:50.040
    • -->
    • When he was just a teenager, he starts off his business
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When he was just a teenager, he starts off his business
    • -->
    • 00:16:50.040 --> 00:16:52.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:50.040 --> 00:16:52.230
    • -->
    • as a surveyor and that's what he does full time.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as a surveyor and that's what he does full time.
    • -->
    • 00:16:52.230 --> 00:16:55.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:52.230 --> 00:16:55.160
    • -->
    • One of the cool things he did, he did a book
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of the cool things he did, he did a book
    • -->
    • 00:16:55.160 --> 00:16:57.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:55.160 --> 00:16:57.120
    • -->
    • that's known today as Washington's Rules of Civility.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that's known today as Washington's Rules of Civility.
    • -->
    • 00:16:57.120 --> 00:17:01.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:16:57.120 --> 00:17:01.020
    • -->
    • It's actually a 110 lessons on manners and moral decency
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's actually a 110 lessons on manners and moral decency
    • -->
    • 00:17:01.020 --> 00:17:04.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:01.020 --> 00:17:04.210
    • -->
    • of good behavior and company.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of good behavior and company.
    • -->
    • 00:17:04.210 --> 00:17:07.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:04.210 --> 00:17:07.060
    • -->
    • So what should you do around people?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So what should you do around people?
    • -->
    • 00:17:07.060 --> 00:17:09.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:07.060 --> 00:17:09.060
    • -->
    • Well, he wrote a book on exactly what you should do,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, he wrote a book on exactly what you should do,
    • -->
    • 00:17:09.060 --> 00:17:11.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:09.060 --> 00:17:11.180
    • -->
    • actually, he copied 110 of these virtues.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • actually, he copied 110 of these virtues.
    • -->
    • 00:17:11.180 --> 00:17:13.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:11.180 --> 00:17:13.120
    • -->
    • Nonetheless, this became very famous from Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Nonetheless, this became very famous from Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:17:13.120 --> 00:17:16.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:13.120 --> 00:17:16.060
    • -->
    • Well Washington, then as a young man,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well Washington, then as a young man,
    • -->
    • 00:17:16.060 --> 00:17:18.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:16.060 --> 00:17:18.130
    • -->
    • he's part of the military,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's part of the military,
    • -->
    • 00:17:18.130 --> 00:17:19.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:18.130 --> 00:17:19.180
    • -->
    • he's part of the French and Indian War,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's part of the French and Indian War,
    • -->
    • 00:17:19.180 --> 00:17:20.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:19.180 --> 00:17:20.250
    • -->
    • becomes a colonel in the French and Indian War.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • becomes a colonel in the French and Indian War.
    • -->
    • 00:17:20.250 --> 00:17:22.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:20.250 --> 00:17:22.140
    • -->
    • After the French and Indian War he retires,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • After the French and Indian War he retires,
    • -->
    • 00:17:22.140 --> 00:17:23.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:22.140 --> 00:17:23.290
    • -->
    • he goes back and he lives on a farm in Mt. Vernon
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he goes back and he lives on a farm in Mt. Vernon
    • -->
    • 00:17:23.290 --> 00:17:25.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:23.290 --> 00:17:25.280
    • -->
    • and he's there really, until the American Revolution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he's there really, until the American Revolution
    • -->
    • 00:17:25.280 --> 00:17:28.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:25.280 --> 00:17:28.190
    • -->
    • breaks out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • breaks out.
    • -->
    • 00:17:28.190 --> 00:17:29.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:28.190 --> 00:17:29.260
    • -->
    • He's member of the First Continental Congress.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's member of the First Continental Congress.
    • -->
    • 00:17:29.260 --> 00:17:31.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:29.260 --> 00:17:31.120
    • -->
    • He was unanimously selected to be the Commander in Chief
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was unanimously selected to be the Commander in Chief
    • -->
    • 00:17:31.120 --> 00:17:34.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:31.120 --> 00:17:34.010
    • -->
    • of our military, gets us all the way through
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of our military, gets us all the way through
    • -->
    • 00:17:34.010 --> 00:17:36.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:34.010 --> 00:17:36.050
    • -->
    • the Revolution, turns in his commission at the end
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Revolution, turns in his commission at the end
    • -->
    • 00:17:36.050 --> 00:17:38.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:36.050 --> 00:17:38.260
    • -->
    • of the Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:17:38.260 --> 00:17:40.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:38.260 --> 00:17:40.050
    • -->
    • After he's led our military to victory,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • After he's led our military to victory,
    • -->
    • 00:17:40.050 --> 00:17:41.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:40.050 --> 00:17:41.210
    • -->
    • many of the officers said,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • many of the officers said,
    • -->
    • 00:17:41.210 --> 00:17:43.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:41.210 --> 00:17:43.190
    • -->
    • "Washington, you should just be the king
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "Washington, you should just be the king
    • -->
    • 00:17:43.190 --> 00:17:45.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:43.190 --> 00:17:45.220
    • -->
    • "because we don't trust Congress.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "because we don't trust Congress.
    • -->
    • 00:17:45.220 --> 00:17:47.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:45.220 --> 00:17:47.020
    • -->
    • "Those guys are corrupt, we don't like em,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "Those guys are corrupt, we don't like em,
    • -->
    • 00:17:47.020 --> 00:17:49.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:47.020 --> 00:17:49.070
    • -->
    • "you just be our king."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "you just be our king."
    • -->
    • 00:17:49.070 --> 00:17:51.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:49.070 --> 00:17:51.070
    • -->
    • And he said guys, "We fought a war to get out from under
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And he said guys, "We fought a war to get out from under
    • -->
    • 00:17:51.070 --> 00:17:53.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:51.070 --> 00:17:53.230
    • -->
    • "kings, we don't need a king."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "kings, we don't need a king."
    • -->
    • 00:17:53.230 --> 00:17:55.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:53.230 --> 00:17:55.100
    • -->
    • He turned in his resignation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He turned in his resignation.
    • -->
    • 00:17:55.100 --> 00:17:56.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:55.100 --> 00:17:56.280
    • -->
    • Amazing act of humility.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Amazing act of humility.
    • -->
    • 00:17:56.280 --> 00:17:59.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:56.280 --> 00:17:59.040
    • -->
    • Recognition of what our nation needed.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Recognition of what our nation needed.
    • -->
    • 00:17:59.040 --> 00:18:01.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:17:59.040 --> 00:18:01.000
    • -->
    • Well, he then goes back home.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, he then goes back home.
    • -->
    • 00:18:01.000 --> 00:18:03.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:01.000 --> 00:18:03.080
    • -->
    • When we realize after the Articles of Confederation
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When we realize after the Articles of Confederation
    • -->
    • 00:18:03.080 --> 00:18:06.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:03.080 --> 00:18:06.070
    • -->
    • have failed, and we need something more,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • have failed, and we need something more,
    • -->
    • 00:18:06.070 --> 00:18:08.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:06.070 --> 00:18:08.000
    • -->
    • he is then chosen to be the leader at the
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he is then chosen to be the leader at the
    • -->
    • 00:18:08.000 --> 00:18:10.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:08.000 --> 00:18:10.090
    • -->
    • Constitutional Convention, after a state says actually,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Constitutional Convention, after a state says actually,
    • -->
    • 00:18:10.090 --> 00:18:12.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:10.090 --> 00:18:12.200
    • -->
    • we want you to go be a delegate for us.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we want you to go be a delegate for us.
    • -->
    • 00:18:12.200 --> 00:18:14.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:12.200 --> 00:18:14.050
    • -->
    • Represent our state.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Represent our state.
    • -->
    • 00:18:14.050 --> 00:18:15.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:14.050 --> 00:18:15.100
    • -->
    • The Constitution Convention, they say,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Constitution Convention, they say,
    • -->
    • 00:18:15.100 --> 00:18:16.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:15.100 --> 00:18:16.150
    • -->
    • we need you to lead this.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we need you to lead this.
    • -->
    • 00:18:16.150 --> 00:18:17.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:16.150 --> 00:18:17.290
    • -->
    • It was his leadership that led all of the men in the room
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It was his leadership that led all of the men in the room
    • -->
    • 00:18:17.290 --> 00:18:21.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:17.290 --> 00:18:21.240
    • -->
    • who had different opinions, they argued constantly
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who had different opinions, they argued constantly
    • -->
    • 00:18:21.240 --> 00:18:24.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:21.240 --> 00:18:24.140
    • -->
    • for weeks they argued, over what should be done.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for weeks they argued, over what should be done.
    • -->
    • 00:18:24.140 --> 00:18:27.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:24.140 --> 00:18:27.010
    • -->
    • It was George Washington's leadership that actually led
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It was George Washington's leadership that actually led
    • -->
    • 00:18:27.010 --> 00:18:29.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:27.010 --> 00:18:29.160
    • -->
    • to us having a constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to us having a constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:18:29.160 --> 00:18:31.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:29.160 --> 00:18:31.010
    • -->
    • At the end of the Constitution Convention,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At the end of the Constitution Convention,
    • -->
    • 00:18:31.010 --> 00:18:32.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:31.010 --> 00:18:32.260
    • -->
    • George Washington was then unanimously elected
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington was then unanimously elected
    • -->
    • 00:18:32.260 --> 00:18:35.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:32.260 --> 00:18:35.040
    • -->
    • to be the president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be the president.
    • -->
    • 00:18:35.040 --> 00:18:36.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:35.040 --> 00:18:36.170
    • -->
    • In fact, he was unanimously elected a second time
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, he was unanimously elected a second time
    • -->
    • 00:18:36.170 --> 00:18:38.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:36.170 --> 00:18:38.270
    • -->
    • to be the president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be the president.
    • -->
    • 00:18:38.270 --> 00:18:40.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:38.270 --> 00:18:40.040
    • -->
    • People recognized this man as amazing.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • People recognized this man as amazing.
    • -->
    • 00:18:40.040 --> 00:18:42.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:40.040 --> 00:18:42.070
    • -->
    • He's an incredible leader and at the end of two terms,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's an incredible leader and at the end of two terms,
    • -->
    • 00:18:42.070 --> 00:18:45.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:42.070 --> 00:18:45.040
    • -->
    • he was actually chosen to reign again, as the case were,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he was actually chosen to reign again, as the case were,
    • -->
    • 00:18:45.040 --> 00:18:48.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:45.040 --> 00:18:48.250
    • -->
    • to be president again.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be president again.
    • -->
    • 00:18:48.250 --> 00:18:50.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:48.250 --> 00:18:50.100
    • -->
    • He says, "Guys, no, no, no, don't vote for me again.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He says, "Guys, no, no, no, don't vote for me again.
    • -->
    • 00:18:50.100 --> 00:18:52.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:50.100 --> 00:18:52.060
    • -->
    • "We don't need to have somebody who is constantly in power.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "We don't need to have somebody who is constantly in power.
    • -->
    • 00:18:52.060 --> 00:18:55.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:52.060 --> 00:18:55.130
    • -->
    • "We need a turnover of power, that way we can protect
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "We need a turnover of power, that way we can protect
    • -->
    • 00:18:55.130 --> 00:18:57.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:55.130 --> 00:18:57.220
    • -->
    • "our republic."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "our republic."
    • -->
    • 00:18:57.220 --> 00:18:59.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:57.220 --> 00:18:59.090
    • -->
    • So he steps down after two terms.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he steps down after two terms.
    • -->
    • 00:18:59.090 --> 00:19:01.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:18:59.090 --> 00:19:01.130
    • -->
    • This man's leadership was absolutely amazing and yet, again,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This man's leadership was absolutely amazing and yet, again,
    • -->
    • 00:19:01.130 --> 00:19:05.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:01.130 --> 00:19:05.150
    • -->
    • today, so few people know many of his stories.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • today, so few people know many of his stories.
    • -->
    • 00:19:05.150 --> 00:19:08.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:05.150 --> 00:19:08.010
    • -->
    • One of my favorite stories when it comes to his military
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of my favorite stories when it comes to his military
    • -->
    • 00:19:08.010 --> 00:19:10.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:08.010 --> 00:19:10.080
    • -->
    • services goes back to when he was just a young colonel
    • " data-timeend="">
    • services goes back to when he was just a young colonel
    • -->
    • 00:19:10.080 --> 00:19:12.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:10.080 --> 00:19:12.260
    • -->
    • in the French and Indian War.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the French and Indian War.
    • -->
    • 00:19:12.260 --> 00:19:14.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:12.260 --> 00:19:14.100
    • -->
    • In fact at this time, when General Braddock was sent over
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact at this time, when General Braddock was sent over
    • -->
    • 00:19:14.100 --> 00:19:17.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:14.100 --> 00:19:17.100
    • -->
    • by the British, there was a battle going on
    • " data-timeend="">
    • by the British, there was a battle going on
    • -->
    • 00:19:17.100 --> 00:19:19.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:17.100 --> 00:19:19.110
    • -->
    • for the middle territory in the U.S. at the time
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the middle territory in the U.S. at the time
    • -->
    • 00:19:19.110 --> 00:19:22.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:19.110 --> 00:19:22.220
    • -->
    • and the French were fighting the British for who was
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the French were fighting the British for who was
    • -->
    • 00:19:22.220 --> 00:19:25.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:22.220 --> 00:19:25.210
    • -->
    • gonna get much of there territory.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • gonna get much of there territory.
    • -->
    • 00:19:25.210 --> 00:19:27.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:25.210 --> 00:19:27.050
    • -->
    • So when General Braddock, who was the British Commander
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So when General Braddock, who was the British Commander
    • -->
    • 00:19:27.050 --> 00:19:29.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:27.050 --> 00:19:29.260
    • -->
    • came to America, he'd heard stories of George Washington
    • " data-timeend="">
    • came to America, he'd heard stories of George Washington
    • -->
    • 00:19:29.260 --> 00:19:33.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:29.260 --> 00:19:33.020
    • -->
    • and was told you need him on your staff.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and was told you need him on your staff.
    • -->
    • 00:19:33.020 --> 00:19:35.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:33.020 --> 00:19:35.080
    • -->
    • George Washington became his aide to camp
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington became his aide to camp
    • -->
    • 00:19:35.080 --> 00:19:37.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:35.080 --> 00:19:37.220
    • -->
    • for the British general.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the British general.
    • -->
    • 00:19:37.220 --> 00:19:39.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:37.220 --> 00:19:39.070
    • -->
    • Well, when Washington came to fame, was actually a moment
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, when Washington came to fame, was actually a moment
    • -->
    • 00:19:39.070 --> 00:19:42.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:39.070 --> 00:19:42.130
    • -->
    • when the British general, they were sent to to to
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when the British general, they were sent to to to
    • -->
    • 00:19:42.130 --> 00:19:44.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:42.130 --> 00:19:44.230
    • -->
    • Fort Decane and drive out the French forces.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Fort Decane and drive out the French forces.
    • -->
    • 00:19:44.230 --> 00:19:47.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:44.230 --> 00:19:47.270
    • -->
    • On the way Washington, who's in charge of the Virginia
    • " data-timeend="">
    • On the way Washington, who's in charge of the Virginia
    • -->
    • 00:19:47.270 --> 00:19:50.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:47.270 --> 00:19:50.130
    • -->
    • Buckskins, who is apparently like a bunch of rednecks
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Buckskins, who is apparently like a bunch of rednecks
    • -->
    • 00:19:50.130 --> 00:19:53.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:50.130 --> 00:19:53.100
    • -->
    • with guns who join the military, join the British,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with guns who join the military, join the British,
    • -->
    • 00:19:53.100 --> 00:19:56.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:53.100 --> 00:19:56.220
    • -->
    • General Braddock is told that there might be
    • " data-timeend="">
    • General Braddock is told that there might be
    • -->
    • 00:19:56.220 --> 00:20:00.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:19:56.220 --> 00:20:00.050
    • -->
    • some Indians and some French hiding in the woods
    • " data-timeend="">
    • some Indians and some French hiding in the woods
    • -->
    • 00:20:00.050 --> 00:20:03.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:00.050 --> 00:20:03.080
    • -->
    • to ambush us.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to ambush us.
    • -->
    • 00:20:03.080 --> 00:20:04.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:03.080 --> 00:20:04.210
    • -->
    • Maybe we should send delegation ahead, a scouting party,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Maybe we should send delegation ahead, a scouting party,
    • -->
    • 00:20:04.210 --> 00:20:06.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:04.210 --> 00:20:06.090
    • -->
    • and go see.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and go see.
    • -->
    • 00:20:06.090 --> 00:20:07.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:06.090 --> 00:20:07.240
    • -->
    • General Braddock says, "Guys, we don't need to do that."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • General Braddock says, "Guys, we don't need to do that."
    • -->
    • 00:20:07.240 --> 00:20:09.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:07.240 --> 00:20:09.260
    • -->
    • Told Washington we really don't need your help.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Told Washington we really don't need your help.
    • -->
    • 00:20:09.260 --> 00:20:11.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:09.260 --> 00:20:11.230
    • -->
    • We don't need the help of your friendly Indians.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We don't need the help of your friendly Indians.
    • -->
    • 00:20:11.230 --> 00:20:13.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:11.230 --> 00:20:13.000
    • -->
    • We're fine.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We're fine.
    • -->
    • 00:20:13.000 --> 00:20:14.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:13.000 --> 00:20:14.170
    • -->
    • Well, the problem was, on the march to this fort,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, the problem was, on the march to this fort,
    • -->
    • 00:20:14.170 --> 00:20:16.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:14.170 --> 00:20:16.240
    • -->
    • they were ambushed.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they were ambushed.
    • -->
    • 00:20:16.240 --> 00:20:18.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:16.240 --> 00:20:18.080
    • -->
    • The ambush was so significant that every single mounted
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The ambush was so significant that every single mounted
    • -->
    • 00:20:18.080 --> 00:20:21.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:18.080 --> 00:20:21.040
    • -->
    • officer was killed in that battle except one.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • officer was killed in that battle except one.
    • -->
    • 00:20:21.040 --> 00:20:23.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:21.040 --> 00:20:23.250
    • -->
    • George Washington was the only mounted officer
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington was the only mounted officer
    • -->
    • 00:20:23.250 --> 00:20:26.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:23.250 --> 00:20:26.000
    • -->
    • to survive that attack.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to survive that attack.
    • -->
    • 00:20:26.000 --> 00:20:27.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:26.000 --> 00:20:27.070
    • -->
    • In fact, when General Braddock was shot down,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, when General Braddock was shot down,
    • -->
    • 00:20:27.070 --> 00:20:28.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:27.070 --> 00:20:28.290
    • -->
    • George Washington was assigned and given position
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington was assigned and given position
    • -->
    • 00:20:28.290 --> 00:20:32.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:28.290 --> 00:20:32.020
    • -->
    • as commander of the forces.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as commander of the forces.
    • -->
    • 00:20:32.020 --> 00:20:33.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:32.020 --> 00:20:33.160
    • -->
    • Now, when Washington as given position of commander
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, when Washington as given position of commander
    • -->
    • 00:20:33.160 --> 00:20:35.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:33.160 --> 00:20:35.180
    • -->
    • he realized this is a terrible situation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he realized this is a terrible situation.
    • -->
    • 00:20:35.180 --> 00:20:37.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:35.180 --> 00:20:37.030
    • -->
    • We need to get outta here.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We need to get outta here.
    • -->
    • 00:20:37.030 --> 00:20:38.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:37.030 --> 00:20:38.280
    • -->
    • He led the retreat back to the fort
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He led the retreat back to the fort
    • -->
    • 00:20:38.280 --> 00:20:40.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:38.280 --> 00:20:40.030
    • -->
    • where they had come from.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where they had come from.
    • -->
    • 00:20:40.030 --> 00:20:41.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:40.030 --> 00:20:41.180
    • -->
    • When he got back to the fort, he said he took off
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When he got back to the fort, he said he took off
    • -->
    • 00:20:41.180 --> 00:20:44.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:41.180 --> 00:20:44.000
    • -->
    • his jacket and there were four bullet holes
    • " data-timeend="">
    • his jacket and there were four bullet holes
    • -->
    • 00:20:44.000 --> 00:20:46.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:44.000 --> 00:20:46.040
    • -->
    • through his jacket.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • through his jacket.
    • -->
    • 00:20:46.040 --> 00:20:47.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:46.040 --> 00:20:47.120
    • -->
    • Another report says that he was brushing his hair
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Another report says that he was brushing his hair
    • -->
    • 00:20:47.120 --> 00:20:49.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:47.120 --> 00:20:49.160
    • -->
    • and bullet fragments came out of his hair.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and bullet fragments came out of his hair.
    • -->
    • 00:20:49.160 --> 00:20:51.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:49.160 --> 00:20:51.130
    • -->
    • He wrote that two horses had been shot out from under him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He wrote that two horses had been shot out from under him.
    • -->
    • 00:20:51.130 --> 00:20:53.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:51.130 --> 00:20:53.160
    • -->
    • This account was absolutely amazing.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This account was absolutely amazing.
    • -->
    • 00:20:53.160 --> 00:20:56.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:53.160 --> 00:20:56.050
    • -->
    • In fact, what's even equally amazing, is several years later
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, what's even equally amazing, is several years later
    • -->
    • 00:20:56.050 --> 00:20:58.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:56.050 --> 00:20:58.180
    • -->
    • there was a group of Indians that came and they met
    • " data-timeend="">
    • there was a group of Indians that came and they met
    • -->
    • 00:20:58.180 --> 00:21:01.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:20:58.180 --> 00:21:01.010
    • -->
    • George Washington in the woods.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington in the woods.
    • -->
    • 00:21:01.010 --> 00:21:02.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:01.010 --> 00:21:02.160
    • -->
    • They said you don't know us, but many years ago
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They said you don't know us, but many years ago
    • -->
    • 00:21:02.160 --> 00:21:05.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:02.160 --> 00:21:05.070
    • -->
    • we were in these very woods together and we were part of
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we were in these very woods together and we were part of
    • -->
    • 00:21:05.070 --> 00:21:08.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:05.070 --> 00:21:08.130
    • -->
    • the enemy that was fighting against you.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the enemy that was fighting against you.
    • -->
    • 00:21:08.130 --> 00:21:10.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:08.130 --> 00:21:10.250
    • -->
    • We told our braves to single you out and fire at you
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We told our braves to single you out and fire at you
    • -->
    • 00:21:10.250 --> 00:21:13.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:10.250 --> 00:21:13.150
    • -->
    • because we knew if we could kill you we could scatter
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because we knew if we could kill you we could scatter
    • -->
    • 00:21:13.150 --> 00:21:15.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:13.150 --> 00:21:15.190
    • -->
    • the troops, we could massacre them all.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the troops, we could massacre them all.
    • -->
    • 00:21:15.190 --> 00:21:17.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:15.190 --> 00:21:17.010
    • -->
    • One chief said, "I personally fired my rifle at you
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One chief said, "I personally fired my rifle at you
    • -->
    • 00:21:17.010 --> 00:21:19.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:17.010 --> 00:21:19.120
    • -->
    • "17 times.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "17 times.
    • -->
    • 00:21:19.120 --> 00:21:21.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:19.120 --> 00:21:21.150
    • -->
    • "A rifle which but for you, knew not how to miss."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "A rifle which but for you, knew not how to miss."
    • -->
    • 00:21:21.150 --> 00:21:24.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:21.150 --> 00:21:24.100
    • -->
    • He said, "I came all this way just to meet the man
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He said, "I came all this way just to meet the man
    • -->
    • 00:21:24.100 --> 00:21:27.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:24.100 --> 00:21:27.030
    • -->
    • "that God would not let die in battle."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "that God would not let die in battle."
    • -->
    • 00:21:27.030 --> 00:21:29.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:27.030 --> 00:21:29.070
    • -->
    • And true to the story, George Washington never
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And true to the story, George Washington never
    • -->
    • 00:21:29.070 --> 00:21:31.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:29.070 --> 00:21:31.270
    • -->
    • died in battle.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • died in battle.
    • -->
    • 00:21:31.270 --> 00:21:33.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:31.270 --> 00:21:33.120
    • -->
    • His entire military career, so many close encounters,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • His entire military career, so many close encounters,
    • -->
    • 00:21:33.120 --> 00:21:35.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:33.120 --> 00:21:35.270
    • -->
    • and yet God kept him safe through every bit of it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and yet God kept him safe through every bit of it.
    • -->
    • 00:21:35.270 --> 00:21:39.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:35.270 --> 00:21:39.180
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:21:39.180 --> 00:21:42.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:39.180 --> 00:21:42.100
    • -->
    • Among the many impressive character traits
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Among the many impressive character traits
    • -->
    • 00:21:42.100 --> 00:21:43.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:42.100 --> 00:21:43.250
    • -->
    • of George Washington that are largely forgotten today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of George Washington that are largely forgotten today,
    • -->
    • 00:21:43.250 --> 00:21:45.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:43.250 --> 00:21:45.210
    • -->
    • one of those is his faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • one of those is his faith.
    • -->
    • 00:21:45.210 --> 00:21:47.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:45.210 --> 00:21:47.050
    • -->
    • Now, today some people might acknowledge that
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, today some people might acknowledge that
    • -->
    • 00:21:47.050 --> 00:21:49.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:47.050 --> 00:21:49.270
    • -->
    • oh, he believed in God, maybe like divine providence,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • oh, he believed in God, maybe like divine providence,
    • -->
    • 00:21:49.270 --> 00:21:52.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:49.270 --> 00:21:52.110
    • -->
    • really probably though it's more accurate to describe him
    • " data-timeend="">
    • really probably though it's more accurate to describe him
    • -->
    • 00:21:52.110 --> 00:21:54.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:52.110 --> 00:21:54.190
    • -->
    • as a deist.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as a deist.
    • -->
    • 00:21:54.190 --> 00:21:56.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:54.190 --> 00:21:56.050
    • -->
    • At least that's what some people might argue today.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At least that's what some people might argue today.
    • -->
    • 00:21:56.050 --> 00:21:57.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:56.050 --> 00:21:57.100
    • -->
    • What's interesting though, is historically,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • What's interesting though, is historically,
    • -->
    • 00:21:57.100 --> 00:21:59.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:57.100 --> 00:21:59.080
    • -->
    • George Washington was always considered a Christian.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington was always considered a Christian.
    • -->
    • 00:21:59.080 --> 00:22:01.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:21:59.080 --> 00:22:01.170
    • -->
    • In fact, really, there wasn't a lot of doubt in that
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, really, there wasn't a lot of doubt in that
    • -->
    • 00:22:01.170 --> 00:22:04.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:01.170 --> 00:22:04.080
    • -->
    • for especially the people that knew him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for especially the people that knew him.
    • -->
    • 00:22:04.080 --> 00:22:06.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:04.080 --> 00:22:06.160
    • -->
    • In fact, there were many books written about
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, there were many books written about
    • -->
    • 00:22:06.160 --> 00:22:08.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:06.160 --> 00:22:08.100
    • -->
    • George Washington and his Christian faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington and his Christian faith.
    • -->
    • 00:22:08.100 --> 00:22:09.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:08.100 --> 00:22:09.280
    • -->
    • One of the guys who did the most, probably,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of the guys who did the most, probably,
    • -->
    • 00:22:09.280 --> 00:22:12.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:09.280 --> 00:22:12.160
    • -->
    • with the writings of George Washington was a guy
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with the writings of George Washington was a guy
    • -->
    • 00:22:12.160 --> 00:22:14.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:12.160 --> 00:22:14.040
    • -->
    • named Jared Sparks.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • named Jared Sparks.
    • -->
    • 00:22:14.040 --> 00:22:15.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:14.040 --> 00:22:15.190
    • -->
    • In fact, he's the first guy to ever really compile
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, he's the first guy to ever really compile
    • -->
    • 00:22:15.190 --> 00:22:17.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:15.190 --> 00:22:17.080
    • -->
    • the writings of George Washington and it was a mini-volume
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the writings of George Washington and it was a mini-volume
    • -->
    • 00:22:17.080 --> 00:22:19.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:17.080 --> 00:22:19.160
    • -->
    • set because there were a lot of letters
    • " data-timeend="">
    • set because there were a lot of letters
    • -->
    • 00:22:19.160 --> 00:22:21.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:19.160 --> 00:22:21.070
    • -->
    • of George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:22:21.070 --> 00:22:22.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:21.070 --> 00:22:22.190
    • -->
    • Now, the writings of Washington have grown since
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, the writings of Washington have grown since
    • -->
    • 00:22:22.190 --> 00:22:24.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:22.190 --> 00:22:24.060
    • -->
    • the original works of Jared Sparks because there have
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the original works of Jared Sparks because there have
    • -->
    • 00:22:24.060 --> 00:22:26.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:24.060 --> 00:22:26.200
    • -->
    • been many more letters that people have found
    • " data-timeend="">
    • been many more letters that people have found
    • -->
    • 00:22:26.200 --> 00:22:28.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:26.200 --> 00:22:28.120
    • -->
    • from George Washington, so those have been added
    • " data-timeend="">
    • from George Washington, so those have been added
    • -->
    • 00:22:28.120 --> 00:22:30.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:28.120 --> 00:22:30.050
    • -->
    • to the list.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the list.
    • -->
    • 00:22:30.050 --> 00:22:31.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:30.050 --> 00:22:31.120
    • -->
    • One of the cool things Jared Sparks did though,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of the cool things Jared Sparks did though,
    • -->
    • 00:22:31.120 --> 00:22:32.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:31.120 --> 00:22:32.200
    • -->
    • was he actually wrote the people
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was he actually wrote the people
    • -->
    • 00:22:32.200 --> 00:22:34.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:32.200 --> 00:22:34.090
    • -->
    • that knew George Washington personally.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that knew George Washington personally.
    • -->
    • 00:22:34.090 --> 00:22:35.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:34.090 --> 00:22:35.250
    • -->
    • He wrote other generals.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He wrote other generals.
    • -->
    • 00:22:35.250 --> 00:22:37.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:35.250 --> 00:22:37.060
    • -->
    • He wrote other political leaders.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He wrote other political leaders.
    • -->
    • 00:22:37.060 --> 00:22:38.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:37.060 --> 00:22:38.210
    • -->
    • He even wrote family members and said hey, can you tell me
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He even wrote family members and said hey, can you tell me
    • -->
    • 00:22:38.210 --> 00:22:40.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:38.210 --> 00:22:40.120
    • -->
    • what did George Washington think about this issue
    • " data-timeend="">
    • what did George Washington think about this issue
    • -->
    • 00:22:40.120 --> 00:22:42.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:40.120 --> 00:22:42.150
    • -->
    • or this topic or this subject.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • or this topic or this subject.
    • -->
    • 00:22:42.150 --> 00:22:44.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:42.150 --> 00:22:44.290
    • -->
    • One of the things that Jared Sparks wanted to know
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of the things that Jared Sparks wanted to know
    • -->
    • 00:22:44.290 --> 00:22:46.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:44.290 --> 00:22:46.260
    • -->
    • was where did Washington really stand when it comes
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was where did Washington really stand when it comes
    • -->
    • 00:22:46.260 --> 00:22:48.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:46.260 --> 00:22:48.190
    • -->
    • to Christianity, 'cause he knew the impression he had.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to Christianity, 'cause he knew the impression he had.
    • -->
    • 00:22:48.190 --> 00:22:50.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:48.190 --> 00:22:50.230
    • -->
    • But he thought, I want to know what the people
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But he thought, I want to know what the people
    • -->
    • 00:22:50.230 --> 00:22:52.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:50.230 --> 00:22:52.130
    • -->
    • that knew George Washington thought about him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that knew George Washington thought about him.
    • -->
    • 00:22:52.130 --> 00:22:53.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:52.130 --> 00:22:53.280
    • -->
    • One of the family members he wrote to was Nelly Park Custis.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • One of the family members he wrote to was Nelly Park Custis.
    • -->
    • 00:22:53.280 --> 00:22:57.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:53.280 --> 00:22:57.100
    • -->
    • Now, Nelly Park Custis was actually the granddaughter
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, Nelly Park Custis was actually the granddaughter
    • -->
    • 00:22:57.100 --> 00:23:00.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:22:57.100 --> 00:23:00.080
    • -->
    • of George Washington's wife, Martha Custis,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of George Washington's wife, Martha Custis,
    • -->
    • 00:23:00.080 --> 00:23:03.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:00.080 --> 00:23:03.000
    • -->
    • and George Washington and Martha actually adopted her
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and George Washington and Martha actually adopted her
    • -->
    • 00:23:03.000 --> 00:23:05.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:03.000 --> 00:23:05.110
    • -->
    • and she came and lived with them and their family.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and she came and lived with them and their family.
    • -->
    • 00:23:05.110 --> 00:23:07.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:05.110 --> 00:23:07.130
    • -->
    • Well after living with George Washington for many years,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well after living with George Washington for many years,
    • -->
    • 00:23:07.130 --> 00:23:09.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:07.130 --> 00:23:09.140
    • -->
    • she had a pretty good look into his life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • she had a pretty good look into his life.
    • -->
    • 00:23:09.140 --> 00:23:11.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:09.140 --> 00:23:11.020
    • -->
    • So Jared Sparks wrote and said, "Can you tell me
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So Jared Sparks wrote and said, "Can you tell me
    • -->
    • 00:23:11.020 --> 00:23:14.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:11.020 --> 00:23:14.010
    • -->
    • "about his Christian faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "about his Christian faith.
    • -->
    • 00:23:14.010 --> 00:23:15.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:14.010 --> 00:23:15.150
    • -->
    • "Was he a Christian, did he really believe in that?"
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "Was he a Christian, did he really believe in that?"
    • -->
    • 00:23:15.150 --> 00:23:16.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:15.150 --> 00:23:16.210
    • -->
    • And I want to read you part of a letter,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And I want to read you part of a letter,
    • -->
    • 00:23:16.210 --> 00:23:18.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:16.210 --> 00:23:18.100
    • -->
    • what she wrote back to Jared Sparks about the faith
    • " data-timeend="">
    • what she wrote back to Jared Sparks about the faith
    • -->
    • 00:23:18.100 --> 00:23:21.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:18.100 --> 00:23:21.060
    • -->
    • of George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:23:21.060 --> 00:23:22.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:21.060 --> 00:23:22.200
    • -->
    • She said, "I should have thought it a greatest heresy
    • " data-timeend="">
    • She said, "I should have thought it a greatest heresy
    • -->
    • 00:23:22.200 --> 00:23:24.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:22.200 --> 00:23:24.250
    • -->
    • "to doubt his firm belief in Christianity.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "to doubt his firm belief in Christianity.
    • -->
    • 00:23:24.250 --> 00:23:27.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:24.250 --> 00:23:27.050
    • -->
    • "His life, his writings, prove that he was a Christian."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "His life, his writings, prove that he was a Christian."
    • -->
    • 00:23:27.050 --> 00:23:30.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:27.050 --> 00:23:30.260
    • -->
    • She says in my mind, there's no doubt.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • She says in my mind, there's no doubt.
    • -->
    • 00:23:30.260 --> 00:23:32.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:30.260 --> 00:23:32.140
    • -->
    • Now she gives several examples why, but here's how
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now she gives several examples why, but here's how
    • -->
    • 00:23:32.140 --> 00:23:35.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:32.140 --> 00:23:35.160
    • -->
    • she concludes the letter, she says,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • she concludes the letter, she says,
    • -->
    • 00:23:35.160 --> 00:23:37.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:35.160 --> 00:23:37.200
    • -->
    • "Is it necessary that anyone should certify
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "Is it necessary that anyone should certify
    • -->
    • 00:23:37.200 --> 00:23:40.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:37.200 --> 00:23:40.210
    • -->
    • "General Washington avowed himself to me,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "General Washington avowed himself to me,
    • -->
    • 00:23:40.210 --> 00:23:42.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:40.210 --> 00:23:42.290
    • -->
    • "a believer in Christianity.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "a believer in Christianity.
    • -->
    • 00:23:42.290 --> 00:23:44.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:42.290 --> 00:23:44.140
    • -->
    • "As well, may we question his patriotism."
    • " data-timeend="">
    • "As well, may we question his patriotism."
    • -->
    • 00:23:44.140 --> 00:23:47.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:44.140 --> 00:23:47.190
    • -->
    • According to Nelly Custis, you might as well question
    • " data-timeend="">
    • According to Nelly Custis, you might as well question
    • -->
    • 00:23:47.190 --> 00:23:50.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:47.190 --> 00:23:50.050
    • -->
    • the patriotism of George Washington if you start
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the patriotism of George Washington if you start
    • -->
    • 00:23:50.050 --> 00:23:52.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:50.050 --> 00:23:52.050
    • -->
    • questioning his Christianity.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • questioning his Christianity.
    • -->
    • 00:23:52.050 --> 00:23:53.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:52.050 --> 00:23:53.260
    • -->
    • That's how clear his Christianity was,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That's how clear his Christianity was,
    • -->
    • 00:23:53.260 --> 00:23:56.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:53.260 --> 00:23:56.000
    • -->
    • because nobody is gonna question the patriotism
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because nobody is gonna question the patriotism
    • -->
    • 00:23:56.000 --> 00:23:58.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:56.000 --> 00:23:58.050
    • -->
    • of George Washington, but neither should we question
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of George Washington, but neither should we question
    • -->
    • 00:23:58.050 --> 00:24:01.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:23:58.050 --> 00:24:01.120
    • -->
    • his Christianity.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • his Christianity.
    • -->
    • 00:24:01.120 --> 00:24:02.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:01.120 --> 00:24:02.090
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:24:02.090 --> 00:24:05.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:02.090 --> 00:24:05.010
    • -->
    • - We now find ourself in Orange County, Virginia
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - We now find ourself in Orange County, Virginia
    • -->
    • 00:24:22.280 --> 00:24:25.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:22.280 --> 00:24:25.240
    • -->
    • and right behind me is Montpelier.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and right behind me is Montpelier.
    • -->
    • 00:24:25.240 --> 00:24:27.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:25.240 --> 00:24:27.290
    • -->
    • That is the home of James Madison, who was a signer
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That is the home of James Madison, who was a signer
    • -->
    • 00:24:27.290 --> 00:24:30.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:27.290 --> 00:24:30.190
    • -->
    • of the Constitution, he's also the fourth president
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Constitution, he's also the fourth president
    • -->
    • 00:24:30.190 --> 00:24:32.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:30.190 --> 00:24:32.190
    • -->
    • of the United States.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the United States.
    • -->
    • 00:24:32.190 --> 00:24:34.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:32.190 --> 00:24:34.040
    • -->
    • Now, the center part of the house, the taller part there,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, the center part of the house, the taller part there,
    • -->
    • 00:24:34.040 --> 00:24:35.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:34.040 --> 00:24:35.210
    • -->
    • kind of block in the middle was built by his father,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • kind of block in the middle was built by his father,
    • -->
    • 00:24:35.210 --> 00:24:38.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:35.210 --> 00:24:38.000
    • -->
    • James Madison Sr.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison Sr.
    • -->
    • 00:24:38.000 --> 00:24:39.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:38.000 --> 00:24:39.210
    • -->
    • The two wings were added by James Madison Jr.,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The two wings were added by James Madison Jr.,
    • -->
    • 00:24:39.210 --> 00:24:42.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:39.210 --> 00:24:42.090
    • -->
    • the signer and the president, when he came back
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the signer and the president, when he came back
    • -->
    • 00:24:42.090 --> 00:24:44.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:42.090 --> 00:24:44.030
    • -->
    • after his presidency.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • after his presidency.
    • -->
    • 00:24:44.030 --> 00:24:46.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:44.030 --> 00:24:46.110
    • -->
    • Interesting bit of trivia, in the home behind us here,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Interesting bit of trivia, in the home behind us here,
    • -->
    • 00:24:46.110 --> 00:24:49.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:46.110 --> 00:24:49.010
    • -->
    • Montpelier, actually lived a big Hollywood A-list star,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Montpelier, actually lived a big Hollywood A-list star,
    • -->
    • 00:24:49.010 --> 00:24:52.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:49.010 --> 00:24:52.220
    • -->
    • Randolph Scott who had more than 100 movies.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Randolph Scott who had more than 100 movies.
    • -->
    • 00:24:52.220 --> 00:24:54.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:52.220 --> 00:24:54.290
    • -->
    • He was married to one of the Madison descendants.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was married to one of the Madison descendants.
    • -->
    • 00:24:54.290 --> 00:24:57.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:54.290 --> 00:24:57.030
    • -->
    • In 1817, having finished his presidency,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In 1817, having finished his presidency,
    • -->
    • 00:24:57.030 --> 00:25:00.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:24:57.030 --> 00:25:00.020
    • -->
    • James Madison retired back to Montpelier after 40 years
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison retired back to Montpelier after 40 years
    • -->
    • 00:25:00.020 --> 00:25:03.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:00.020 --> 00:25:03.080
    • -->
    • of public service.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of public service.
    • -->
    • 00:25:03.080 --> 00:25:04.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:03.080 --> 00:25:04.220
    • -->
    • But that doesn't mean he was retired and not doing anything.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But that doesn't mean he was retired and not doing anything.
    • -->
    • 00:25:04.220 --> 00:25:07.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:04.220 --> 00:25:07.210
    • -->
    • As a matter of fact, he came back in time to help his friend
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As a matter of fact, he came back in time to help his friend
    • -->
    • 00:25:07.210 --> 00:25:09.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:07.210 --> 00:25:09.270
    • -->
    • Thomas Jefferson, who had recently founded
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Thomas Jefferson, who had recently founded
    • -->
    • 00:25:09.270 --> 00:25:11.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:09.270 --> 00:25:11.250
    • -->
    • the University of Virginia.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the University of Virginia.
    • -->
    • 00:25:11.250 --> 00:25:13.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:11.250 --> 00:25:13.020
    • -->
    • James Madison became a visitor or a regent
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison became a visitor or a regent
    • -->
    • 00:25:13.020 --> 00:25:15.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:13.020 --> 00:25:15.170
    • -->
    • for the University of Virginia and Thomas Jefferson
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the University of Virginia and Thomas Jefferson
    • -->
    • 00:25:15.170 --> 00:25:17.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:15.170 --> 00:25:17.260
    • -->
    • assigned him with finding good theological books
    • " data-timeend="">
    • assigned him with finding good theological books
    • -->
    • 00:25:17.260 --> 00:25:20.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:17.260 --> 00:25:20.100
    • -->
    • to put in the library and James Madison, with his prior
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to put in the library and James Madison, with his prior
    • -->
    • 00:25:20.100 --> 00:25:22.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:20.100 --> 00:25:22.120
    • -->
    • study as a minister, when he thought he might be a minister,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • study as a minister, when he thought he might be a minister,
    • -->
    • 00:25:22.120 --> 00:25:25.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:22.120 --> 00:25:25.240
    • -->
    • knew all sorts of books,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • knew all sorts of books,
    • -->
    • 00:25:25.240 --> 00:25:27.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:25.240 --> 00:25:27.010
    • -->
    • so got that in the university library.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • so got that in the university library.
    • -->
    • 00:25:27.010 --> 00:25:28.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:27.010 --> 00:25:28.140
    • -->
    • Then when Thomas Jefferson died, James Madison
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then when Thomas Jefferson died, James Madison
    • -->
    • 00:25:28.140 --> 00:25:30.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:28.140 --> 00:25:30.100
    • -->
    • actually became the second rector
    • " data-timeend="">
    • actually became the second rector
    • -->
    • 00:25:30.100 --> 00:25:32.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:30.100 --> 00:25:32.220
    • -->
    • for the University of Virginia.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the University of Virginia.
    • -->
    • 00:25:32.220 --> 00:25:34.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:32.220 --> 00:25:34.020
    • -->
    • Also, while he was retired back here,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Also, while he was retired back here,
    • -->
    • 00:25:34.020 --> 00:25:36.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:34.020 --> 00:25:36.140
    • -->
    • the Missouri Compromise question came up.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Missouri Compromise question came up.
    • -->
    • 00:25:36.140 --> 00:25:38.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:36.140 --> 00:25:38.200
    • -->
    • Prior to the Missouri Compromise of 1820,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Prior to the Missouri Compromise of 1820,
    • -->
    • 00:25:38.200 --> 00:25:40.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:38.200 --> 00:25:40.290
    • -->
    • the Congress, the National Congress had been working
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Congress, the National Congress had been working
    • -->
    • 00:25:40.290 --> 00:25:43.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:40.290 --> 00:25:43.140
    • -->
    • to end slavery.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to end slavery.
    • -->
    • 00:25:43.140 --> 00:25:44.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:43.140 --> 00:25:44.270
    • -->
    • So you had the northwest ordinance said you can't have
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So you had the northwest ordinance said you can't have
    • -->
    • 00:25:44.270 --> 00:25:46.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:44.270 --> 00:25:46.130
    • -->
    • any federal territory with slavery.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • any federal territory with slavery.
    • -->
    • 00:25:46.130 --> 00:25:48.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:46.130 --> 00:25:48.140
    • -->
    • You had the banning the exportation of slaves,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You had the banning the exportation of slaves,
    • -->
    • 00:25:48.140 --> 00:25:50.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:48.140 --> 00:25:50.280
    • -->
    • banning the importation of slaves.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • banning the importation of slaves.
    • -->
    • 00:25:50.280 --> 00:25:52.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:50.280 --> 00:25:52.070
    • -->
    • They were trying to reduce it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They were trying to reduce it.
    • -->
    • 00:25:52.070 --> 00:25:53.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:52.070 --> 00:25:53.250
    • -->
    • In 1820 Congress said no, let's go the other way.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In 1820 Congress said no, let's go the other way.
    • -->
    • 00:25:53.250 --> 00:25:56.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:53.250 --> 00:25:56.080
    • -->
    • Let's expand slavery.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Let's expand slavery.
    • -->
    • 00:25:56.080 --> 00:25:57.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:56.080 --> 00:25:57.230
    • -->
    • So what they said is, these federal territories where
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So what they said is, these federal territories where
    • -->
    • 00:25:57.230 --> 00:26:00.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:25:57.230 --> 00:26:00.080
    • -->
    • we said you couldn't have slavery,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we said you couldn't have slavery,
    • -->
    • 00:26:00.080 --> 00:26:01.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:00.080 --> 00:26:01.120
    • -->
    • let's let some slaves be there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • let's let some slaves be there.
    • -->
    • 00:26:01.120 --> 00:26:03.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:01.120 --> 00:26:03.120
    • -->
    • So we started accepting states in the United States
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So we started accepting states in the United States
    • -->
    • 00:26:03.120 --> 00:26:06.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:03.120 --> 00:26:06.040
    • -->
    • that were pro-slavery and instead of slavery reducing
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that were pro-slavery and instead of slavery reducing
    • -->
    • 00:26:06.040 --> 00:26:08.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:06.040 --> 00:26:08.080
    • -->
    • it as now growing and that as a great concern
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it as now growing and that as a great concern
    • -->
    • 00:26:08.080 --> 00:26:10.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:08.080 --> 00:26:10.160
    • -->
    • to James Madison.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to James Madison.
    • -->
    • 00:26:10.160 --> 00:26:11.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:10.160 --> 00:26:11.230
    • -->
    • He actually predicted that that would lead
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He actually predicted that that would lead
    • -->
    • 00:26:11.230 --> 00:26:14.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:11.230 --> 00:26:14.040
    • -->
    • to a conflict between the free states and the slave states,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to a conflict between the free states and the slave states,
    • -->
    • 00:26:14.040 --> 00:26:16.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:14.040 --> 00:26:16.250
    • -->
    • a civil war and so he was accurate in that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a civil war and so he was accurate in that.
    • -->
    • 00:26:16.250 --> 00:26:19.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:16.250 --> 00:26:19.100
    • -->
    • You look at all he did, as a signer of the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You look at all he did, as a signer of the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:26:19.100 --> 00:26:21.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:19.100 --> 00:26:21.220
    • -->
    • as one of the master builders of the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as one of the master builders of the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:26:21.220 --> 00:26:24.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:21.220 --> 00:26:24.170
    • -->
    • as a leader in securing religious liberties,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as a leader in securing religious liberties,
    • -->
    • 00:26:24.170 --> 00:26:26.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:24.170 --> 00:26:26.240
    • -->
    • and also as a leader in trying to secure the end of slavery,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and also as a leader in trying to secure the end of slavery,
    • -->
    • 00:26:26.240 --> 00:26:30.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:26.240 --> 00:26:30.070
    • -->
    • James Madison was a significant founding father.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison was a significant founding father.
    • -->
    • 00:26:30.070 --> 00:26:33.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:30.070 --> 00:26:33.160
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:26:33.160 --> 00:26:35.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:33.160 --> 00:26:35.200
    • -->
    • James Madison, like many of Virginia's founding fathers,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison, like many of Virginia's founding fathers,
    • -->
    • 00:26:35.200 --> 00:26:37.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:35.200 --> 00:26:37.160
    • -->
    • owned slaves.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • owned slaves.
    • -->
    • 00:26:37.160 --> 00:26:39.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:37.160 --> 00:26:39.160
    • -->
    • In fact, you can see some of the slave quarters
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, you can see some of the slave quarters
    • -->
    • 00:26:39.160 --> 00:26:41.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:39.160 --> 00:26:41.100
    • -->
    • right here behind me at Montpelier.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • right here behind me at Montpelier.
    • -->
    • 00:26:41.100 --> 00:26:43.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:41.100 --> 00:26:43.070
    • -->
    • Now, Madison, like many of Virginia's founding fathers,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, Madison, like many of Virginia's founding fathers,
    • -->
    • 00:26:43.070 --> 00:26:45.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:43.070 --> 00:26:45.240
    • -->
    • did not like slavery, did not want to be part of slavery,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • did not like slavery, did not want to be part of slavery,
    • -->
    • 00:26:45.240 --> 00:26:48.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:45.240 --> 00:26:48.090
    • -->
    • but they were.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but they were.
    • -->
    • 00:26:48.090 --> 00:26:49.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:48.090 --> 00:26:49.250
    • -->
    • James Madison actually said he went off to study for the law
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison actually said he went off to study for the law
    • -->
    • 00:26:49.250 --> 00:26:52.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:49.250 --> 00:26:52.290
    • -->
    • because he wanted to have some trade that did not
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because he wanted to have some trade that did not
    • -->
    • 00:26:52.290 --> 00:26:55.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:52.290 --> 00:26:55.070
    • -->
    • depend on slaves.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • depend on slaves.
    • -->
    • 00:26:55.070 --> 00:26:56.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:55.070 --> 00:26:56.280
    • -->
    • So if he owned slave though, why not just set em free?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So if he owned slave though, why not just set em free?
    • -->
    • 00:26:56.280 --> 00:27:00.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:26:56.280 --> 00:27:00.190
    • -->
    • Because in Virginia, the state law was very, very,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Because in Virginia, the state law was very, very,
    • -->
    • 00:27:00.190 --> 00:27:03.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:00.190 --> 00:27:03.100
    • -->
    • very complicated.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • very complicated.
    • -->
    • 00:27:03.100 --> 00:27:04.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:03.100 --> 00:27:04.160
    • -->
    • It's kinda like the IRS code today.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's kinda like the IRS code today.
    • -->
    • 00:27:04.160 --> 00:27:06.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:04.160 --> 00:27:06.010
    • -->
    • I mean, there's so many provisions.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I mean, there's so many provisions.
    • -->
    • 00:27:06.010 --> 00:27:07.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:06.010 --> 00:27:07.170
    • -->
    • There was a period in 1782 they passed the emancipation
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There was a period in 1782 they passed the emancipation
    • -->
    • 00:27:07.170 --> 00:27:09.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:07.170 --> 00:27:09.290
    • -->
    • law that you could set your slaves free,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • law that you could set your slaves free,
    • -->
    • 00:27:09.290 --> 00:27:11.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:09.290 --> 00:27:11.140
    • -->
    • but in 1785 they repealed that and it just went on and on.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but in 1785 they repealed that and it just went on and on.
    • -->
    • 00:27:11.140 --> 00:27:14.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:11.140 --> 00:27:14.170
    • -->
    • If you had dowry slaves, which are slaves inherited
    • " data-timeend="">
    • If you had dowry slaves, which are slaves inherited
    • -->
    • 00:27:14.170 --> 00:27:17.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:14.170 --> 00:27:17.050
    • -->
    • by the wife, then they can never be freed.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • by the wife, then they can never be freed.
    • -->
    • 00:27:17.050 --> 00:27:19.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:17.050 --> 00:27:19.180
    • -->
    • If you wanted a slave free they had to be from meritorious
    • " data-timeend="">
    • If you wanted a slave free they had to be from meritorious
    • -->
    • 00:27:19.180 --> 00:27:22.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:19.180 --> 00:27:22.020
    • -->
    • service and the legislature had to determine that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • service and the legislature had to determine that.
    • -->
    • 00:27:22.020 --> 00:27:25.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:22.020 --> 00:27:25.020
    • -->
    • Matter of fact, one of the great black heroes
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Matter of fact, one of the great black heroes
    • -->
    • 00:27:25.020 --> 00:27:27.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:25.020 --> 00:27:27.050
    • -->
    • of the American Revolution, James Armistead,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the American Revolution, James Armistead,
    • -->
    • 00:27:27.050 --> 00:27:28.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:27.050 --> 00:27:28.290
    • -->
    • his owner freed him a the end of the Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • his owner freed him a the end of the Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:27:28.290 --> 00:27:30.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:28.290 --> 00:27:30.230
    • -->
    • But he still wasn't free because it took an act
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But he still wasn't free because it took an act
    • -->
    • 00:27:30.230 --> 00:27:33.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:30.230 --> 00:27:33.110
    • -->
    • of the Virginia legislature individually to free him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Virginia legislature individually to free him.
    • -->
    • 00:27:33.110 --> 00:27:35.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:33.110 --> 00:27:35.220
    • -->
    • As an example of how complicated the laws were,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As an example of how complicated the laws were,
    • -->
    • 00:27:35.220 --> 00:27:38.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:35.220 --> 00:27:38.240
    • -->
    • in 1791, Robert Carter,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in 1791, Robert Carter,
    • -->
    • 00:27:38.240 --> 00:27:40.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:38.240 --> 00:27:40.290
    • -->
    • who owned 500 slaves here in Virginia,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who owned 500 slaves here in Virginia,
    • -->
    • 00:27:40.290 --> 00:27:42.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:40.290 --> 00:27:42.230
    • -->
    • was part of a revival meeting where he heard the gospel
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was part of a revival meeting where he heard the gospel
    • -->
    • 00:27:42.230 --> 00:27:45.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:42.230 --> 00:27:45.270
    • -->
    • of Christ, he became a Christian, he said I'm going
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of Christ, he became a Christian, he said I'm going
    • -->
    • 00:27:45.270 --> 00:27:48.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:45.270 --> 00:27:48.120
    • -->
    • to release all 500 of my slaves.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to release all 500 of my slaves.
    • -->
    • 00:27:48.120 --> 00:27:50.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:48.120 --> 00:27:50.090
    • -->
    • He was very wealthy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was very wealthy.
    • -->
    • 00:27:50.090 --> 00:27:51.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:50.090 --> 00:27:51.080
    • -->
    • He released them all.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He released them all.
    • -->
    • 00:27:51.080 --> 00:27:52.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:51.080 --> 00:27:52.160
    • -->
    • 60 years later, they're still working to release
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 60 years later, they're still working to release
    • -->
    • 00:27:52.160 --> 00:27:56.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:52.160 --> 00:27:56.140
    • -->
    • the 500 slaves that he freed.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the 500 slaves that he freed.
    • -->
    • 00:27:56.140 --> 00:27:58.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:56.140 --> 00:27:58.030
    • -->
    • So it's a very complicated situation and that's really
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So it's a very complicated situation and that's really
    • -->
    • 00:27:58.030 --> 00:28:01.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:27:58.030 --> 00:28:01.120
    • -->
    • where Madison found himself.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where Madison found himself.
    • -->
    • 00:28:01.120 --> 00:28:03.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:01.120 --> 00:28:03.090
    • -->
    • In this part of the country, they had a different approach.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In this part of the country, they had a different approach.
    • -->
    • 00:28:03.090 --> 00:28:05.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:03.090 --> 00:28:05.040
    • -->
    • Up north, they wanted emancipation period.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Up north, they wanted emancipation period.
    • -->
    • 00:28:05.040 --> 00:28:07.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:05.040 --> 00:28:07.080
    • -->
    • There never was a time in Massachusetts when blacks
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There never was a time in Massachusetts when blacks
    • -->
    • 00:28:07.080 --> 00:28:09.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:07.080 --> 00:28:09.210
    • -->
    • couldn't vote.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • couldn't vote.
    • -->
    • 00:28:09.210 --> 00:28:11.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:09.210 --> 00:28:11.040
    • -->
    • In the deep south, there's never going to be emancipation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In the deep south, there's never going to be emancipation.
    • -->
    • 00:28:11.040 --> 00:28:13.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:11.040 --> 00:28:13.100
    • -->
    • But here in the central colonies, it's like,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But here in the central colonies, it's like,
    • -->
    • 00:28:13.100 --> 00:28:15.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:13.100 --> 00:28:15.100
    • -->
    • we want slaves freed but man, there's so much racism here
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we want slaves freed but man, there's so much racism here
    • -->
    • 00:28:15.100 --> 00:28:18.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:15.100 --> 00:28:18.240
    • -->
    • that I guess the best way to do that is maybe
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that I guess the best way to do that is maybe
    • -->
    • 00:28:18.240 --> 00:28:21.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:18.240 --> 00:28:21.050
    • -->
    • have colonization societies and send them back to Africa,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • have colonization societies and send them back to Africa,
    • -->
    • 00:28:21.050 --> 00:28:23.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:21.050 --> 00:28:23.280
    • -->
    • where's there not so much prejudice.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where's there not so much prejudice.
    • -->
    • 00:28:23.280 --> 00:28:26.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:23.280 --> 00:28:26.030
    • -->
    • So there really were different approaches to how
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So there really were different approaches to how
    • -->
    • 00:28:26.030 --> 00:28:27.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:26.030 --> 00:28:27.280
    • -->
    • to solve the problem.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to solve the problem.
    • -->
    • 00:28:27.280 --> 00:28:29.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:27.280 --> 00:28:29.140
    • -->
    • So James Madison, looking at this, was really kind of stuck
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So James Madison, looking at this, was really kind of stuck
    • -->
    • 00:28:29.140 --> 00:28:32.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:29.140 --> 00:28:32.280
    • -->
    • with something he didn't want, didn't want to be part of,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with something he didn't want, didn't want to be part of,
    • -->
    • 00:28:32.280 --> 00:28:35.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:32.280 --> 00:28:35.080
    • -->
    • but he had it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but he had it.
    • -->
    • 00:28:35.080 --> 00:28:36.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:35.080 --> 00:28:36.210
    • -->
    • He worked at the Constitution Convention to make sure
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He worked at the Constitution Convention to make sure
    • -->
    • 00:28:36.210 --> 00:28:38.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:36.210 --> 00:28:38.020
    • -->
    • the word slavery did not enter the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the word slavery did not enter the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:28:38.020 --> 00:28:40.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:38.020 --> 00:28:40.130
    • -->
    • as he said the didn't want the Constitution tainted
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as he said the didn't want the Constitution tainted
    • -->
    • 00:28:40.130 --> 00:28:43.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:40.130 --> 00:28:43.040
    • -->
    • with that word.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with that word.
    • -->
    • 00:28:43.040 --> 00:28:44.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:43.040 --> 00:28:44.170
    • -->
    • So he kept the word out because he did think that slavery
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he kept the word out because he did think that slavery
    • -->
    • 00:28:44.170 --> 00:28:46.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:44.170 --> 00:28:46.110
    • -->
    • was a taint on America and he didn't want it tainting
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was a taint on America and he didn't want it tainting
    • -->
    • 00:28:46.110 --> 00:28:48.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:46.110 --> 00:28:48.280
    • -->
    • the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:28:48.280 --> 00:28:50.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:48.280 --> 00:28:50.060
    • -->
    • He also worked on antislavery laws.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He also worked on antislavery laws.
    • -->
    • 00:28:50.060 --> 00:28:51.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:50.060 --> 00:28:51.250
    • -->
    • Now, being in Virginia, none of them got passed.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, being in Virginia, none of them got passed.
    • -->
    • 00:28:51.250 --> 00:28:54.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:51.250 --> 00:28:54.120
    • -->
    • Thomas Jefferson introduced an abolition law here,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Thomas Jefferson introduced an abolition law here,
    • -->
    • 00:28:54.120 --> 00:28:56.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:54.120 --> 00:28:56.020
    • -->
    • it got voted down in the legislature.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it got voted down in the legislature.
    • -->
    • 00:28:56.020 --> 00:28:58.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:56.020 --> 00:28:58.160
    • -->
    • George Washington worked for abolition, it got voted down.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington worked for abolition, it got voted down.
    • -->
    • 00:28:58.160 --> 00:29:01.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:28:58.160 --> 00:29:01.000
    • -->
    • So in Virginia, they could not get those policies passed,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So in Virginia, they could not get those policies passed,
    • -->
    • 00:29:01.000 --> 00:29:04.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:01.000 --> 00:29:04.020
    • -->
    • but Madison stuck with having this great evil
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but Madison stuck with having this great evil
    • -->
    • 00:29:04.020 --> 00:29:07.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:04.020 --> 00:29:07.060
    • -->
    • that he didn't like, actually did what he could to a degree.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that he didn't like, actually did what he could to a degree.
    • -->
    • 00:29:07.060 --> 00:29:10.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:07.060 --> 00:29:10.290
    • -->
    • I mean, he still had slavery and that's still bad,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I mean, he still had slavery and that's still bad,
    • -->
    • 00:29:10.290 --> 00:29:13.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:10.290 --> 00:29:13.080
    • -->
    • but he looked at the slaves as if they were members
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but he looked at the slaves as if they were members
    • -->
    • 00:29:13.080 --> 00:29:16.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:13.080 --> 00:29:16.070
    • -->
    • of his family.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of his family.
    • -->
    • 00:29:16.070 --> 00:29:17.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:16.070 --> 00:29:17.050
    • -->
    • He called them his family.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He called them his family.
    • -->
    • 00:29:17.050 --> 00:29:18.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:17.050 --> 00:29:18.190
    • -->
    • Actually, he would not allow any slave to be sold
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Actually, he would not allow any slave to be sold
    • -->
    • 00:29:18.190 --> 00:29:21.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:18.190 --> 00:29:21.130
    • -->
    • unless with the permission of that slave.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • unless with the permission of that slave.
    • -->
    • 00:29:21.130 --> 00:29:23.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:21.130 --> 00:29:23.270
    • -->
    • So working in a really bad system with really bad evil,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So working in a really bad system with really bad evil,
    • -->
    • 00:29:23.270 --> 00:29:27.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:23.270 --> 00:29:27.020
    • -->
    • he did what he could, but he certainly tried to work
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he did what he could, but he certainly tried to work
    • -->
    • 00:29:27.020 --> 00:29:30.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:27.020 --> 00:29:30.080
    • -->
    • to do what he could to bring emancipation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to do what he could to bring emancipation.
    • -->
    • 00:29:30.080 --> 00:29:33.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:30.080 --> 00:29:33.010
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:29:33.010 --> 00:29:35.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:33.010 --> 00:29:35.230
    • -->
    • - Knowing they were people who cared about faith,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Knowing they were people who cared about faith,
    • -->
    • 00:29:37.250 --> 00:29:40.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:37.250 --> 00:29:40.020
    • -->
    • because you see proclamations, you see bibles
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because you see proclamations, you see bibles
    • -->
    • 00:29:40.020 --> 00:29:42.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:40.020 --> 00:29:42.210
    • -->
    • and bible societies, then it's no surprise that when
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and bible societies, then it's no surprise that when
    • -->
    • 00:29:42.210 --> 00:29:45.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:42.210 --> 00:29:45.200
    • -->
    • we look at the Constitution, we actually find
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we look at the Constitution, we actually find
    • -->
    • 00:29:45.200 --> 00:29:47.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:45.200 --> 00:29:47.220
    • -->
    • the influence of the bible in the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the influence of the bible in the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:29:47.220 --> 00:29:50.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:47.220 --> 00:29:50.240
    • -->
    • - We've had our Constitution now for centuries, literally.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - We've had our Constitution now for centuries, literally.
    • -->
    • 00:29:50.240 --> 00:29:53.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:50.240 --> 00:29:53.260
    • -->
    • We are the oldest ongoing constitutional republic
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We are the oldest ongoing constitutional republic
    • -->
    • 00:29:53.260 --> 00:29:57.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:53.260 --> 00:29:57.030
    • -->
    • in the history of the world.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the history of the world.
    • -->
    • 00:29:57.030 --> 00:29:58.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:57.030 --> 00:29:58.190
    • -->
    • You know what the average length of a constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You know what the average length of a constitution
    • -->
    • 00:29:58.190 --> 00:30:00.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:29:58.190 --> 00:30:00.110
    • -->
    • in the history of the world is?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the history of the world is?
    • -->
    • 00:30:00.110 --> 00:30:02.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:00.110 --> 00:30:02.050
    • -->
    • Every other nation, average length of a constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Every other nation, average length of a constitution
    • -->
    • 00:30:02.050 --> 00:30:04.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:02.050 --> 00:30:04.040
    • -->
    • is 17 years.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • is 17 years.
    • -->
    • 00:30:04.040 --> 00:30:05.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:04.040 --> 00:30:05.270
    • -->
    • Oh my gosh.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Oh my gosh.
    • -->
    • 00:30:05.270 --> 00:30:07.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:05.270 --> 00:30:07.230
    • -->
    • In the same period of time we've had our constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In the same period of time we've had our constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:30:07.230 --> 00:30:09.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:07.230 --> 00:30:09.260
    • -->
    • France has had 15.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • France has had 15.
    • -->
    • 00:30:09.260 --> 00:30:12.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:09.260 --> 00:30:12.020
    • -->
    • I mean, you just go through the other nations
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I mean, you just go through the other nations
    • -->
    • 00:30:12.020 --> 00:30:14.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:12.020 --> 00:30:14.030
    • -->
    • and we are so different, we're so blessed.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and we are so different, we're so blessed.
    • -->
    • 00:30:14.030 --> 00:30:16.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:14.030 --> 00:30:16.270
    • -->
    • And so, political scientists say America Constitution's
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And so, political scientists say America Constitution's
    • -->
    • 00:30:16.270 --> 00:30:20.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:16.270 --> 00:30:20.230
    • -->
    • different from everybody else's, it works different.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • different from everybody else's, it works different.
    • -->
    • 00:30:20.230 --> 00:30:23.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:20.230 --> 00:30:23.120
    • -->
    • Where'd they get their ideas?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Where'd they get their ideas?
    • -->
    • 00:30:23.120 --> 00:30:24.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:23.120 --> 00:30:24.280
    • -->
    • So political science professors said you know,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So political science professors said you know,
    • -->
    • 00:30:24.280 --> 00:30:28.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:24.280 --> 00:30:28.040
    • -->
    • if we read the writings of the founding fathers
    • " data-timeend="">
    • if we read the writings of the founding fathers
    • -->
    • 00:30:28.040 --> 00:30:30.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:28.040 --> 00:30:30.110
    • -->
    • and see who they quoted, we'll know where they got
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and see who they quoted, we'll know where they got
    • -->
    • 00:30:30.110 --> 00:30:32.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:30.110 --> 00:30:32.120
    • -->
    • their ideas.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • their ideas.
    • -->
    • 00:30:32.120 --> 00:30:33.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:32.120 --> 00:30:33.260
    • -->
    • So their idea was, we'll take 15.000 of their writings,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So their idea was, we'll take 15.000 of their writings,
    • -->
    • 00:30:33.260 --> 00:30:37.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:33.260 --> 00:30:37.110
    • -->
    • we'll read those writings and see who they quote
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we'll read those writings and see who they quote
    • -->
    • 00:30:37.110 --> 00:30:39.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:37.110 --> 00:30:39.280
    • -->
    • and they did.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and they did.
    • -->
    • 00:30:39.280 --> 00:30:41.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:39.280 --> 00:30:41.130
    • -->
    • They found 3.154 direct quotes in those writings.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They found 3.154 direct quotes in those writings.
    • -->
    • 00:30:41.130 --> 00:30:45.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:41.130 --> 00:30:45.150
    • -->
    • They took every one of those quotes back to their
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They took every one of those quotes back to their
    • -->
    • 00:30:45.150 --> 00:30:47.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:45.150 --> 00:30:47.130
    • -->
    • original sources.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • original sources.
    • -->
    • 00:30:47.130 --> 00:30:48.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:47.130 --> 00:30:48.200
    • -->
    • It took em 10 years to do it, but they did it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It took em 10 years to do it, but they did it.
    • -->
    • 00:30:48.200 --> 00:30:50.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:48.200 --> 00:30:50.050
    • -->
    • This is the report that they came out with,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is the report that they came out with,
    • -->
    • 00:30:50.050 --> 00:30:52.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:50.050 --> 00:30:52.250
    • -->
    • The Origins of American Constitutionalism.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Origins of American Constitutionalism.
    • -->
    • 00:30:52.250 --> 00:30:54.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:52.250 --> 00:30:54.280
    • -->
    • Now, given the fact that you have millions of books
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, given the fact that you have millions of books
    • -->
    • 00:30:54.280 --> 00:30:57.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:54.280 --> 00:30:57.210
    • -->
    • that have been written over all recorded history,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that have been written over all recorded history,
    • -->
    • 00:30:57.210 --> 00:31:00.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:30:57.210 --> 00:31:00.030
    • -->
    • and you got a lot of people you can quote from,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and you got a lot of people you can quote from,
    • -->
    • 00:31:00.030 --> 00:31:03.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:00.030 --> 00:31:03.060
    • -->
    • you might have tens of thousands of sources of ideas.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you might have tens of thousands of sources of ideas.
    • -->
    • 00:31:03.060 --> 00:31:06.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:03.060 --> 00:31:06.030
    • -->
    • What they found was the number one person quoted
    • " data-timeend="">
    • What they found was the number one person quoted
    • -->
    • 00:31:06.030 --> 00:31:09.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:06.030 --> 00:31:09.200
    • -->
    • most often was Charles Montesquieu.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • most often was Charles Montesquieu.
    • -->
    • 00:31:09.200 --> 00:31:12.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:09.200 --> 00:31:12.060
    • -->
    • He did these books right here,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He did these books right here,
    • -->
    • 00:31:12.060 --> 00:31:14.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:12.060 --> 00:31:14.070
    • -->
    • this is Spirit of Laws from 1750.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • this is Spirit of Laws from 1750.
    • -->
    • 00:31:14.070 --> 00:31:16.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:14.070 --> 00:31:16.200
    • -->
    • He got 8.3% of all the quotes.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He got 8.3% of all the quotes.
    • -->
    • 00:31:16.200 --> 00:31:19.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:16.200 --> 00:31:19.080
    • -->
    • The second most quoted source was William Blackstone,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The second most quoted source was William Blackstone,
    • -->
    • 00:31:19.080 --> 00:31:22.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:19.080 --> 00:31:22.220
    • -->
    • commentaries on the laws.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • commentaries on the laws.
    • -->
    • 00:31:22.220 --> 00:31:24.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:22.220 --> 00:31:24.100
    • -->
    • They were 7.9% of the quotes.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They were 7.9% of the quotes.
    • -->
    • 00:31:24.100 --> 00:31:26.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:24.100 --> 00:31:26.200
    • -->
    • The third most quoted individual was John Locke.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The third most quoted individual was John Locke.
    • -->
    • 00:31:26.200 --> 00:31:30.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:26.200 --> 00:31:30.050
    • -->
    • This book goes back to 1690.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This book goes back to 1690.
    • -->
    • 00:31:30.050 --> 00:31:32.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:30.050 --> 00:31:32.110
    • -->
    • So those are your top three cited individuals
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So those are your top three cited individuals
    • -->
    • 00:31:32.110 --> 00:31:36.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:32.110 --> 00:31:36.130
    • -->
    • but that was not the most cited source.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but that was not the most cited source.
    • -->
    • 00:31:36.130 --> 00:31:38.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:36.130 --> 00:31:38.170
    • -->
    • Four times more often than any individual,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Four times more often than any individual,
    • -->
    • 00:31:38.170 --> 00:31:40.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:38.170 --> 00:31:40.250
    • -->
    • is they cited the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • is they cited the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:31:40.250 --> 00:31:42.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:40.250 --> 00:31:42.230
    • -->
    • So oh my gosh, there's a lot of ideas that came
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So oh my gosh, there's a lot of ideas that came
    • -->
    • 00:31:42.230 --> 00:31:46.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:42.230 --> 00:31:46.120
    • -->
    • out of the bible, yeah there is.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • out of the bible, yeah there is.
    • -->
    • 00:31:46.120 --> 00:31:48.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:46.120 --> 00:31:48.200
    • -->
    • As a matter of fact, a lot of governments had three branches
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As a matter of fact, a lot of governments had three branches
    • -->
    • 00:31:48.200 --> 00:31:52.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:48.200 --> 00:31:52.240
    • -->
    • of government, and that goes back to Isaiah 33:22,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of government, and that goes back to Isaiah 33:22,
    • -->
    • 00:31:52.240 --> 00:31:55.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:52.240 --> 00:31:55.160
    • -->
    • but nobody had done what America did of separating
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but nobody had done what America did of separating
    • -->
    • 00:31:55.160 --> 00:31:57.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:55.160 --> 00:31:57.250
    • -->
    • the branches and having checks and balances.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the branches and having checks and balances.
    • -->
    • 00:31:57.250 --> 00:32:00.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:31:57.250 --> 00:32:00.210
    • -->
    • You know, it's interesting that John Adams wrote about
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You know, it's interesting that John Adams wrote about
    • -->
    • 00:32:00.210 --> 00:32:04.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:00.210 --> 00:32:04.060
    • -->
    • that and why they did checks and balances.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that and why they did checks and balances.
    • -->
    • 00:32:04.060 --> 00:32:06.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:04.060 --> 00:32:06.070
    • -->
    • He pointed to Jeremiah 17:9 as the reason that we created
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He pointed to Jeremiah 17:9 as the reason that we created
    • -->
    • 00:32:06.070 --> 00:32:11.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:06.070 --> 00:32:11.040
    • -->
    • checks and balances and separation of powers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • checks and balances and separation of powers.
    • -->
    • 00:32:12.090 --> 00:32:13.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:12.090 --> 00:32:13.240
    • -->
    • Now, how many today would know that Jeremiah 17:9
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, how many today would know that Jeremiah 17:9
    • -->
    • 00:32:13.240 --> 00:32:17.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:13.240 --> 00:32:17.040
    • -->
    • played such a substantial role?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • played such a substantial role?
    • -->
    • 00:32:17.040 --> 00:32:18.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:17.040 --> 00:32:18.270
    • -->
    • - Sure, and he wasn't the only one that did that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Sure, and he wasn't the only one that did that.
    • -->
    • 00:32:18.270 --> 00:32:20.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:18.270 --> 00:32:20.070
    • -->
    • 'Cause he actually wrote three letters,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 'Cause he actually wrote three letters,
    • -->
    • 00:32:20.070 --> 00:32:21.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:20.070 --> 00:32:21.220
    • -->
    • where he says the reason we can't centralize power
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where he says the reason we can't centralize power
    • -->
    • 00:32:21.220 --> 00:32:24.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:21.220 --> 00:32:24.070
    • -->
    • is because the heart of man is wicked and deceitful
    • " data-timeend="">
    • is because the heart of man is wicked and deceitful
    • -->
    • 00:32:24.070 --> 00:32:26.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:24.070 --> 00:32:26.220
    • -->
    • and you can't trust the heart of man.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and you can't trust the heart of man.
    • -->
    • 00:32:26.220 --> 00:32:28.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:26.220 --> 00:32:28.200
    • -->
    • Well, that's actually what Jeremiah 17:9 says,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, that's actually what Jeremiah 17:9 says,
    • -->
    • 00:32:28.200 --> 00:32:31.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:28.200 --> 00:32:31.040
    • -->
    • but George Washington wrote that,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but George Washington wrote that,
    • -->
    • 00:32:31.040 --> 00:32:33.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:31.040 --> 00:32:33.020
    • -->
    • Alexander Hamilton wrote that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Alexander Hamilton wrote that.
    • -->
    • 00:32:33.020 --> 00:32:34.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:33.020 --> 00:32:34.230
    • -->
    • The founding fathers were pretty clear on this idea
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The founding fathers were pretty clear on this idea
    • -->
    • 00:32:34.230 --> 00:32:36.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:34.230 --> 00:32:36.260
    • -->
    • of why we had to separate powers, of checks and balances,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of why we had to separate powers, of checks and balances,
    • -->
    • 00:32:36.260 --> 00:32:39.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:36.260 --> 00:32:39.240
    • -->
    • and it was because of what the bible taught
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and it was because of what the bible taught
    • -->
    • 00:32:39.240 --> 00:32:41.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:39.240 --> 00:32:41.120
    • -->
    • in Jeremiah 17:9.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in Jeremiah 17:9.
    • -->
    • 00:32:41.120 --> 00:32:43.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:41.120 --> 00:32:43.100
    • -->
    • - And you find provisions in the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - And you find provisions in the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:32:43.100 --> 00:32:45.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:43.100 --> 00:32:45.090
    • -->
    • for example, the Constitution addressed death penalty twice.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for example, the Constitution addressed death penalty twice.
    • -->
    • 00:32:45.090 --> 00:32:47.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:45.090 --> 00:32:47.150
    • -->
    • When it talks about death penalty like with treason,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When it talks about death penalty like with treason,
    • -->
    • 00:32:47.150 --> 00:32:50.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:47.150 --> 00:32:50.040
    • -->
    • it says you cannot put anybody to death for treason.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it says you cannot put anybody to death for treason.
    • -->
    • 00:32:50.040 --> 00:32:52.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:50.040 --> 00:32:52.120
    • -->
    • You can't use the death penalty unless you have
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You can't use the death penalty unless you have
    • -->
    • 00:32:52.120 --> 00:32:53.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:52.120 --> 00:32:53.270
    • -->
    • two overt eye witnesses to the act.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • two overt eye witnesses to the act.
    • -->
    • 00:32:53.270 --> 00:32:56.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:53.270 --> 00:32:56.030
    • -->
    • - Now, that wasn't true in Europe.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Now, that wasn't true in Europe.
    • -->
    • 00:32:56.030 --> 00:32:57.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:56.030 --> 00:32:57.290
    • -->
    • In Europe you could make an accusation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In Europe you could make an accusation.
    • -->
    • 00:32:57.290 --> 00:33:00.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:32:57.290 --> 00:33:00.190
    • -->
    • In fact, you didn't have to prove em guilty.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, you didn't have to prove em guilty.
    • -->
    • 00:33:00.190 --> 00:33:02.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:00.190 --> 00:33:02.210
    • -->
    • There wasn't even a real court of law
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There wasn't even a real court of law
    • -->
    • 00:33:02.210 --> 00:33:04.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:02.210 --> 00:33:04.130
    • -->
    • and the process of facing your accusers,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the process of facing your accusers,
    • -->
    • 00:33:04.130 --> 00:33:06.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:04.130 --> 00:33:06.150
    • -->
    • we did it different in America.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we did it different in America.
    • -->
    • 00:33:06.150 --> 00:33:08.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:06.150 --> 00:33:08.010
    • -->
    • You said you have to have at least two witnesses.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You said you have to have at least two witnesses.
    • -->
    • 00:33:08.010 --> 00:33:09.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:08.010 --> 00:33:09.230
    • -->
    • - And the bible says you can't put someone to death
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - And the bible says you can't put someone to death
    • -->
    • 00:33:09.230 --> 00:33:11.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:09.230 --> 00:33:11.150
    • -->
    • unless you have two witnesses, Deuteronomy 17.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • unless you have two witnesses, Deuteronomy 17.
    • -->
    • 00:33:11.150 --> 00:33:14.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:11.150 --> 00:33:14.110
    • -->
    • If you read that article in the Constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • If you read that article in the Constitution
    • -->
    • 00:33:14.110 --> 00:33:16.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:14.110 --> 00:33:16.140
    • -->
    • and you read Deuteronomy 17, you go,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and you read Deuteronomy 17, you go,
    • -->
    • 00:33:16.140 --> 00:33:18.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:16.140 --> 00:33:18.110
    • -->
    • that's the same wording!
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that's the same wording!
    • -->
    • 00:33:18.110 --> 00:33:19.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:18.110 --> 00:33:19.240
    • -->
    • Yes it is.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Yes it is.
    • -->
    • 00:33:19.240 --> 00:33:21.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:19.240 --> 00:33:21.090
    • -->
    • - One of the other provisions you see in the Constitution
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - One of the other provisions you see in the Constitution
    • -->
    • 00:33:21.090 --> 00:33:22.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:21.090 --> 00:33:22.230
    • -->
    • is something related to the way we would even choose
    • " data-timeend="">
    • is something related to the way we would even choose
    • -->
    • 00:33:22.230 --> 00:33:25.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:22.230 --> 00:33:25.270
    • -->
    • a leader and the reason we choose a leader,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a leader and the reason we choose a leader,
    • -->
    • 00:33:25.270 --> 00:33:28.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:25.270 --> 00:33:28.090
    • -->
    • actually, as president, you have to be a natural born
    • " data-timeend="">
    • actually, as president, you have to be a natural born
    • -->
    • 00:33:28.090 --> 00:33:32.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:28.090 --> 00:33:32.000
    • -->
    • American citizen.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • American citizen.
    • -->
    • 00:33:32.000 --> 00:33:33.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:32.000 --> 00:33:33.140
    • -->
    • Why would we say in America, I mean I guess it kinda
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Why would we say in America, I mean I guess it kinda
    • -->
    • 00:33:33.140 --> 00:33:36.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:33.140 --> 00:33:36.120
    • -->
    • makes sense, you should be born here,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • makes sense, you should be born here,
    • -->
    • 00:33:36.120 --> 00:33:37.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:36.120 --> 00:33:37.280
    • -->
    • but what if you immigrated here and you've been here
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but what if you immigrated here and you've been here
    • -->
    • 00:33:37.280 --> 00:33:40.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:37.280 --> 00:33:40.170
    • -->
    • for several years, why do you have to be born here?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for several years, why do you have to be born here?
    • -->
    • 00:33:40.170 --> 00:33:42.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:40.170 --> 00:33:42.180
    • -->
    • - Yeah, I mean, for a senator or representative
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Yeah, I mean, for a senator or representative
    • -->
    • 00:33:42.180 --> 00:33:44.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:42.180 --> 00:33:44.170
    • -->
    • you don't have to be a natural born citizen.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you don't have to be a natural born citizen.
    • -->
    • 00:33:44.170 --> 00:33:46.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:44.170 --> 00:33:46.190
    • -->
    • - Well, this is when you back up to Deuteronomy,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Well, this is when you back up to Deuteronomy,
    • -->
    • 00:33:46.190 --> 00:33:48.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:46.190 --> 00:33:48.080
    • -->
    • and what did God tell the Israelites?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and what did God tell the Israelites?
    • -->
    • 00:33:48.080 --> 00:33:50.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:48.080 --> 00:33:50.100
    • -->
    • When you have someone rule over you, they need to be
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When you have someone rule over you, they need to be
    • -->
    • 00:33:50.100 --> 00:33:53.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:50.100 --> 00:33:53.170
    • -->
    • someone who's been born among you.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • someone who's been born among you.
    • -->
    • 00:33:53.170 --> 00:33:55.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:53.170 --> 00:33:55.260
    • -->
    • A natural born citizen.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • A natural born citizen.
    • -->
    • 00:33:55.260 --> 00:33:57.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:55.260 --> 00:33:57.150
    • -->
    • It's just interesting as we study the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's just interesting as we study the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:33:57.150 --> 00:34:00.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:33:57.150 --> 00:34:00.080
    • -->
    • as we study the men who gave us the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as we study the men who gave us the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:34:00.080 --> 00:34:02.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:00.080 --> 00:34:02.270
    • -->
    • as we see they are people of faith
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as we see they are people of faith
    • -->
    • 00:34:02.270 --> 00:34:04.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:02.270 --> 00:34:04.100
    • -->
    • and they declare proclamations and bibles
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and they declare proclamations and bibles
    • -->
    • 00:34:04.100 --> 00:34:06.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:04.100 --> 00:34:06.090
    • -->
    • and bible societies, all the things that as we study
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and bible societies, all the things that as we study
    • -->
    • 00:34:06.090 --> 00:34:09.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:06.090 --> 00:34:09.000
    • -->
    • the Constitution, the Constitution itself has even
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Constitution, the Constitution itself has even
    • -->
    • 00:34:09.000 --> 00:34:12.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:09.000 --> 00:34:12.170
    • -->
    • been shaped by principles from the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • been shaped by principles from the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:34:12.170 --> 00:34:14.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:12.170 --> 00:34:14.220
    • -->
    • - And it's interesting that even some of our most
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - And it's interesting that even some of our most
    • -->
    • 00:34:14.220 --> 00:34:16.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:14.220 --> 00:34:16.250
    • -->
    • secular Supreme Court Justices acknowledge that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • secular Supreme Court Justices acknowledge that.
    • -->
    • 00:34:16.250 --> 00:34:19.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:16.250 --> 00:34:19.160
    • -->
    • For example, Justice Steven Breyer and no one is going
    • " data-timeend="">
    • For example, Justice Steven Breyer and no one is going
    • -->
    • 00:34:19.160 --> 00:34:23.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:19.160 --> 00:34:23.010
    • -->
    • to say he's a religious man, because there's been
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to say he's a religious man, because there's been
    • -->
    • 00:34:23.010 --> 00:34:25.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:23.010 --> 00:34:25.020
    • -->
    • no evidence of that at all, he's one of the more secular
    • " data-timeend="">
    • no evidence of that at all, he's one of the more secular
    • -->
    • 00:34:25.020 --> 00:34:27.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:25.020 --> 00:34:27.170
    • -->
    • justices we've had, even he says,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • justices we've had, even he says,
    • -->
    • 00:34:27.170 --> 00:34:29.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:27.170 --> 00:34:29.090
    • -->
    • of course we all know that the due process clauses
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of course we all know that the due process clauses
    • -->
    • 00:34:29.090 --> 00:34:33.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:29.090 --> 00:34:33.040
    • -->
    • and Bill of Right came out of the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and Bill of Right came out of the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:34:33.040 --> 00:34:35.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:33.040 --> 00:34:35.070
    • -->
    • Oh do we?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Oh do we?
    • -->
    • 00:34:35.070 --> 00:34:36.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:35.070 --> 00:34:36.150
    • -->
    • - Yeah, I remember when he said that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Yeah, I remember when he said that.
    • -->
    • 00:34:36.150 --> 00:34:37.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:36.150 --> 00:34:37.200
    • -->
    • We were going, we didn't know that's what.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We were going, we didn't know that's what.
    • -->
    • 00:34:37.200 --> 00:34:39.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:37.200 --> 00:34:39.030
    • -->
    • That's so interesting.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That's so interesting.
    • -->
    • 00:34:39.030 --> 00:34:40.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:39.030 --> 00:34:40.100
    • -->
    • He even said where to find information on it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He even said where to find information on it.
    • -->
    • 00:34:40.100 --> 00:34:42.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:40.100 --> 00:34:42.080
    • -->
    • - It turns out, it's in this, it's called
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - It turns out, it's in this, it's called
    • -->
    • 00:34:42.080 --> 00:34:44.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:42.080 --> 00:34:44.230
    • -->
    • The Federal Practice and Procedure.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Federal Practice and Procedure.
    • -->
    • 00:34:44.230 --> 00:34:46.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:44.230 --> 00:34:46.160
    • -->
    • Now, if you practice federal law, you recognize this.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, if you practice federal law, you recognize this.
    • -->
    • 00:34:46.160 --> 00:34:48.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:46.160 --> 00:34:48.170
    • -->
    • This is a set of volumes that go way down the road,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is a set of volumes that go way down the road,
    • -->
    • 00:34:48.170 --> 00:34:52.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:48.170 --> 00:34:52.010
    • -->
    • I mean it's a long set.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I mean it's a long set.
    • -->
    • 00:34:52.010 --> 00:34:53.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:52.010 --> 00:34:53.140
    • -->
    • But, volume 30 is on the rules of evidence.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But, volume 30 is on the rules of evidence.
    • -->
    • 00:34:53.140 --> 00:34:56.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:53.140 --> 00:34:56.260
    • -->
    • As you go into what he talked about,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As you go into what he talked about,
    • -->
    • 00:34:56.260 --> 00:34:59.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:56.260 --> 00:34:59.030
    • -->
    • this talks about how that indeed, all of the due process
    • " data-timeend="">
    • this talks about how that indeed, all of the due process
    • -->
    • 00:34:59.030 --> 00:35:03.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:34:59.030 --> 00:35:03.040
    • -->
    • clauses in the Bill of Rights,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • clauses in the Bill of Rights,
    • -->
    • 00:35:03.040 --> 00:35:04.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:03.040 --> 00:35:04.140
    • -->
    • and that's the 4th to the 8th amendment,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and that's the 4th to the 8th amendment,
    • -->
    • 00:35:04.140 --> 00:35:06.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:04.140 --> 00:35:06.020
    • -->
    • the right to a trial by jury,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the right to a trial by jury,
    • -->
    • 00:35:06.020 --> 00:35:07.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:06.020 --> 00:35:07.160
    • -->
    • the right to confront your accusers,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the right to confront your accusers,
    • -->
    • 00:35:07.160 --> 00:35:08.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:07.160 --> 00:35:08.290
    • -->
    • the right to compel witnesses on your behalf,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the right to compel witnesses on your behalf,
    • -->
    • 00:35:08.290 --> 00:35:10.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:08.290 --> 00:35:10.160
    • -->
    • the right not to incriminate yourself.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the right not to incriminate yourself.
    • -->
    • 00:35:10.160 --> 00:35:12.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:10.160 --> 00:35:12.160
    • -->
    • You can't have hearsay testimony.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You can't have hearsay testimony.
    • -->
    • 00:35:12.160 --> 00:35:13.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:12.160 --> 00:35:13.240
    • -->
    • All of that goes back to this.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • All of that goes back to this.
    • -->
    • 00:35:13.240 --> 00:35:16.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:13.240 --> 00:35:16.080
    • -->
    • This Federal Practices and Procedure says,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This Federal Practices and Procedure says,
    • -->
    • 00:35:16.080 --> 00:35:19.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:16.080 --> 00:35:19.040
    • -->
    • well, it all goes back to two other books.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • well, it all goes back to two other books.
    • -->
    • 00:35:19.040 --> 00:35:21.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:19.040 --> 00:35:21.040
    • -->
    • And it goes back to the Geneva bible,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And it goes back to the Geneva bible,
    • -->
    • 00:35:21.040 --> 00:35:24.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:21.040 --> 00:35:24.070
    • -->
    • which is the bible the Pilgrims and Puritans
    • " data-timeend="">
    • which is the bible the Pilgrims and Puritans
    • -->
    • 00:35:24.070 --> 00:35:25.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:24.070 --> 00:35:25.250
    • -->
    • brought to America.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • brought to America.
    • -->
    • 00:35:25.250 --> 00:35:27.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:25.250 --> 00:35:27.020
    • -->
    • This is a 1599 Geneva bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is a 1599 Geneva bible.
    • -->
    • 00:35:27.020 --> 00:35:29.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:27.020 --> 00:35:29.020
    • -->
    • The Geneva bible's famous because of all the commentaries
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Geneva bible's famous because of all the commentaries
    • -->
    • 00:35:29.020 --> 00:35:33.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:29.020 --> 00:35:33.040
    • -->
    • that go down the side of the pages.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that go down the side of the pages.
    • -->
    • 00:35:33.040 --> 00:35:34.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:33.040 --> 00:35:34.140
    • -->
    • These commentaries, they were at the time,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • These commentaries, they were at the time,
    • -->
    • 00:35:34.140 --> 00:35:37.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:34.140 --> 00:35:37.040
    • -->
    • this was done back in the 14, 1500s, they were saying,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • this was done back in the 14, 1500s, they were saying,
    • -->
    • 00:35:37.040 --> 00:35:41.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:37.040 --> 00:35:41.120
    • -->
    • man, we have not been following the bible for
    • " data-timeend="">
    • man, we have not been following the bible for
    • -->
    • 00:35:41.120 --> 00:35:43.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:41.120 --> 00:35:43.050
    • -->
    • a thousand years.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a thousand years.
    • -->
    • 00:35:43.050 --> 00:35:44.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:43.050 --> 00:35:44.120
    • -->
    • So here they said, look in the justice system,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So here they said, look in the justice system,
    • -->
    • 00:35:44.120 --> 00:35:47.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:44.120 --> 00:35:47.050
    • -->
    • the justice system in Europe's not doing what the bible
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the justice system in Europe's not doing what the bible
    • -->
    • 00:35:47.050 --> 00:35:49.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:47.050 --> 00:35:49.170
    • -->
    • says on justice.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • says on justice.
    • -->
    • 00:35:49.170 --> 00:35:50.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:49.170 --> 00:35:50.230
    • -->
    • So the commentaries pointed out how that the
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So the commentaries pointed out how that the
    • -->
    • 00:35:50.230 --> 00:35:53.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:50.230 --> 00:35:53.050
    • -->
    • European justice system was doing it wrong.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • European justice system was doing it wrong.
    • -->
    • 00:35:53.050 --> 00:35:55.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:53.050 --> 00:35:55.270
    • -->
    • So this is the right way to do justice
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So this is the right way to do justice
    • -->
    • 00:35:55.270 --> 00:35:58.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:55.270 --> 00:35:58.120
    • -->
    • according to the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • according to the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:35:58.120 --> 00:35:59.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:58.120 --> 00:35:59.200
    • -->
    • Well this is what the Pilgrims and Puritans
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well this is what the Pilgrims and Puritans
    • -->
    • 00:35:59.200 --> 00:36:01.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:35:59.200 --> 00:36:01.060
    • -->
    • brought to America and they start a new legal system
    • " data-timeend="">
    • brought to America and they start a new legal system
    • -->
    • 00:36:01.060 --> 00:36:03.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:01.060 --> 00:36:03.240
    • -->
    • quite different from that of Europe.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • quite different from that of Europe.
    • -->
    • 00:36:03.240 --> 00:36:05.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:03.240 --> 00:36:05.190
    • -->
    • They said the other that all Americans knew thoroughly
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They said the other that all Americans knew thoroughly
    • -->
    • 00:36:05.190 --> 00:36:08.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:05.190 --> 00:36:08.090
    • -->
    • was Fox's Book of Martyrs.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was Fox's Book of Martyrs.
    • -->
    • 00:36:08.090 --> 00:36:09.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:08.090 --> 00:36:09.240
    • -->
    • Now Fox's Book of Martyrs, this is a list
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now Fox's Book of Martyrs, this is a list
    • -->
    • 00:36:09.240 --> 00:36:12.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:09.240 --> 00:36:12.250
    • -->
    • and this is done in the 1500s and this is a listing
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and this is done in the 1500s and this is a listing
    • -->
    • 00:36:12.250 --> 00:36:15.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:12.250 --> 00:36:15.280
    • -->
    • of all of those who had been martyred
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of all of those who had been martyred
    • -->
    • 00:36:15.280 --> 00:36:17.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:15.280 --> 00:36:17.270
    • -->
    • for the Christian faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the Christian faith.
    • -->
    • 00:36:17.270 --> 00:36:19.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:17.270 --> 00:36:19.120
    • -->
    • Guess who the first martyr of the Christian faith was?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Guess who the first martyr of the Christian faith was?
    • -->
    • 00:36:19.120 --> 00:36:21.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:19.120 --> 00:36:21.120
    • -->
    • - Well, Jesus. - Jesus.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - Well, Jesus. - Jesus.
    • -->
    • 00:36:21.120 --> 00:36:23.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:21.120 --> 00:36:23.260
    • -->
    • He's martyr number one in the book.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's martyr number one in the book.
    • -->
    • 00:36:23.260 --> 00:36:26.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:23.260 --> 00:36:26.130
    • -->
    • Then it lists all the martyrs of the Christian faith
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then it lists all the martyrs of the Christian faith
    • -->
    • 00:36:26.130 --> 00:36:28.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:26.130 --> 00:36:28.180
    • -->
    • and interesting thing, all these people who got
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and interesting thing, all these people who got
    • -->
    • 00:36:28.180 --> 00:36:32.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:28.180 --> 00:36:32.130
    • -->
    • put to death wrongly were put to death by government
    • " data-timeend="">
    • put to death wrongly were put to death by government
    • -->
    • 00:36:32.130 --> 00:36:35.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:32.130 --> 00:36:35.100
    • -->
    • because government did not use due process rights.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because government did not use due process rights.
    • -->
    • 00:36:35.100 --> 00:36:38.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:35.100 --> 00:36:38.170
    • -->
    • Even the trial of Jesus was not conducted according
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Even the trial of Jesus was not conducted according
    • -->
    • 00:36:38.170 --> 00:36:40.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:38.170 --> 00:36:40.250
    • -->
    • to the laws at the time.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the laws at the time.
    • -->
    • 00:36:40.250 --> 00:36:42.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:40.250 --> 00:36:42.250
    • -->
    • So they point out, here's what courts have done bad.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So they point out, here's what courts have done bad.
    • -->
    • 00:36:42.250 --> 00:36:46.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:42.250 --> 00:36:46.140
    • -->
    • The bible says here's what courts are supposed to do.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The bible says here's what courts are supposed to do.
    • -->
    • 00:36:46.140 --> 00:36:49.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:46.140 --> 00:36:49.080
    • -->
    • Here's what justice is supposed to look like.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Here's what justice is supposed to look like.
    • -->
    • 00:36:49.080 --> 00:36:51.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:49.080 --> 00:36:51.000
    • -->
    • So we get to confront our accusers, which according
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So we get to confront our accusers, which according
    • -->
    • 00:36:51.000 --> 00:36:55.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:51.000 --> 00:36:55.210
    • -->
    • to the Federal Practices and Procedure,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the Federal Practices and Procedure,
    • -->
    • 00:36:55.210 --> 00:36:57.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:55.210 --> 00:36:57.070
    • -->
    • comes out of John 8:10.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • comes out of John 8:10.
    • -->
    • 00:36:57.070 --> 00:36:58.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:57.070 --> 00:36:58.200
    • -->
    • Even Jesus said to the woman, where's your accuser?
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Even Jesus said to the woman, where's your accuser?
    • -->
    • 00:36:58.200 --> 00:37:01.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:36:58.200 --> 00:37:01.090
    • -->
    • You're supposed to be able to confront your accusers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You're supposed to be able to confront your accusers.
    • -->
    • 00:37:01.090 --> 00:37:02.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:01.090 --> 00:37:02.230
    • -->
    • - [Tim] Well, if no one condemns you well then neither do I.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - [Tim] Well, if no one condemns you well then neither do I.
    • -->
    • 00:37:02.230 --> 00:37:04.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:02.230 --> 00:37:04.290
    • -->
    • - That's it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - That's it.
    • -->
    • 00:37:04.290 --> 00:37:06.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:04.290 --> 00:37:06.140
    • -->
    • And then we get to compel witnesses on our behalf
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And then we get to compel witnesses on our behalf
    • -->
    • 00:37:06.140 --> 00:37:08.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:06.140 --> 00:37:08.060
    • -->
    • because the bible says Proverbs 18:17,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because the bible says Proverbs 18:17,
    • -->
    • 00:37:08.060 --> 00:37:10.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:08.060 --> 00:37:10.060
    • -->
    • one side sounds good until the other side.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • one side sounds good until the other side.
    • -->
    • 00:37:10.060 --> 00:37:13.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:10.060 --> 00:37:13.220
    • -->
    • So the prosecution doesn't get to present all the witnesses.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So the prosecution doesn't get to present all the witnesses.
    • -->
    • 00:37:13.220 --> 00:37:16.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:13.220 --> 00:37:16.080
    • -->
    • So all these provisions we have in due process clause,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So all these provisions we have in due process clause,
    • -->
    • 00:37:16.080 --> 00:37:19.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:16.080 --> 00:37:19.050
    • -->
    • even Justice Breyer acknowledges that they come
    • " data-timeend="">
    • even Justice Breyer acknowledges that they come
    • -->
    • 00:37:19.050 --> 00:37:22.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:19.050 --> 00:37:22.100
    • -->
    • out of the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • out of the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:37:22.100 --> 00:37:23.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:22.100 --> 00:37:23.220
    • -->
    • So there's so much on Constitution Day that we just
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So there's so much on Constitution Day that we just
    • -->
    • 00:37:23.220 --> 00:37:26.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:23.220 --> 00:37:26.160
    • -->
    • don't think about anymore, so much that goes back
    • " data-timeend="">
    • don't think about anymore, so much that goes back
    • -->
    • 00:37:26.160 --> 00:37:29.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:26.160 --> 00:37:29.090
    • -->
    • to men of faith, that goes back to the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to men of faith, that goes back to the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:37:29.090 --> 00:37:31.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:29.090 --> 00:37:31.110
    • -->
    • The influence of the bible, it's not a secular document
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The influence of the bible, it's not a secular document
    • -->
    • 00:37:31.110 --> 00:37:34.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:31.110 --> 00:37:34.140
    • -->
    • in the sense that we are told today.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the sense that we are told today.
    • -->
    • 00:37:34.140 --> 00:37:36.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:34.140 --> 00:37:36.150
    • -->
    • It really is a document that's faith filled
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It really is a document that's faith filled
    • -->
    • 00:37:36.150 --> 00:37:38.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:36.150 --> 00:37:38.230
    • -->
    • and it's built on faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and it's built on faith.
    • -->
    • 00:37:38.230 --> 00:37:39.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:38.230 --> 00:37:39.290
    • -->
    • - There's no doubt that these were guys who
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - There's no doubt that these were guys who
    • -->
    • 00:37:39.290 --> 00:37:41.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:39.290 --> 00:37:41.190
    • -->
    • certainly influenced by faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • certainly influenced by faith.
    • -->
    • 00:37:41.190 --> 00:37:43.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:41.190 --> 00:37:43.220
    • -->
    • We could argue today, well, maybe not all of them
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We could argue today, well, maybe not all of them
    • -->
    • 00:37:43.220 --> 00:37:46.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:43.220 --> 00:37:46.100
    • -->
    • were Christians, but it's pretty clear
    • " data-timeend="">
    • were Christians, but it's pretty clear
    • -->
    • 00:37:46.100 --> 00:37:48.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:46.100 --> 00:37:48.060
    • -->
    • that the vast majority were people of faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that the vast majority were people of faith.
    • -->
    • 00:37:48.060 --> 00:37:50.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:48.060 --> 00:37:50.040
    • -->
    • In fact, if you want to know more about the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, if you want to know more about the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:37:50.040 --> 00:37:52.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:50.040 --> 00:37:52.100
    • -->
    • a pretty good thing to do, Constitution Day,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a pretty good thing to do, Constitution Day,
    • -->
    • 00:37:52.100 --> 00:37:54.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:52.100 --> 00:37:54.000
    • -->
    • is to read the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • is to read the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:37:54.000 --> 00:37:55.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:54.000 --> 00:37:55.150
    • -->
    • Maybe if you read it and go, I really don't understand
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Maybe if you read it and go, I really don't understand
    • -->
    • 00:37:55.150 --> 00:37:58.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:55.150 --> 00:37:58.080
    • -->
    • a lot of what I'm reading, we actually have something
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a lot of what I'm reading, we actually have something
    • -->
    • 00:37:58.080 --> 00:38:01.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:37:58.080 --> 00:38:01.040
    • -->
    • that might be very helpful for you.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that might be very helpful for you.
    • -->
    • 00:38:01.040 --> 00:38:02.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:01.040 --> 00:38:02.170
    • -->
    • It's called Constitutional Life,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's called Constitutional Life,
    • -->
    • 00:38:02.170 --> 00:38:04.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:02.170 --> 00:38:04.010
    • -->
    • where we actually go through and give a big picture
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where we actually go through and give a big picture
    • -->
    • 00:38:04.010 --> 00:38:06.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:04.010 --> 00:38:06.070
    • -->
    • of what the Constitution looks like,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of what the Constitution looks like,
    • -->
    • 00:38:06.070 --> 00:38:07.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:06.070 --> 00:38:07.180
    • -->
    • of how it operates and actually show a lot of original
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of how it operates and actually show a lot of original
    • -->
    • 00:38:07.180 --> 00:38:10.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:07.180 --> 00:38:10.140
    • -->
    • document explaining how the process works.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • document explaining how the process works.
    • -->
    • 00:38:10.140 --> 00:38:13.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:10.140 --> 00:38:13.040
    • -->
    • And, as we've even mentioned the bible shaped so much
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And, as we've even mentioned the bible shaped so much
    • -->
    • 00:38:13.040 --> 00:38:17.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:13.040 --> 00:38:17.020
    • -->
    • of the Constitution, we have a bible that's called
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Constitution, we have a bible that's called
    • -->
    • 00:38:17.020 --> 00:38:19.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:17.020 --> 00:38:19.190
    • -->
    • the Founder's Bible, and in this, we actually document
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Founder's Bible, and in this, we actually document
    • -->
    • 00:38:19.190 --> 00:38:22.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:19.190 --> 00:38:22.150
    • -->
    • when they talk about how a verse shaped a policy,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when they talk about how a verse shaped a policy,
    • -->
    • 00:38:22.150 --> 00:38:26.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:22.150 --> 00:38:26.000
    • -->
    • a law, education, government, we put their quote
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a law, education, government, we put their quote
    • -->
    • 00:38:26.000 --> 00:38:29.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:26.000 --> 00:38:29.030
    • -->
    • beside the verse.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • beside the verse.
    • -->
    • 00:38:29.030 --> 00:38:30.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:29.030 --> 00:38:30.090
    • -->
    • So not only are you able to read the bible,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So not only are you able to read the bible,
    • -->
    • 00:38:30.090 --> 00:38:32.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:30.090 --> 00:38:32.160
    • -->
    • which every Christian should read the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • which every Christian should read the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:38:32.160 --> 00:38:34.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:32.160 --> 00:38:34.230
    • -->
    • So that's another thing we'd encourage you to do.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So that's another thing we'd encourage you to do.
    • -->
    • 00:38:34.230 --> 00:38:36.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:34.230 --> 00:38:36.210
    • -->
    • Make sure you're reading the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Make sure you're reading the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:38:36.210 --> 00:38:37.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:36.210 --> 00:38:37.280
    • -->
    • But in the midst of reading the bible,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But in the midst of reading the bible,
    • -->
    • 00:38:37.280 --> 00:38:39.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:37.280 --> 00:38:39.180
    • -->
    • you can see how the bible literally shaped our nation
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you can see how the bible literally shaped our nation
    • -->
    • 00:38:39.180 --> 00:38:42.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:39.180 --> 00:38:42.110
    • -->
    • with the original quotes from the founding fathers
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with the original quotes from the founding fathers
    • -->
    • 00:38:42.110 --> 00:38:45.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:42.110 --> 00:38:45.270
    • -->
    • themselves, but on Constitution Day,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • themselves, but on Constitution Day,
    • -->
    • 00:38:45.270 --> 00:38:47.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:45.270 --> 00:38:47.170
    • -->
    • we would definitely encourage, take this time to get to know
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we would definitely encourage, take this time to get to know
    • -->
    • 00:38:47.170 --> 00:38:51.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:47.170 --> 00:38:51.200
    • -->
    • some of the guys who gave us a Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • some of the guys who gave us a Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:38:51.200 --> 00:38:54.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:51.200 --> 00:38:54.100
    • -->
    • Learn more about the Constitution, our system of government,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Learn more about the Constitution, our system of government,
    • -->
    • 00:38:54.100 --> 00:38:57.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:54.100 --> 00:38:57.080
    • -->
    • and you'll understand a little more about why America
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and you'll understand a little more about why America
    • -->
    • 00:38:57.080 --> 00:39:00.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:38:57.080 --> 00:39:00.100
    • -->
    • has been such a special nation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • has been such a special nation.
    • -->
    • 00:39:00.100 --> 00:39:02.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:00.100 --> 00:39:02.090
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:39:02.090 --> 00:39:05.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:02.090 --> 00:39:05.010
    • -->
    • - James Madison was very attached to the Christian faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - James Madison was very attached to the Christian faith.
    • -->
    • 00:39:12.120 --> 00:39:15.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:12.120 --> 00:39:15.010
    • -->
    • In fact, after he finished at Princeton,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, after he finished at Princeton,
    • -->
    • 00:39:15.010 --> 00:39:16.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:15.010 --> 00:39:16.210
    • -->
    • he graduated, he spent an extra year there studying under
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he graduated, he spent an extra year there studying under
    • -->
    • 00:39:16.210 --> 00:39:19.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:16.210 --> 00:39:19.150
    • -->
    • the Reverend Doctor John Witherspoon.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Reverend Doctor John Witherspoon.
    • -->
    • 00:39:19.150 --> 00:39:21.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:19.150 --> 00:39:21.000
    • -->
    • He studied Hebrew and he studied ethics.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He studied Hebrew and he studied ethics.
    • -->
    • 00:39:21.000 --> 00:39:22.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:21.000 --> 00:39:22.180
    • -->
    • Looked like he's studying for the ministry.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Looked like he's studying for the ministry.
    • -->
    • 00:39:22.180 --> 00:39:24.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:22.180 --> 00:39:24.010
    • -->
    • He told one of his friends there at Princeton,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He told one of his friends there at Princeton,
    • -->
    • 00:39:24.010 --> 00:39:25.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:24.010 --> 00:39:25.230
    • -->
    • he said look, you need to be really bold about your faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he said look, you need to be really bold about your faith.
    • -->
    • 00:39:25.230 --> 00:39:28.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:25.230 --> 00:39:28.260
    • -->
    • Everybody needs to know it that you're a Christian.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Everybody needs to know it that you're a Christian.
    • -->
    • 00:39:28.260 --> 00:39:30.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:28.260 --> 00:39:30.210
    • -->
    • Actually, that guy became an attorney general
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Actually, that guy became an attorney general
    • -->
    • 00:39:30.210 --> 00:39:32.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:30.210 --> 00:39:32.130
    • -->
    • of the United States, William Bradford.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the United States, William Bradford.
    • -->
    • 00:39:32.130 --> 00:39:34.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:32.130 --> 00:39:34.060
    • -->
    • Then he came back and got involved in Virginia politics,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then he came back and got involved in Virginia politics,
    • -->
    • 00:39:34.060 --> 00:39:36.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:34.060 --> 00:39:36.170
    • -->
    • and he actually is one of the guys who helps write
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he actually is one of the guys who helps write
    • -->
    • 00:39:36.170 --> 00:39:39.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:36.170 --> 00:39:39.080
    • -->
    • the original Virginia Constitution of 1776.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the original Virginia Constitution of 1776.
    • -->
    • 00:39:39.080 --> 00:39:42.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:39.080 --> 00:39:42.010
    • -->
    • In that Virginia Constitution they helped start
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In that Virginia Constitution they helped start
    • -->
    • 00:39:42.010 --> 00:39:44.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:42.010 --> 00:39:44.210
    • -->
    • disestablishing the Anglican church,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • disestablishing the Anglican church,
    • -->
    • 00:39:44.210 --> 00:39:46.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:44.210 --> 00:39:46.160
    • -->
    • because here in Virginia, the state established church
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because here in Virginia, the state established church
    • -->
    • 00:39:46.160 --> 00:39:49.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:46.160 --> 00:39:49.000
    • -->
    • was the Anglican church.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was the Anglican church.
    • -->
    • 00:39:49.000 --> 00:39:50.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:49.000 --> 00:39:50.170
    • -->
    • So if you're a Baptist or a Methodist or a Presbyterian
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So if you're a Baptist or a Methodist or a Presbyterian
    • -->
    • 00:39:50.170 --> 00:39:53.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:50.170 --> 00:39:53.140
    • -->
    • or a Quaker or something else,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • or a Quaker or something else,
    • -->
    • 00:39:53.140 --> 00:39:55.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:53.140 --> 00:39:55.040
    • -->
    • you were persecuted, you were fined,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you were persecuted, you were fined,
    • -->
    • 00:39:55.040 --> 00:39:57.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:55.040 --> 00:39:57.110
    • -->
    • and in some cases you were even killed, you were jailed,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and in some cases you were even killed, you were jailed,
    • -->
    • 00:39:57.110 --> 00:39:59.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:57.110 --> 00:39:59.160
    • -->
    • because you're not of the Anglican denomination.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because you're not of the Anglican denomination.
    • -->
    • 00:39:59.160 --> 00:40:02.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:39:59.160 --> 00:40:02.040
    • -->
    • You don't have a Anglican license.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You don't have a Anglican license.
    • -->
    • 00:40:02.040 --> 00:40:03.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:02.040 --> 00:40:03.150
    • -->
    • Well, Madison started pushing against that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, Madison started pushing against that.
    • -->
    • 00:40:03.150 --> 00:40:05.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:03.150 --> 00:40:05.240
    • -->
    • In 1779, it was Thomas Jefferson who introduced
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In 1779, it was Thomas Jefferson who introduced
    • -->
    • 00:40:05.240 --> 00:40:09.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:05.240 --> 00:40:09.050
    • -->
    • the Virginia statue of religious liberties
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Virginia statue of religious liberties
    • -->
    • 00:40:09.050 --> 00:40:10.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:09.050 --> 00:40:10.260
    • -->
    • that put all Christian denominations in the same
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that put all Christian denominations in the same
    • -->
    • 00:40:10.260 --> 00:40:12.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:10.260 --> 00:40:12.250
    • -->
    • equal footing.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • equal footing.
    • -->
    • 00:40:12.250 --> 00:40:13.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:12.250 --> 00:40:13.230
    • -->
    • It didn't get passed, but later,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It didn't get passed, but later,
    • -->
    • 00:40:13.230 --> 00:40:15.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:13.230 --> 00:40:15.120
    • -->
    • James Madison picks that up.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • James Madison picks that up.
    • -->
    • 00:40:15.120 --> 00:40:16.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:15.120 --> 00:40:16.270
    • -->
    • He does a great piece called the Memorial and Remonstrance
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He does a great piece called the Memorial and Remonstrance
    • -->
    • 00:40:16.270 --> 00:40:19.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:16.270 --> 00:40:19.290
    • -->
    • where he goes through and he lays out all the principles
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where he goes through and he lays out all the principles
    • -->
    • 00:40:19.290 --> 00:40:21.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:19.290 --> 00:40:21.190
    • -->
    • of religious liberty that free exercise of religion,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of religious liberty that free exercise of religion,
    • -->
    • 00:40:21.190 --> 00:40:24.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:21.190 --> 00:40:24.160
    • -->
    • that's an inalienable right given by God.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that's an inalienable right given by God.
    • -->
    • 00:40:24.160 --> 00:40:26.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:24.160 --> 00:40:26.060
    • -->
    • It's not granted by government.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's not granted by government.
    • -->
    • 00:40:26.060 --> 00:40:27.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:26.060 --> 00:40:27.120
    • -->
    • So we have to recognize what God's given us
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So we have to recognize what God's given us
    • -->
    • 00:40:27.120 --> 00:40:29.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:27.120 --> 00:40:29.050
    • -->
    • and that bill eventually gets passed in 1784.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and that bill eventually gets passed in 1784.
    • -->
    • 00:40:29.050 --> 00:40:31.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:29.050 --> 00:40:31.120
    • -->
    • What Jefferson started, Madison helped get finished.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • What Jefferson started, Madison helped get finished.
    • -->
    • 00:40:31.120 --> 00:40:34.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:31.120 --> 00:40:34.050
    • -->
    • Madison's also a member of the Continental Congress
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Madison's also a member of the Continental Congress
    • -->
    • 00:40:34.050 --> 00:40:37.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:34.050 --> 00:40:37.020
    • -->
    • and as a member of a Continental Congress,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and as a member of a Continental Congress,
    • -->
    • 00:40:37.020 --> 00:40:39.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:37.020 --> 00:40:39.070
    • -->
    • they appropriated money where that they actually paid
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they appropriated money where that they actually paid
    • -->
    • 00:40:39.070 --> 00:40:41.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:39.070 --> 00:40:41.280
    • -->
    • missionaries to go work among native American tribes.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • missionaries to go work among native American tribes.
    • -->
    • 00:40:41.280 --> 00:40:44.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:41.280 --> 00:40:44.280
    • -->
    • Then after we move into the federal government ,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then after we move into the federal government ,
    • -->
    • 00:40:44.280 --> 00:40:47.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:44.280 --> 00:40:47.240
    • -->
    • Madison is there to help with the First Amendment,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Madison is there to help with the First Amendment,
    • -->
    • 00:40:47.240 --> 00:40:50.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:47.240 --> 00:40:50.200
    • -->
    • the Bill of Rights guaranteeing religious liberty.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Bill of Rights guaranteeing religious liberty.
    • -->
    • 00:40:50.200 --> 00:40:53.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:50.200 --> 00:40:53.040
    • -->
    • He also is there to help make sure that the chaplains
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He also is there to help make sure that the chaplains
    • -->
    • 00:40:53.040 --> 00:40:55.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:53.040 --> 00:40:55.250
    • -->
    • actually are paid by federal funds and so we have chaplains
    • " data-timeend="">
    • actually are paid by federal funds and so we have chaplains
    • -->
    • 00:40:55.250 --> 00:40:58.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:55.250 --> 00:40:58.090
    • -->
    • in the House and Senate.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the House and Senate.
    • -->
    • 00:40:58.090 --> 00:40:59.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:40:58.090 --> 00:40:59.220
    • -->
    • Then, you move into the time when he's Secretary of State.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then, you move into the time when he's Secretary of State.
    • -->
    • 00:41:01.080 --> 00:41:03.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:01.080 --> 00:41:03.290
    • -->
    • As Secretary of State under Thomas Jefferson,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As Secretary of State under Thomas Jefferson,
    • -->
    • 00:41:03.290 --> 00:41:05.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:03.290 --> 00:41:05.230
    • -->
    • what he's able to do is he administers what's going on
    • " data-timeend="">
    • what he's able to do is he administers what's going on
    • -->
    • 00:41:05.230 --> 00:41:09.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:05.230 --> 00:41:09.080
    • -->
    • in Washington D.C. and so they start church services
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in Washington D.C. and so they start church services
    • -->
    • 00:41:09.080 --> 00:41:12.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:09.080 --> 00:41:12.000
    • -->
    • at the War Department and at the Treasury Department
    • " data-timeend="">
    • at the War Department and at the Treasury Department
    • -->
    • 00:41:12.000 --> 00:41:14.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:12.000 --> 00:41:14.110
    • -->
    • and at the Navy Yard.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and at the Navy Yard.
    • -->
    • 00:41:14.110 --> 00:41:15.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:14.110 --> 00:41:15.250
    • -->
    • When he becomes President of the United States,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When he becomes President of the United States,
    • -->
    • 00:41:15.250 --> 00:41:18.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:15.250 --> 00:41:18.000
    • -->
    • it's interesting to see where James Madison attended church.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it's interesting to see where James Madison attended church.
    • -->
    • 00:41:18.000 --> 00:41:20.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:18.000 --> 00:41:20.130
    • -->
    • He attended church at the U.S. capital because every Sunday
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He attended church at the U.S. capital because every Sunday
    • -->
    • 00:41:20.130 --> 00:41:24.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:20.130 --> 00:41:24.040
    • -->
    • the hall of the House of Representatives
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the hall of the House of Representatives
    • -->
    • 00:41:24.040 --> 00:41:25.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:24.040 --> 00:41:25.200
    • -->
    • became a church and up to 2.000 people a week
    • " data-timeend="">
    • became a church and up to 2.000 people a week
    • -->
    • 00:41:25.200 --> 00:41:28.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:25.200 --> 00:41:28.180
    • -->
    • would meet there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • would meet there.
    • -->
    • 00:41:28.180 --> 00:41:29.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:28.180 --> 00:41:29.250
    • -->
    • Visitors and observers said that James Madison
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Visitors and observers said that James Madison
    • -->
    • 00:41:29.250 --> 00:41:32.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:29.250 --> 00:41:32.090
    • -->
    • would come in with a big carriage and white horses,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • would come in with a big carriage and white horses,
    • -->
    • 00:41:32.090 --> 00:41:34.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:32.090 --> 00:41:34.200
    • -->
    • so it was really obvious when President Madison
    • " data-timeend="">
    • so it was really obvious when President Madison
    • -->
    • 00:41:34.200 --> 00:41:36.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:34.200 --> 00:41:36.130
    • -->
    • got there to church.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • got there to church.
    • -->
    • 00:41:36.130 --> 00:41:37.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:36.130 --> 00:41:37.200
    • -->
    • Then as President of the United States,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then as President of the United States,
    • -->
    • 00:41:37.200 --> 00:41:39.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:37.200 --> 00:41:39.130
    • -->
    • where in the War of 1812, on numerous occasions,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where in the War of 1812, on numerous occasions,
    • -->
    • 00:41:39.130 --> 00:41:42.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:39.130 --> 00:41:42.030
    • -->
    • he actually issued calls for days of fasting and prayer
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he actually issued calls for days of fasting and prayer
    • -->
    • 00:41:42.030 --> 00:41:45.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:42.030 --> 00:41:45.130
    • -->
    • because the war we were in.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because the war we were in.
    • -->
    • 00:41:45.130 --> 00:41:46.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:45.130 --> 00:41:46.200
    • -->
    • So he turned to God openly, publicly.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he turned to God openly, publicly.
    • -->
    • 00:41:46.200 --> 00:41:48.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:46.200 --> 00:41:48.100
    • -->
    • He also was a lifetime member of the Virginia Bible Society
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He also was a lifetime member of the Virginia Bible Society
    • -->
    • 00:41:48.100 --> 00:41:51.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:48.100 --> 00:41:51.080
    • -->
    • and he even signed a bill that Congress passed
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he even signed a bill that Congress passed
    • -->
    • 00:41:51.080 --> 00:41:54.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:51.080 --> 00:41:54.000
    • -->
    • to economically assist the Bible Society
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to economically assist the Bible Society
    • -->
    • 00:41:54.000 --> 00:41:56.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:54.000 --> 00:41:56.160
    • -->
    • in importing bibles in to America.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in importing bibles in to America.
    • -->
    • 00:41:56.160 --> 00:41:58.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:56.160 --> 00:41:58.090
    • -->
    • The Philadelphia Bible Society.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Philadelphia Bible Society.
    • -->
    • 00:41:58.090 --> 00:41:59.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:58.090 --> 00:41:59.280
    • -->
    • So he was a strong and open professor
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he was a strong and open professor
    • -->
    • 00:41:59.280 --> 00:42:02.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:41:59.280 --> 00:42:02.010
    • -->
    • of the Christian faith.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Christian faith.
    • -->
    • 00:42:02.010 --> 00:42:03.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:02.010 --> 00:42:03.040
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:42:03.040 --> 00:42:05.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:03.040 --> 00:42:05.190
    • -->
    • So Madison had a very open, very public life
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So Madison had a very open, very public life
    • -->
    • 00:42:05.190 --> 00:42:07.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:05.190 --> 00:42:07.260
    • -->
    • with lots of religious activities, lots of religious belief
    • " data-timeend="">
    • with lots of religious activities, lots of religious belief
    • -->
    • 00:42:07.260 --> 00:42:11.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:07.260 --> 00:42:11.040
    • -->
    • expressions, lots of public church attendance
    • " data-timeend="">
    • expressions, lots of public church attendance
    • -->
    • 00:42:11.040 --> 00:42:13.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:11.040 --> 00:42:13.100
    • -->
    • and other things that he did with both state
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and other things that he did with both state
    • -->
    • 00:42:13.100 --> 00:42:15.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:13.100 --> 00:42:15.210
    • -->
    • and federal governments, and when he came back
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and federal governments, and when he came back
    • -->
    • 00:42:15.210 --> 00:42:17.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:15.210 --> 00:42:17.270
    • -->
    • here, after retired as president,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • here, after retired as president,
    • -->
    • 00:42:17.270 --> 00:42:20.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:17.270 --> 00:42:20.030
    • -->
    • somewhere over the next three years he wrote what is now
    • " data-timeend="">
    • somewhere over the next three years he wrote what is now
    • -->
    • 00:42:20.030 --> 00:42:22.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:20.030 --> 00:42:22.000
    • -->
    • called the Detached Memorandum.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • called the Detached Memorandum.
    • -->
    • 00:42:22.000 --> 00:42:23.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:22.000 --> 00:42:23.260
    • -->
    • It may have been a policy paper he was working on it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It may have been a policy paper he was working on it.
    • -->
    • 00:42:23.260 --> 00:42:26.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:23.260 --> 00:42:26.220
    • -->
    • It may be something he intended for distribution maybe not.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It may be something he intended for distribution maybe not.
    • -->
    • 00:42:26.220 --> 00:42:30.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:26.220 --> 00:42:30.030
    • -->
    • But for whatever reason, it just flat didn't get out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But for whatever reason, it just flat didn't get out.
    • -->
    • 00:42:30.030 --> 00:42:33.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:30.030 --> 00:42:33.070
    • -->
    • But in it, he kind of backtracks from some things
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But in it, he kind of backtracks from some things
    • -->
    • 00:42:33.070 --> 00:42:35.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:33.070 --> 00:42:35.160
    • -->
    • he's been doing, say I'm not sure that chaplains ought
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's been doing, say I'm not sure that chaplains ought
    • -->
    • 00:42:35.160 --> 00:42:37.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:35.160 --> 00:42:37.250
    • -->
    • to be paid by federal monies.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to be paid by federal monies.
    • -->
    • 00:42:37.250 --> 00:42:39.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:37.250 --> 00:42:39.100
    • -->
    • Have chaplains, but just not federal monies.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Have chaplains, but just not federal monies.
    • -->
    • 00:42:39.100 --> 00:42:41.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:39.100 --> 00:42:41.230
    • -->
    • I don't know that you really need national proclamation
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I don't know that you really need national proclamation
    • -->
    • 00:42:41.230 --> 00:42:44.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:41.230 --> 00:42:44.160
    • -->
    • for days of, these are all things he did.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for days of, these are all things he did.
    • -->
    • 00:42:44.160 --> 00:42:46.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:44.160 --> 00:42:46.170
    • -->
    • Now he looks like he's backtracking from that
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now he looks like he's backtracking from that
    • -->
    • 00:42:47.230 --> 00:42:50.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:47.230 --> 00:42:50.020
    • -->
    • and the first time ever that that paper was published
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and the first time ever that that paper was published
    • -->
    • 00:42:50.020 --> 00:42:53.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:50.020 --> 00:42:53.030
    • -->
    • was in 1946.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • was in 1946.
    • -->
    • 00:42:53.030 --> 00:42:54.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:53.030 --> 00:42:54.280
    • -->
    • When it came out that was the middle of kind of
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When it came out that was the middle of kind of
    • -->
    • 00:42:54.280 --> 00:42:57.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:54.280 --> 00:42:57.270
    • -->
    • the judicial activism that was going on at the time
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the judicial activism that was going on at the time
    • -->
    • 00:42:57.270 --> 00:43:00.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:42:57.270 --> 00:43:00.130
    • -->
    • where courts were starting to say hey,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where courts were starting to say hey,
    • -->
    • 00:43:00.130 --> 00:43:02.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:00.130 --> 00:43:02.000
    • -->
    • let's be secular, let's get religion out of schools.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • let's be secular, let's get religion out of schools.
    • -->
    • 00:43:02.000 --> 00:43:04.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:02.000 --> 00:43:04.060
    • -->
    • So some courts latched on to that and said oh look
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So some courts latched on to that and said oh look
    • -->
    • 00:43:04.060 --> 00:43:07.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:04.060 --> 00:43:07.130
    • -->
    • what James Madison said, he said you shouldn't have
    • " data-timeend="">
    • what James Madison said, he said you shouldn't have
    • -->
    • 00:43:07.130 --> 00:43:10.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:07.130 --> 00:43:10.070
    • -->
    • the government involved with religion
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the government involved with religion
    • -->
    • 00:43:10.070 --> 00:43:11.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:10.070 --> 00:43:11.210
    • -->
    • and that means you shouldn't be praying at schools
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and that means you shouldn't be praying at schools
    • -->
    • 00:43:11.210 --> 00:43:13.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:11.210 --> 00:43:13.290
    • -->
    • and that means you shouldn't have God at graduation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and that means you shouldn't have God at graduation.
    • -->
    • 00:43:13.290 --> 00:43:16.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:13.290 --> 00:43:16.040
    • -->
    • So they started going in that tone, in that direction.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So they started going in that tone, in that direction.
    • -->
    • 00:43:16.040 --> 00:43:18.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:16.040 --> 00:43:18.150
    • -->
    • They're using James Madison as the guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They're using James Madison as the guy.
    • -->
    • 00:43:18.150 --> 00:43:21.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:18.150 --> 00:43:21.000
    • -->
    • There's so many guys involved with writing the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There's so many guys involved with writing the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:43:21.000 --> 00:43:23.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:21.000 --> 00:43:23.050
    • -->
    • 55 wrote it, 39 signed it,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 55 wrote it, 39 signed it,
    • -->
    • 00:43:23.050 --> 00:43:25.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:23.050 --> 00:43:25.150
    • -->
    • 90 guys did the Bill of Rights.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 90 guys did the Bill of Rights.
    • -->
    • 00:43:25.150 --> 00:43:27.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:25.150 --> 00:43:27.020
    • -->
    • There's a whole bunch of guys that did and suddenly
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There's a whole bunch of guys that did and suddenly
    • -->
    • 00:43:27.020 --> 00:43:29.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:27.020 --> 00:43:29.100
    • -->
    • Madison's the only spokesman for it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Madison's the only spokesman for it.
    • -->
    • 00:43:29.100 --> 00:43:31.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:29.100 --> 00:43:31.210
    • -->
    • Not only are they just using that piece,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Not only are they just using that piece,
    • -->
    • 00:43:31.210 --> 00:43:34.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:31.210 --> 00:43:34.090
    • -->
    • that Detach Memorandum, they're ignoring the other
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that Detach Memorandum, they're ignoring the other
    • -->
    • 00:43:34.090 --> 00:43:36.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:34.090 --> 00:43:36.250
    • -->
    • 40 years that came before.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 40 years that came before.
    • -->
    • 00:43:36.250 --> 00:43:38.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:36.250 --> 00:43:38.090
    • -->
    • All the public things he did, all of his other writings.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • All the public things he did, all of his other writings.
    • -->
    • 00:43:38.090 --> 00:43:40.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:38.090 --> 00:43:40.130
    • -->
    • So instead of looking at the entirety of what he did
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So instead of looking at the entirety of what he did
    • -->
    • 00:43:40.130 --> 00:43:43.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:40.130 --> 00:43:43.070
    • -->
    • and trying to figure out how it comes together
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and trying to figure out how it comes together
    • -->
    • 00:43:43.070 --> 00:43:44.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:43.070 --> 00:43:44.220
    • -->
    • they just took that one piece and said, oh, that's it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they just took that one piece and said, oh, that's it.
    • -->
    • 00:43:44.220 --> 00:43:46.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:44.220 --> 00:43:46.260
    • -->
    • We can't have prayer in schools anymore.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We can't have prayer in schools anymore.
    • -->
    • 00:43:46.260 --> 00:43:48.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:46.260 --> 00:43:48.090
    • -->
    • At that point is when the courts and others
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At that point is when the courts and others
    • -->
    • 00:43:48.090 --> 00:43:51.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:48.090 --> 00:43:51.100
    • -->
    • started calling him the Chief Architect of the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • started calling him the Chief Architect of the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:43:51.100 --> 00:43:54.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:51.100 --> 00:43:54.050
    • -->
    • Granted, he was a really important guy
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Granted, he was a really important guy
    • -->
    • 00:43:54.050 --> 00:43:57.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:54.050 --> 00:43:57.070
    • -->
    • and he's one of five that used to be called
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he's one of five that used to be called
    • -->
    • 00:43:57.070 --> 00:43:59.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:57.070 --> 00:43:59.130
    • -->
    • the Master Builders of the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Master Builders of the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:43:59.130 --> 00:44:01.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:43:59.130 --> 00:44:01.090
    • -->
    • You had five guys, really important.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You had five guys, really important.
    • -->
    • 00:44:01.090 --> 00:44:03.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:01.090 --> 00:44:03.030
    • -->
    • You had George Washington and James Wilson,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You had George Washington and James Wilson,
    • -->
    • 00:44:03.030 --> 00:44:05.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:03.030 --> 00:44:05.020
    • -->
    • Roger Sherman, Charles Pinckney,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Roger Sherman, Charles Pinckney,
    • -->
    • 00:44:05.020 --> 00:44:06.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:05.020 --> 00:44:06.170
    • -->
    • and James Madison but Madison wasn't the guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and James Madison but Madison wasn't the guy.
    • -->
    • 00:44:06.170 --> 00:44:09.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:06.170 --> 00:44:09.280
    • -->
    • As a matter of fact, he made 70 motions at the
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As a matter of fact, he made 70 motions at the
    • -->
    • 00:44:09.280 --> 00:44:11.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:09.280 --> 00:44:11.290
    • -->
    • Constitution Convention and 40 of them were voted down
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Constitution Convention and 40 of them were voted down
    • -->
    • 00:44:11.290 --> 00:44:14.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:11.290 --> 00:44:14.160
    • -->
    • by the other delegates.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • by the other delegates.
    • -->
    • 00:44:14.160 --> 00:44:16.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:14.160 --> 00:44:16.000
    • -->
    • Now he's a huge influence, no question about it,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now he's a huge influence, no question about it,
    • -->
    • 00:44:16.000 --> 00:44:18.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:16.000 --> 00:44:18.130
    • -->
    • but today we consider him to be the Chief Architect
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but today we consider him to be the Chief Architect
    • -->
    • 00:44:18.130 --> 00:44:21.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:18.130 --> 00:44:21.130
    • -->
    • the only guy responsible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the only guy responsible.
    • -->
    • 00:44:21.130 --> 00:44:22.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:21.130 --> 00:44:22.260
    • -->
    • That's just not historically what's there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • That's just not historically what's there.
    • -->
    • 00:44:22.260 --> 00:44:24.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:22.260 --> 00:44:24.280
    • -->
    • When you look at Madison, this is another one of those
    • " data-timeend="">
    • When you look at Madison, this is another one of those
    • -->
    • 00:44:24.280 --> 00:44:27.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:24.280 --> 00:44:27.140
    • -->
    • things that people are complicated.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • things that people are complicated.
    • -->
    • 00:44:27.140 --> 00:44:29.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:27.140 --> 00:44:29.130
    • -->
    • They're not just one single letter here or one there.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They're not just one single letter here or one there.
    • -->
    • 00:44:29.130 --> 00:44:31.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:29.130 --> 00:44:31.200
    • -->
    • You got 40 years of behavior and then you got
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You got 40 years of behavior and then you got
    • -->
    • 00:44:31.200 --> 00:44:32.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:31.200 --> 00:44:32.270
    • -->
    • the Detached Memorandum and you have to kind
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Detached Memorandum and you have to kind
    • -->
    • 00:44:32.270 --> 00:44:35.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:32.270 --> 00:44:35.190
    • -->
    • put all that together and see how it works out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • put all that together and see how it works out.
    • -->
    • 00:44:35.190 --> 00:44:37.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:35.190 --> 00:44:37.160
    • -->
    • But, it's interesting the way that we latch on to
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But, it's interesting the way that we latch on to
    • -->
    • 00:44:37.160 --> 00:44:39.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:37.160 --> 00:44:39.230
    • -->
    • one thing today, like that Detached Memorandum
    • " data-timeend="">
    • one thing today, like that Detached Memorandum
    • -->
    • 00:44:39.230 --> 00:44:42.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:39.230 --> 00:44:42.000
    • -->
    • and suddenly he's the only guy capable of speaking
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and suddenly he's the only guy capable of speaking
    • -->
    • 00:44:42.000 --> 00:44:44.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:42.000 --> 00:44:44.130
    • -->
    • about the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • about the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:44:44.130 --> 00:44:45.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:44.130 --> 00:44:45.220
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:44:45.220 --> 00:44:48.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:45.220 --> 00:44:48.010
    • -->
    • So in looking at James Madison, very notable,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So in looking at James Madison, very notable,
    • -->
    • 00:44:48.010 --> 00:44:50.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:48.010 --> 00:44:50.120
    • -->
    • very famous founding father, huge significance.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • very famous founding father, huge significance.
    • -->
    • 00:44:50.120 --> 00:44:52.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:50.120 --> 00:44:52.220
    • -->
    • He was born in 1751 and he graduated from Princeton
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was born in 1751 and he graduated from Princeton
    • -->
    • 00:44:52.220 --> 00:44:57.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:52.220 --> 00:44:57.010
    • -->
    • 20 years later, 1771.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 20 years later, 1771.
    • -->
    • 00:44:57.010 --> 00:44:59.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:57.010 --> 00:44:59.190
    • -->
    • Within five years he was intimately involved
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Within five years he was intimately involved
    • -->
    • 00:44:59.190 --> 00:45:02.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:44:59.190 --> 00:45:02.010
    • -->
    • in the America Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the America Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:45:02.010 --> 00:45:03.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:02.010 --> 00:45:03.170
    • -->
    • He came back here to Orange County and in Orange County
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He came back here to Orange County and in Orange County
    • -->
    • 00:45:03.170 --> 00:45:04.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:03.170 --> 00:45:04.290
    • -->
    • elected him to the committee of safety, 1776.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • elected him to the committee of safety, 1776.
    • -->
    • 00:45:04.290 --> 00:45:07.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:04.290 --> 00:45:07.180
    • -->
    • Then they sent him to the Constitutional Convention
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then they sent him to the Constitutional Convention
    • -->
    • 00:45:07.180 --> 00:45:10.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:07.180 --> 00:45:10.050
    • -->
    • to write the very first constitution for Virginia.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to write the very first constitution for Virginia.
    • -->
    • 00:45:10.050 --> 00:45:12.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:10.050 --> 00:45:12.190
    • -->
    • He's then elected to the first legislature
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's then elected to the first legislature
    • -->
    • 00:45:12.190 --> 00:45:14.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:12.190 --> 00:45:14.210
    • -->
    • under that Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • under that Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:45:14.210 --> 00:45:16.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:14.210 --> 00:45:16.060
    • -->
    • But then they send him on to the National Congress
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But then they send him on to the National Congress
    • -->
    • 00:45:16.060 --> 00:45:18.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:16.060 --> 00:45:18.110
    • -->
    • and he's a member of the Continental Congress
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and he's a member of the Continental Congress
    • -->
    • 00:45:18.110 --> 00:45:19.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:18.110 --> 00:45:19.280
    • -->
    • and so while he's there, Continental Congress
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and so while he's there, Continental Congress
    • -->
    • 00:45:19.280 --> 00:45:22.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:19.280 --> 00:45:22.000
    • -->
    • governs itself under the Articles of Confederation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • governs itself under the Articles of Confederation.
    • -->
    • 00:45:22.000 --> 00:45:24.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:22.000 --> 00:45:24.020
    • -->
    • So he sees that that National Congress
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he sees that that National Congress
    • -->
    • 00:45:24.020 --> 00:45:26.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:24.020 --> 00:45:26.170
    • -->
    • that document really, it's not a very good document.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • that document really, it's not a very good document.
    • -->
    • 00:45:26.170 --> 00:45:29.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:26.170 --> 00:45:29.250
    • -->
    • It just is terrible to work under for all the states.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It just is terrible to work under for all the states.
    • -->
    • 00:45:29.250 --> 00:45:32.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:29.250 --> 00:45:32.210
    • -->
    • So he sees firsthand that we need some kind
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he sees firsthand that we need some kind
    • -->
    • 00:45:32.210 --> 00:45:34.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:32.210 --> 00:45:34.200
    • -->
    • of a different document.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of a different document.
    • -->
    • 00:45:34.200 --> 00:45:35.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:34.200 --> 00:45:35.290
    • -->
    • So he starts working over the next years,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he starts working over the next years,
    • -->
    • 00:45:35.290 --> 00:45:38.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:35.290 --> 00:45:38.210
    • -->
    • going to the Annapolis Convention, helping build consensus
    • " data-timeend="">
    • going to the Annapolis Convention, helping build consensus
    • -->
    • 00:45:38.210 --> 00:45:41.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:38.210 --> 00:45:41.000
    • -->
    • to come up with a different government, different document.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to come up with a different government, different document.
    • -->
    • 00:45:41.000 --> 00:45:43.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:41.000 --> 00:45:43.160
    • -->
    • He wrote a piece calling for a new government,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He wrote a piece calling for a new government,
    • -->
    • 00:45:43.160 --> 00:45:45.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:43.160 --> 00:45:45.140
    • -->
    • new document and that leads to eventually,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • new document and that leads to eventually,
    • -->
    • 00:45:45.140 --> 00:45:47.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:45.140 --> 00:45:47.140
    • -->
    • the Constitutional Convention.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Constitutional Convention.
    • -->
    • 00:45:47.140 --> 00:45:48.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:47.140 --> 00:45:48.270
    • -->
    • Virginia sends him as a delegate to the Constitutional
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Virginia sends him as a delegate to the Constitutional
    • -->
    • 00:45:48.270 --> 00:45:51.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:48.270 --> 00:45:51.090
    • -->
    • Convention and while he's there,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Convention and while he's there,
    • -->
    • 00:45:51.090 --> 00:45:52.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:51.090 --> 00:45:52.250
    • -->
    • he's really the chief scribe.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's really the chief scribe.
    • -->
    • 00:45:52.250 --> 00:45:54.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:52.250 --> 00:45:54.140
    • -->
    • He's the guy that kept notes more than anybody else
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's the guy that kept notes more than anybody else
    • -->
    • 00:45:54.140 --> 00:45:56.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:54.140 --> 00:45:56.040
    • -->
    • on all the debates, all the arguments,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • on all the debates, all the arguments,
    • -->
    • 00:45:56.040 --> 00:45:58.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:56.040 --> 00:45:58.230
    • -->
    • how the Constitution came to be, who was there
    • " data-timeend="">
    • how the Constitution came to be, who was there
    • -->
    • 00:45:58.230 --> 00:46:00.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:45:58.230 --> 00:46:00.230
    • -->
    • and what they said.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and what they said.
    • -->
    • 00:46:00.230 --> 00:46:02.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:00.230 --> 00:46:02.010
    • -->
    • He's very active in that Convention.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's very active in that Convention.
    • -->
    • 00:46:03.050 --> 00:46:05.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:03.050 --> 00:46:05.010
    • -->
    • As a matter of fact, his ideas that he introduced,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As a matter of fact, his ideas that he introduced,
    • -->
    • 00:46:05.010 --> 00:46:07.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:05.010 --> 00:46:07.080
    • -->
    • one of the things that he helped introduce
    • " data-timeend="">
    • one of the things that he helped introduce
    • -->
    • 00:46:07.080 --> 00:46:09.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:07.080 --> 00:46:09.060
    • -->
    • what's called the Virginia Plan.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • what's called the Virginia Plan.
    • -->
    • 00:46:09.060 --> 00:46:10.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:09.060 --> 00:46:10.220
    • -->
    • The Virginia Plan said hey, let's not just take
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Virginia Plan said hey, let's not just take
    • -->
    • 00:46:10.220 --> 00:46:12.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:10.220 --> 00:46:12.240
    • -->
    • around the edges with the Articles of Confederation,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • around the edges with the Articles of Confederation,
    • -->
    • 00:46:12.240 --> 00:46:15.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:12.240 --> 00:46:15.140
    • -->
    • let's just get rid of it and do something
    • " data-timeend="">
    • let's just get rid of it and do something
    • -->
    • 00:46:15.140 --> 00:46:16.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:15.140 --> 00:46:16.260
    • -->
    • totally new, totally different.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • totally new, totally different.
    • -->
    • 00:46:16.260 --> 00:46:18.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:16.260 --> 00:46:18.110
    • -->
    • So George Washington from Virginia, stood up and told
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So George Washington from Virginia, stood up and told
    • -->
    • 00:46:18.110 --> 00:46:20.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:18.110 --> 00:46:20.260
    • -->
    • the delegates, you need to be really bold.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the delegates, you need to be really bold.
    • -->
    • 00:46:20.260 --> 00:46:23.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:20.260 --> 00:46:23.000
    • -->
    • We need to do something different.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We need to do something different.
    • -->
    • 00:46:23.000 --> 00:46:24.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:23.000 --> 00:46:24.140
    • -->
    • As they keep moving toward the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As they keep moving toward the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:46:24.140 --> 00:46:26.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:24.140 --> 00:46:26.180
    • -->
    • when they finally get it done, he's one of the guys
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when they finally get it done, he's one of the guys
    • -->
    • 00:46:26.180 --> 00:46:29.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:26.180 --> 00:46:29.060
    • -->
    • who helps get it ratified.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who helps get it ratified.
    • -->
    • 00:46:29.060 --> 00:46:30.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:29.060 --> 00:46:30.190
    • -->
    • He writes what's called the Federalist papers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He writes what's called the Federalist papers.
    • -->
    • 00:46:30.190 --> 00:46:32.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:30.190 --> 00:46:32.100
    • -->
    • Now Congress would meet in New York and the Federalist
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now Congress would meet in New York and the Federalist
    • -->
    • 00:46:32.100 --> 00:46:34.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:32.100 --> 00:46:34.180
    • -->
    • papers were written and run in newspapers across New York
    • " data-timeend="">
    • papers were written and run in newspapers across New York
    • -->
    • 00:46:34.180 --> 00:46:37.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:34.180 --> 00:46:37.020
    • -->
    • to convince people that we need to ratify the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to convince people that we need to ratify the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:46:37.020 --> 00:46:39.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:37.020 --> 00:46:39.130
    • -->
    • So James Madison served in the First Congress.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So James Madison served in the First Congress.
    • -->
    • 00:46:39.130 --> 00:46:42.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:39.130 --> 00:46:42.040
    • -->
    • He served in the next three Congresses.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He served in the next three Congresses.
    • -->
    • 00:46:42.040 --> 00:46:44.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:42.040 --> 00:46:44.060
    • -->
    • He was in Congress for eight years,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was in Congress for eight years,
    • -->
    • 00:46:44.060 --> 00:46:45.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:44.060 --> 00:46:45.170
    • -->
    • all under George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • all under George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:46:45.170 --> 00:46:47.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:45.170 --> 00:46:47.000
    • -->
    • While he was in Congress, he married his wife
    • " data-timeend="">
    • While he was in Congress, he married his wife
    • -->
    • 00:46:47.000 --> 00:46:49.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:47.000 --> 00:46:49.190
    • -->
    • Dolly Payne and after finishing those eight years
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Dolly Payne and after finishing those eight years
    • -->
    • 00:46:49.190 --> 00:46:52.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:49.190 --> 00:46:52.040
    • -->
    • in Congress, he goes home.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in Congress, he goes home.
    • -->
    • 00:46:52.040 --> 00:46:53.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:52.040 --> 00:46:53.120
    • -->
    • Then his friend Thomas Jefferson gets elected
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then his friend Thomas Jefferson gets elected
    • -->
    • 00:46:53.120 --> 00:46:55.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:53.120 --> 00:46:55.040
    • -->
    • as the third president of the United States
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as the third president of the United States
    • -->
    • 00:46:55.040 --> 00:46:56.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:55.040 --> 00:46:56.200
    • -->
    • and James Madison comes back to be the Secretary of State
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and James Madison comes back to be the Secretary of State
    • -->
    • 00:46:56.200 --> 00:46:59.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:56.200 --> 00:46:59.030
    • -->
    • for Thomas Jefferson.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for Thomas Jefferson.
    • -->
    • 00:46:59.030 --> 00:47:00.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:46:59.030 --> 00:47:00.260
    • -->
    • Then James Madison becomes the fourth president
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Then James Madison becomes the fourth president
    • -->
    • 00:47:00.260 --> 00:47:02.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:00.260 --> 00:47:02.260
    • -->
    • of the United States.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the United States.
    • -->
    • 00:47:02.260 --> 00:47:04.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:02.260 --> 00:47:04.100
    • -->
    • While James Madison is president, we get involved
    • " data-timeend="">
    • While James Madison is president, we get involved
    • -->
    • 00:47:04.100 --> 00:47:06.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:04.100 --> 00:47:06.210
    • -->
    • in the War of 1812.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the War of 1812.
    • -->
    • 00:47:06.210 --> 00:47:08.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:06.210 --> 00:47:08.060
    • -->
    • It went from 1812 to 1815, the war against the British.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It went from 1812 to 1815, the war against the British.
    • -->
    • 00:47:08.060 --> 00:47:10.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:08.060 --> 00:47:10.190
    • -->
    • We win that, he gets that settled,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We win that, he gets that settled,
    • -->
    • 00:47:10.190 --> 00:47:12.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:10.190 --> 00:47:12.170
    • -->
    • and then he goes right back to war again, 1815 and 1816.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and then he goes right back to war again, 1815 and 1816.
    • -->
    • 00:47:12.170 --> 00:47:16.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:12.170 --> 00:47:16.030
    • -->
    • It's a war against Muslim terrorists, it was part of
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's a war against Muslim terrorists, it was part of
    • -->
    • 00:47:16.030 --> 00:47:18.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:16.030 --> 00:47:18.080
    • -->
    • 32 years that America ended up fighting Muslim terrorists
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 32 years that America ended up fighting Muslim terrorists
    • -->
    • 00:47:18.080 --> 00:47:21.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:18.080 --> 00:47:21.050
    • -->
    • beginning in 1784 and it ended in 1816 under James Madison.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • beginning in 1784 and it ended in 1816 under James Madison.
    • -->
    • 00:47:21.050 --> 00:47:25.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:21.050 --> 00:47:25.260
    • -->
    • So when you look at James Madison, he was involved
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So when you look at James Madison, he was involved
    • -->
    • 00:47:25.260 --> 00:47:28.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:25.260 --> 00:47:28.130
    • -->
    • in so many key aspects of early American history.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in so many key aspects of early American history.
    • -->
    • 00:47:28.130 --> 00:47:31.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:28.130 --> 00:47:31.180
    • -->
    • He was one of the key founding fathers to help produce
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was one of the key founding fathers to help produce
    • -->
    • 00:47:31.180 --> 00:47:34.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:31.180 --> 00:47:34.160
    • -->
    • the form of government that we still enjoy today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the form of government that we still enjoy today,
    • -->
    • 00:47:34.160 --> 00:47:36.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:34.160 --> 00:47:36.210
    • -->
    • over 200 years later.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • over 200 years later.
    • -->
    • 00:47:36.210 --> 00:47:38.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:36.210 --> 00:47:38.050
    • -->
    • He is a significant founding father to be observed
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He is a significant founding father to be observed
    • -->
    • 00:47:38.050 --> 00:47:40.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:38.050 --> 00:47:40.200
    • -->
    • on Constitution Day.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • on Constitution Day.
    • -->
    • 00:47:40.200 --> 00:47:41.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:40.200 --> 00:47:41.290
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:47:41.290 --> 00:47:44.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:47:41.290 --> 00:47:44.210
    • -->
    • - We're in New York right now, actually in Central Park.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - We're in New York right now, actually in Central Park.
    • -->
    • 00:48:01.290 --> 00:48:04.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:01.290 --> 00:48:04.000
    • -->
    • Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers,
    • -->
    • 00:48:04.000 --> 00:48:05.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:04.000 --> 00:48:05.190
    • -->
    • who actually very largely responsible for a lot of us
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who actually very largely responsible for a lot of us
    • -->
    • 00:48:05.190 --> 00:48:09.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:05.190 --> 00:48:09.000
    • -->
    • even having the Constitution, his statue's right behind me,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • even having the Constitution, his statue's right behind me,
    • -->
    • 00:48:09.000 --> 00:48:11.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:09.000 --> 00:48:11.120
    • -->
    • which is appropriate, being from New York,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • which is appropriate, being from New York,
    • -->
    • 00:48:11.120 --> 00:48:13.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:11.120 --> 00:48:13.060
    • -->
    • they're celebrating Alexander Hamilton.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they're celebrating Alexander Hamilton.
    • -->
    • 00:48:13.060 --> 00:48:14.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:13.060 --> 00:48:14.200
    • -->
    • Well, he's a name that a lot of people have at least
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, he's a name that a lot of people have at least
    • -->
    • 00:48:14.200 --> 00:48:16.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:14.200 --> 00:48:16.160
    • -->
    • become familiar with today, but really we don't know
    • " data-timeend="">
    • become familiar with today, but really we don't know
    • -->
    • 00:48:16.160 --> 00:48:18.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:16.160 --> 00:48:18.120
    • -->
    • much of his story and it really is fascinating.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • much of his story and it really is fascinating.
    • -->
    • 00:48:18.120 --> 00:48:20.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:18.120 --> 00:48:20.120
    • -->
    • He was born in the West Indies, 1757.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was born in the West Indies, 1757.
    • -->
    • 00:48:20.120 --> 00:48:22.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:20.120 --> 00:48:22.260
    • -->
    • His mom and dad had kind of a weird situation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • His mom and dad had kind of a weird situation.
    • -->
    • 00:48:22.260 --> 00:48:24.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:22.260 --> 00:48:24.270
    • -->
    • Dad leaves mom, dad really wasn't a good guy.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Dad leaves mom, dad really wasn't a good guy.
    • -->
    • 00:48:24.270 --> 00:48:27.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:24.270 --> 00:48:27.120
    • -->
    • So he grows up in a single parent home.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he grows up in a single parent home.
    • -->
    • 00:48:27.120 --> 00:48:29.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:27.120 --> 00:48:29.250
    • -->
    • His mom died when he was 11.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • His mom died when he was 11.
    • -->
    • 00:48:29.250 --> 00:48:31.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:29.250 --> 00:48:31.110
    • -->
    • Well, at that point, he's more or less a orphan.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, at that point, he's more or less a orphan.
    • -->
    • 00:48:31.110 --> 00:48:33.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:31.110 --> 00:48:33.200
    • -->
    • He's got some family, some aunts that are very supportive.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's got some family, some aunts that are very supportive.
    • -->
    • 00:48:33.200 --> 00:48:36.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:33.200 --> 00:48:36.110
    • -->
    • Well, he's very ambitious.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, he's very ambitious.
    • -->
    • 00:48:36.110 --> 00:48:37.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:36.110 --> 00:48:37.190
    • -->
    • He wants to get a formal education.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He wants to get a formal education.
    • -->
    • 00:48:37.190 --> 00:48:39.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:37.190 --> 00:48:39.090
    • -->
    • So they send him to America.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So they send him to America.
    • -->
    • 00:48:39.090 --> 00:48:40.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:39.090 --> 00:48:40.280
    • -->
    • From the West Indies he gets to New York
    • " data-timeend="">
    • From the West Indies he gets to New York
    • -->
    • 00:48:40.280 --> 00:48:42.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:40.280 --> 00:48:42.150
    • -->
    • and actually, when he gets to New York
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and actually, when he gets to New York
    • -->
    • 00:48:42.150 --> 00:48:44.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:42.150 --> 00:48:44.100
    • -->
    • he's a young teenager, he meets some individuals
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's a young teenager, he meets some individuals
    • -->
    • 00:48:44.100 --> 00:48:46.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:44.100 --> 00:48:46.290
    • -->
    • who would later go on to sign the Declaration,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who would later go on to sign the Declaration,
    • -->
    • 00:48:46.290 --> 00:48:48.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:46.290 --> 00:48:48.230
    • -->
    • the Constitution, what we would call founding fathers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the Constitution, what we would call founding fathers.
    • -->
    • 00:48:48.230 --> 00:48:51.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:48.230 --> 00:48:51.090
    • -->
    • And in the midst of their relationship,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And in the midst of their relationship,
    • -->
    • 00:48:51.090 --> 00:48:52.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:51.090 --> 00:48:52.280
    • -->
    • they're encouraging him to think differently
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they're encouraging him to think differently
    • -->
    • 00:48:52.280 --> 00:48:55.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:52.280 --> 00:48:55.030
    • -->
    • even about the notion of the British and oppression.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • even about the notion of the British and oppression.
    • -->
    • 00:48:55.030 --> 00:48:58.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:55.030 --> 00:48:58.160
    • -->
    • So he really joins on the American side,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he really joins on the American side,
    • -->
    • 00:48:58.160 --> 00:49:00.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:48:58.160 --> 00:49:00.140
    • -->
    • becomes an early activist,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • becomes an early activist,
    • -->
    • 00:49:00.140 --> 00:49:01.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:00.140 --> 00:49:01.260
    • -->
    • starts university at King's College which became
    • " data-timeend="">
    • starts university at King's College which became
    • -->
    • 00:49:01.260 --> 00:49:04.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:01.260 --> 00:49:04.090
    • -->
    • Columbia College.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Columbia College.
    • -->
    • 00:49:04.090 --> 00:49:05.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:04.090 --> 00:49:05.160
    • -->
    • But shortly after he started college,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But shortly after he started college,
    • -->
    • 00:49:05.160 --> 00:49:07.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:05.160 --> 00:49:07.170
    • -->
    • the American Revolution starts to break out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the American Revolution starts to break out.
    • -->
    • 00:49:07.170 --> 00:49:09.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:07.170 --> 00:49:09.060
    • -->
    • As the Revolution is now unfolding, it interrupts his school
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As the Revolution is now unfolding, it interrupts his school
    • -->
    • 00:49:09.060 --> 00:49:12.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:09.060 --> 00:49:12.270
    • -->
    • but he decides, you know what, I'm gonna do something.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but he decides, you know what, I'm gonna do something.
    • -->
    • 00:49:12.270 --> 00:49:14.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:12.270 --> 00:49:14.160
    • -->
    • I'm gonna get involved.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I'm gonna get involved.
    • -->
    • 00:49:14.160 --> 00:49:16.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:14.160 --> 00:49:16.000
    • -->
    • At 17 he actually joined with another founding father
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At 17 he actually joined with another founding father
    • -->
    • 00:49:16.000 --> 00:49:18.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:16.000 --> 00:49:18.070
    • -->
    • and they started a militia, when he was 17,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and they started a militia, when he was 17,
    • -->
    • 00:49:18.070 --> 00:49:21.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:18.070 --> 00:49:21.090
    • -->
    • and so the following year he decides
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and so the following year he decides
    • -->
    • 00:49:21.090 --> 00:49:23.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:21.090 --> 00:49:23.060
    • -->
    • I want to do this for real.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I want to do this for real.
    • -->
    • 00:49:23.060 --> 00:49:24.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:23.060 --> 00:49:24.200
    • -->
    • As an 18 year old he gets his first official commission
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As an 18 year old he gets his first official commission
    • -->
    • 00:49:24.200 --> 00:49:26.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:24.200 --> 00:49:26.230
    • -->
    • from the U.S. government to be an officer.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • from the U.S. government to be an officer.
    • -->
    • 00:49:26.230 --> 00:49:28.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:26.230 --> 00:49:28.210
    • -->
    • He's actually over an artillery company.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's actually over an artillery company.
    • -->
    • 00:49:28.210 --> 00:49:30.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:28.210 --> 00:49:30.150
    • -->
    • Well, this time he's 18, so he's still a very young officer
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, this time he's 18, so he's still a very young officer
    • -->
    • 00:49:30.150 --> 00:49:33.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:30.150 --> 00:49:33.020
    • -->
    • but Robert Morris, who's a founding father,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but Robert Morris, who's a founding father,
    • -->
    • 00:49:33.020 --> 00:49:35.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:33.020 --> 00:49:35.050
    • -->
    • introduces him to George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • introduces him to George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:49:35.050 --> 00:49:36.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:35.050 --> 00:49:36.240
    • -->
    • Washington's super impressed with this Hamilton kid,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Washington's super impressed with this Hamilton kid,
    • -->
    • 00:49:36.240 --> 00:49:39.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:36.240 --> 00:49:39.050
    • -->
    • brings Hamilton on to be part of his staff.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • brings Hamilton on to be part of his staff.
    • -->
    • 00:49:39.050 --> 00:49:41.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:39.050 --> 00:49:41.230
    • -->
    • He's the aide de camp for General George Washington.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's the aide de camp for General George Washington.
    • -->
    • 00:49:41.230 --> 00:49:43.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:41.230 --> 00:49:43.220
    • -->
    • Washington promotes him to be lieutenant colonel.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Washington promotes him to be lieutenant colonel.
    • -->
    • 00:49:43.220 --> 00:49:46.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:43.220 --> 00:49:46.070
    • -->
    • Through the Revolution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Through the Revolution,
    • -->
    • 00:49:46.070 --> 00:49:47.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:46.070 --> 00:49:47.140
    • -->
    • him and Washington are very good friends.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • him and Washington are very good friends.
    • -->
    • 00:49:47.140 --> 00:49:48.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:47.140 --> 00:49:48.220
    • -->
    • He's giving Washington strategies and thoughts
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's giving Washington strategies and thoughts
    • -->
    • 00:49:48.220 --> 00:49:51.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:48.220 --> 00:49:51.080
    • -->
    • and ideas for how they can improve militarily
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and ideas for how they can improve militarily
    • -->
    • 00:49:51.080 --> 00:49:53.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:51.080 --> 00:49:53.130
    • -->
    • and what they could do different.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and what they could do different.
    • -->
    • 00:49:53.130 --> 00:49:54.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:53.130 --> 00:49:54.290
    • -->
    • So Hamilton and Washington become very good friends
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So Hamilton and Washington become very good friends
    • -->
    • 00:49:54.290 --> 00:49:56.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:54.290 --> 00:49:56.110
    • -->
    • during the Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • during the Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:49:56.110 --> 00:49:57.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:56.110 --> 00:49:57.190
    • -->
    • In fact, Hamilton comes up with a lot of ideas
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, Hamilton comes up with a lot of ideas
    • -->
    • 00:49:57.190 --> 00:49:58.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:57.190 --> 00:49:58.260
    • -->
    • for ways they can improve the military.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for ways they can improve the military.
    • -->
    • 00:49:58.260 --> 00:50:00.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:49:58.260 --> 00:50:00.200
    • -->
    • Things they should do different and Washington embraces
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Things they should do different and Washington embraces
    • -->
    • 00:50:00.200 --> 00:50:02.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:00.200 --> 00:50:02.210
    • -->
    • the ideas and they were very good friends
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the ideas and they were very good friends
    • -->
    • 00:50:02.210 --> 00:50:04.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:02.210 --> 00:50:04.050
    • -->
    • until, there was a bit of a falling out.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • until, there was a bit of a falling out.
    • -->
    • 00:50:04.050 --> 00:50:06.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:04.050 --> 00:50:06.010
    • -->
    • Hamilton was supposed to meet Washington,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton was supposed to meet Washington,
    • -->
    • 00:50:06.010 --> 00:50:08.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:06.010 --> 00:50:08.080
    • -->
    • he shows up late and Washington scolds him for being late,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he shows up late and Washington scolds him for being late,
    • -->
    • 00:50:08.080 --> 00:50:10.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:08.080 --> 00:50:10.280
    • -->
    • as he should have been scolded for being late.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as he should have been scolded for being late.
    • -->
    • 00:50:10.280 --> 00:50:12.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:10.280 --> 00:50:12.210
    • -->
    • Hamilton uses the opportunity,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton uses the opportunity,
    • -->
    • 00:50:12.210 --> 00:50:14.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:12.210 --> 00:50:14.060
    • -->
    • really I say use the opportunity
    • " data-timeend="">
    • really I say use the opportunity
    • -->
    • 00:50:14.060 --> 00:50:16.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:14.060 --> 00:50:16.220
    • -->
    • he really was frustrated, he made a big scene,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he really was frustrated, he made a big scene,
    • -->
    • 00:50:16.220 --> 00:50:19.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:16.220 --> 00:50:19.050
    • -->
    • kind of an emotional deal, but a lot of people believe
    • " data-timeend="">
    • kind of an emotional deal, but a lot of people believe
    • -->
    • 00:50:19.050 --> 00:50:22.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:19.050 --> 00:50:22.030
    • -->
    • he was trying to get out from under Washington
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he was trying to get out from under Washington
    • -->
    • 00:50:22.030 --> 00:50:23.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:22.030 --> 00:50:23.170
    • -->
    • because he wanted to be a commander of military.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • because he wanted to be a commander of military.
    • -->
    • 00:50:23.170 --> 00:50:26.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:23.170 --> 00:50:26.000
    • -->
    • Not just on military intelligence.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Not just on military intelligence.
    • -->
    • 00:50:26.000 --> 00:50:27.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:26.000 --> 00:50:27.210
    • -->
    • He wanted to go out in the field and fight.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He wanted to go out in the field and fight.
    • -->
    • 00:50:27.210 --> 00:50:29.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:27.210 --> 00:50:29.130
    • -->
    • So he used the opportunity to say you know what,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he used the opportunity to say you know what,
    • -->
    • 00:50:29.130 --> 00:50:31.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:29.130 --> 00:50:31.070
    • -->
    • I just shouldn't be with you anymore.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I just shouldn't be with you anymore.
    • -->
    • 00:50:31.070 --> 00:50:33.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:31.070 --> 00:50:33.000
    • -->
    • Washington very graciously, instead of punishing him
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Washington very graciously, instead of punishing him
    • -->
    • 00:50:33.000 --> 00:50:35.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:33.000 --> 00:50:35.290
    • -->
    • as maybe he would have deserved for his behavior
    • " data-timeend="">
    • as maybe he would have deserved for his behavior
    • -->
    • 00:50:35.290 --> 00:50:38.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:35.290 --> 00:50:38.040
    • -->
    • and actions, Washington just reassigns him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and actions, Washington just reassigns him.
    • -->
    • 00:50:38.040 --> 00:50:40.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:38.040 --> 00:50:40.180
    • -->
    • He puts him under General Lafayette and he's signed
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He puts him under General Lafayette and he's signed
    • -->
    • 00:50:40.180 --> 00:50:42.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:40.180 --> 00:50:42.180
    • -->
    • over infantry under Lafayette.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • over infantry under Lafayette.
    • -->
    • 00:50:42.180 --> 00:50:44.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:42.180 --> 00:50:44.150
    • -->
    • Well, this is 1781, this is where the last major battle
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, this is 1781, this is where the last major battle
    • -->
    • 00:50:44.150 --> 00:50:47.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:44.150 --> 00:50:47.190
    • -->
    • of the Revolution happens, the battle of Yorktown.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Revolution happens, the battle of Yorktown.
    • -->
    • 00:50:47.190 --> 00:50:49.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:47.190 --> 00:50:49.120
    • -->
    • Hamilton's very involved and does some really neat things
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton's very involved and does some really neat things
    • -->
    • 00:50:49.120 --> 00:50:52.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:49.120 --> 00:50:52.020
    • -->
    • here, being very successful as a commander.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • here, being very successful as a commander.
    • -->
    • 00:50:52.020 --> 00:50:54.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:52.020 --> 00:50:54.120
    • -->
    • But when we defeated Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But when we defeated Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown,
    • -->
    • 00:50:54.120 --> 00:50:56.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:54.120 --> 00:50:56.170
    • -->
    • it was kind of the end of the Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it was kind of the end of the Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:50:56.170 --> 00:50:58.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:56.170 --> 00:50:58.130
    • -->
    • So at this point, Hamilton decides that he's gonna retire
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So at this point, Hamilton decides that he's gonna retire
    • -->
    • 00:50:58.130 --> 00:51:01.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:50:58.130 --> 00:51:01.070
    • -->
    • to private life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to private life.
    • -->
    • 00:51:01.070 --> 00:51:02.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:01.070 --> 00:51:02.150
    • -->
    • He goes back home, starts studying law.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He goes back home, starts studying law.
    • -->
    • 00:51:02.150 --> 00:51:04.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:02.150 --> 00:51:04.250
    • -->
    • He actually studies for five months and then goes takes
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He actually studies for five months and then goes takes
    • -->
    • 00:51:04.250 --> 00:51:07.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:04.250 --> 00:51:07.160
    • -->
    • and passes the Bar to become a lawyer.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and passes the Bar to become a lawyer.
    • -->
    • 00:51:07.160 --> 00:51:10.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:07.160 --> 00:51:10.040
    • -->
    • Well, he then is chosen to go back
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, he then is chosen to go back
    • -->
    • 00:51:10.040 --> 00:51:12.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:10.040 --> 00:51:12.100
    • -->
    • to the Continental Congress to represent his state
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to the Continental Congress to represent his state
    • -->
    • 00:51:12.100 --> 00:51:14.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:12.100 --> 00:51:14.170
    • -->
    • and this is 1783, so this is the very end
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and this is 1783, so this is the very end
    • -->
    • 00:51:14.170 --> 00:51:16.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:14.170 --> 00:51:16.280
    • -->
    • of the Revolution, this is when we sign the Peace Treaty
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of the Revolution, this is when we sign the Peace Treaty
    • -->
    • 00:51:16.280 --> 00:51:18.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:16.280 --> 00:51:18.130
    • -->
    • of Paris, ending the Revolution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of Paris, ending the Revolution.
    • -->
    • 00:51:18.130 --> 00:51:20.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:18.130 --> 00:51:20.000
    • -->
    • So he's only there for a year.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he's only there for a year.
    • -->
    • 00:51:20.000 --> 00:51:21.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:20.000 --> 00:51:21.080
    • -->
    • He then goes back and he starts his law practice,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He then goes back and he starts his law practice,
    • -->
    • 00:51:21.080 --> 00:51:23.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:21.080 --> 00:51:23.100
    • -->
    • becomes very successful, pretty lucrative.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • becomes very successful, pretty lucrative.
    • -->
    • 00:51:23.100 --> 00:51:25.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:23.100 --> 00:51:25.030
    • -->
    • He's doing very well, but the whole time he's practicing
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's doing very well, but the whole time he's practicing
    • -->
    • 00:51:25.030 --> 00:51:27.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:25.030 --> 00:51:27.220
    • -->
    • law he's trying to tell the people of New York
    • " data-timeend="">
    • law he's trying to tell the people of New York
    • -->
    • 00:51:27.220 --> 00:51:29.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:27.220 --> 00:51:29.260
    • -->
    • and America, we need a stronger, central government.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and America, we need a stronger, central government.
    • -->
    • 00:51:29.260 --> 00:51:32.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:29.260 --> 00:51:32.240
    • -->
    • The Articles of Confederation, which is what they were under
    • " data-timeend="">
    • The Articles of Confederation, which is what they were under
    • -->
    • 00:51:32.240 --> 00:51:34.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:32.240 --> 00:51:34.280
    • -->
    • at the time, just weren't strong enough.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • at the time, just weren't strong enough.
    • -->
    • 00:51:34.280 --> 00:51:36.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:34.280 --> 00:51:36.180
    • -->
    • He says we need a convention to write a new constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He says we need a convention to write a new constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:51:36.180 --> 00:51:39.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:36.180 --> 00:51:39.170
    • -->
    • Well, in 1787 there was a convention.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, in 1787 there was a convention.
    • -->
    • 00:51:39.170 --> 00:51:41.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:39.170 --> 00:51:41.180
    • -->
    • What they did was they wrote a new constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • What they did was they wrote a new constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:51:41.180 --> 00:51:43.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:41.180 --> 00:51:43.150
    • -->
    • During the Constitutional Convention, he wasn't there
    • " data-timeend="">
    • During the Constitutional Convention, he wasn't there
    • -->
    • 00:51:43.150 --> 00:51:45.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:43.150 --> 00:51:45.190
    • -->
    • for the whole time.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the whole time.
    • -->
    • 00:51:45.190 --> 00:51:46.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:45.190 --> 00:51:46.260
    • -->
    • He was still very involved in law.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was still very involved in law.
    • -->
    • 00:51:46.260 --> 00:51:48.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:46.260 --> 00:51:48.110
    • -->
    • He was going home, he was working on his law practice,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was going home, he was working on his law practice,
    • -->
    • 00:51:48.110 --> 00:51:49.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:48.110 --> 00:51:49.220
    • -->
    • but he was there to sign the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but he was there to sign the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:51:49.220 --> 00:51:52.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:49.220 --> 00:51:52.040
    • -->
    • After the Constitution was signed however,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • After the Constitution was signed however,
    • -->
    • 00:51:52.040 --> 00:51:54.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:52.040 --> 00:51:54.160
    • -->
    • it had to be ratified by the states.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it had to be ratified by the states.
    • -->
    • 00:51:54.160 --> 00:51:56.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:54.160 --> 00:51:56.010
    • -->
    • At this point, New York was not in favor of ratifying it.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At this point, New York was not in favor of ratifying it.
    • -->
    • 00:51:56.010 --> 00:51:58.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:56.010 --> 00:51:58.230
    • -->
    • It was at this time that James Madison,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It was at this time that James Madison,
    • -->
    • 00:51:58.230 --> 00:52:01.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:51:58.230 --> 00:52:01.050
    • -->
    • John Jay and Alexander Hamilton wrote this,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • John Jay and Alexander Hamilton wrote this,
    • -->
    • 00:52:01.050 --> 00:52:03.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:01.050 --> 00:52:03.050
    • -->
    • this is the Federalist papers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • this is the Federalist papers.
    • -->
    • 00:52:03.050 --> 00:52:04.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:03.050 --> 00:52:04.210
    • -->
    • Now, there's 85 different articles and essays
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, there's 85 different articles and essays
    • -->
    • 00:52:04.210 --> 00:52:07.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:04.210 --> 00:52:07.120
    • -->
    • in the Federalist papers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the Federalist papers.
    • -->
    • 00:52:07.120 --> 00:52:08.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:07.120 --> 00:52:08.240
    • -->
    • Alexander Hamilton wrote 51 of them by himself
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Alexander Hamilton wrote 51 of them by himself
    • -->
    • 00:52:08.240 --> 00:52:11.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:08.240 --> 00:52:11.250
    • -->
    • and actually contributed on many others.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and actually contributed on many others.
    • -->
    • 00:52:11.250 --> 00:52:13.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:11.250 --> 00:52:13.060
    • -->
    • So he's the guy that's the most responsible
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he's the guy that's the most responsible
    • -->
    • 00:52:13.060 --> 00:52:15.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:13.060 --> 00:52:15.070
    • -->
    • for the Federalist papers.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the Federalist papers.
    • -->
    • 00:52:15.070 --> 00:52:17.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:15.070 --> 00:52:17.030
    • -->
    • Well, New York finally goes in and they decide
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, New York finally goes in and they decide
    • -->
    • 00:52:17.030 --> 00:52:20.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:17.030 --> 00:52:20.050
    • -->
    • they're gonna ratify the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • they're gonna ratify the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:52:20.050 --> 00:52:21.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:20.050 --> 00:52:21.180
    • -->
    • So we finally become a nation under the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So we finally become a nation under the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:52:21.180 --> 00:52:23.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:21.180 --> 00:52:23.230
    • -->
    • George Washington is chosen to be our president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • George Washington is chosen to be our president.
    • -->
    • 00:52:23.230 --> 00:52:25.160
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:23.230 --> 00:52:25.160
    • -->
    • Alexander Hamilton is then chosen to be first
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Alexander Hamilton is then chosen to be first
    • -->
    • 00:52:25.160 --> 00:52:27.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:25.160 --> 00:52:27.170
    • -->
    • Secretary of the Treasury Department.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Secretary of the Treasury Department.
    • -->
    • 00:52:27.170 --> 00:52:29.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:27.170 --> 00:52:29.020
    • -->
    • In fact, under Hamilton, we start the National Bank
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, under Hamilton, we start the National Bank
    • -->
    • 00:52:29.020 --> 00:52:32.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:29.020 --> 00:52:32.100
    • -->
    • and there's a lot of other things that happen
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and there's a lot of other things that happen
    • -->
    • 00:52:32.100 --> 00:52:33.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:32.100 --> 00:52:33.140
    • -->
    • under Hamilton.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • under Hamilton.
    • -->
    • 00:52:33.140 --> 00:52:34.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:33.140 --> 00:52:34.210
    • -->
    • In fact, if you've ever seen a 10 dollar bill,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, if you've ever seen a 10 dollar bill,
    • -->
    • 00:52:34.210 --> 00:52:36.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:34.210 --> 00:52:36.030
    • -->
    • the reason it has Hamilton on it is because
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the reason it has Hamilton on it is because
    • -->
    • 00:52:36.030 --> 00:52:38.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:36.030 --> 00:52:38.130
    • -->
    • he's the guy responsible for even some of our money.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he's the guy responsible for even some of our money.
    • -->
    • 00:52:38.130 --> 00:52:41.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:38.130 --> 00:52:41.020
    • -->
    • In fact, on the back it has the Treasury Department.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, on the back it has the Treasury Department.
    • -->
    • 00:52:41.020 --> 00:52:43.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:41.020 --> 00:52:43.050
    • -->
    • Well, Hamilton does a lot as a leader under Washington,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, Hamilton does a lot as a leader under Washington,
    • -->
    • 00:52:43.050 --> 00:52:46.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:43.050 --> 00:52:46.070
    • -->
    • but after several years he decides, you know,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but after several years he decides, you know,
    • -->
    • 00:52:46.070 --> 00:52:48.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:46.070 --> 00:52:48.080
    • -->
    • I really want to retire, go back to private life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I really want to retire, go back to private life.
    • -->
    • 00:52:48.080 --> 00:52:50.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:48.080 --> 00:52:50.150
    • -->
    • I want to go back to being an attorney.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I want to go back to being an attorney.
    • -->
    • 00:52:50.150 --> 00:52:51.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:50.150 --> 00:52:51.280
    • -->
    • So, he resigns from serving under Washington
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So, he resigns from serving under Washington
    • -->
    • 00:52:51.280 --> 00:52:54.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:51.280 --> 00:52:54.180
    • -->
    • and goes back to become an attorney in New York.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and goes back to become an attorney in New York.
    • -->
    • 00:52:54.180 --> 00:52:56.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:54.180 --> 00:52:56.110
    • -->
    • But he's still very politically active.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But he's still very politically active.
    • -->
    • 00:52:56.110 --> 00:52:57.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:56.110 --> 00:52:57.260
    • -->
    • In fact, he opposes John Adams on many situations.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, he opposes John Adams on many situations.
    • -->
    • 00:52:57.260 --> 00:53:01.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:52:57.260 --> 00:53:01.030
    • -->
    • Opposed Thomas Jefferson.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Opposed Thomas Jefferson.
    • -->
    • 00:53:01.030 --> 00:53:02.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:01.030 --> 00:53:02.090
    • -->
    • Opposed James Madison.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Opposed James Madison.
    • -->
    • 00:53:02.090 --> 00:53:03.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:02.090 --> 00:53:03.150
    • -->
    • There was a lot of things they were doing
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There was a lot of things they were doing
    • -->
    • 00:53:03.150 --> 00:53:04.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:03.150 --> 00:53:04.290
    • -->
    • he just didn't like so he was very politically engaged.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he just didn't like so he was very politically engaged.
    • -->
    • 00:53:04.290 --> 00:53:06.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:04.290 --> 00:53:06.270
    • -->
    • He really kind of was an agitator at times.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He really kind of was an agitator at times.
    • -->
    • 00:53:06.270 --> 00:53:08.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:06.270 --> 00:53:08.280
    • -->
    • He was a firebrand.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He was a firebrand.
    • -->
    • 00:53:08.280 --> 00:53:10.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:08.280 --> 00:53:10.120
    • -->
    • Was very willing to tell you exactly what he thought
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Was very willing to tell you exactly what he thought
    • -->
    • 00:53:10.120 --> 00:53:12.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:10.120 --> 00:53:12.090
    • -->
    • all the time, which wasn't always popular.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • all the time, which wasn't always popular.
    • -->
    • 00:53:12.090 --> 00:53:14.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:12.090 --> 00:53:14.020
    • -->
    • In fact, one of the things that became very famous,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In fact, one of the things that became very famous,
    • -->
    • 00:53:14.020 --> 00:53:16.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:14.020 --> 00:53:16.040
    • -->
    • Thomas Jefferson was running for president
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Thomas Jefferson was running for president
    • -->
    • 00:53:16.040 --> 00:53:18.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:16.040 --> 00:53:18.060
    • -->
    • in the election of 1800.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the election of 1800.
    • -->
    • 00:53:18.060 --> 00:53:19.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:18.060 --> 00:53:19.130
    • -->
    • Aaron Burr was also running for president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Aaron Burr was also running for president.
    • -->
    • 00:53:19.130 --> 00:53:20.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:19.130 --> 00:53:20.290
    • -->
    • At that time, the president would not pick
    • " data-timeend="">
    • At that time, the president would not pick
    • -->
    • 00:53:20.290 --> 00:53:22.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:20.290 --> 00:53:22.140
    • -->
    • his vice president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • his vice president.
    • -->
    • 00:53:22.140 --> 00:53:23.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:22.140 --> 00:53:23.290
    • -->
    • Whoever got the most votes would be the president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Whoever got the most votes would be the president.
    • -->
    • 00:53:23.290 --> 00:53:25.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:23.290 --> 00:53:25.120
    • -->
    • Whoever got the second most votes
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Whoever got the second most votes
    • -->
    • 00:53:25.120 --> 00:53:26.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:25.120 --> 00:53:26.180
    • -->
    • would be the vice president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • would be the vice president.
    • -->
    • 00:53:26.180 --> 00:53:28.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:26.180 --> 00:53:28.020
    • -->
    • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied for the presidency.
    • -->
    • 00:53:28.020 --> 00:53:30.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:28.020 --> 00:53:30.080
    • -->
    • Now when a tie, goes to the U.S. Congress and the House,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now when a tie, goes to the U.S. Congress and the House,
    • -->
    • 00:53:30.080 --> 00:53:32.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:30.080 --> 00:53:32.110
    • -->
    • it takes the vote on who's gonna be the president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • it takes the vote on who's gonna be the president.
    • -->
    • 00:53:32.110 --> 00:53:34.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:32.110 --> 00:53:34.200
    • -->
    • Hamilton used his influence that even though
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton used his influence that even though
    • -->
    • 00:53:34.200 --> 00:53:36.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:34.200 --> 00:53:36.290
    • -->
    • he didn't like Jefferson, he said Burr is even worse.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he didn't like Jefferson, he said Burr is even worse.
    • -->
    • 00:53:36.290 --> 00:53:40.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:36.290 --> 00:53:40.130
    • -->
    • This man is terrible, he's dangerous, he's corrupt,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This man is terrible, he's dangerous, he's corrupt,
    • -->
    • 00:53:40.130 --> 00:53:42.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:40.130 --> 00:53:42.270
    • -->
    • which actually all those things turned out to be true.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • which actually all those things turned out to be true.
    • -->
    • 00:53:42.270 --> 00:53:45.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:42.270 --> 00:53:45.050
    • -->
    • But, Burr hated and despised him because he kept
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But, Burr hated and despised him because he kept
    • -->
    • 00:53:45.050 --> 00:53:49.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:45.050 --> 00:53:49.050
    • -->
    • Burr from being president.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Burr from being president.
    • -->
    • 00:53:49.050 --> 00:53:50.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:49.050 --> 00:53:50.200
    • -->
    • Well, Burr was the first vice president
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, Burr was the first vice president
    • -->
    • 00:53:50.200 --> 00:53:52.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:50.200 --> 00:53:52.220
    • -->
    • under Thomas Jefferson.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • under Thomas Jefferson.
    • -->
    • 00:53:52.220 --> 00:53:54.070
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:52.220 --> 00:53:54.070
    • -->
    • Under Jefferson, he actually then decides Burr decides,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Under Jefferson, he actually then decides Burr decides,
    • -->
    • 00:53:54.070 --> 00:53:57.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:54.070 --> 00:53:57.270
    • -->
    • he wants to run for governor of New York.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he wants to run for governor of New York.
    • -->
    • 00:53:57.270 --> 00:53:59.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:57.270 --> 00:53:59.040
    • -->
    • So he runs for governor of New York in 1804
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he runs for governor of New York in 1804
    • -->
    • 00:53:59.040 --> 00:54:01.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:53:59.040 --> 00:54:01.230
    • -->
    • but this is where Alexander Hamilton lives
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but this is where Alexander Hamilton lives
    • -->
    • 00:54:01.230 --> 00:54:03.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:01.230 --> 00:54:03.210
    • -->
    • and Hamilton goes, this is terrible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and Hamilton goes, this is terrible.
    • -->
    • 00:54:03.210 --> 00:54:05.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:03.210 --> 00:54:05.090
    • -->
    • We don't need this guy to be our governor.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We don't need this guy to be our governor.
    • -->
    • 00:54:05.090 --> 00:54:06.230
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:05.090 --> 00:54:06.230
    • -->
    • He's so bad.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He's so bad.
    • -->
    • 00:54:06.230 --> 00:54:07.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:06.230 --> 00:54:07.290
    • -->
    • So he opposed his election for governor.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he opposed his election for governor.
    • -->
    • 00:54:07.290 --> 00:54:10.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:07.290 --> 00:54:10.270
    • -->
    • Burr doesn't become governor but Burr's offended
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Burr doesn't become governor but Burr's offended
    • -->
    • 00:54:10.270 --> 00:54:13.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:10.270 --> 00:54:13.090
    • -->
    • he challenges Hamilton to a duel.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he challenges Hamilton to a duel.
    • -->
    • 00:54:13.090 --> 00:54:15.170
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:13.090 --> 00:54:15.170
    • -->
    • Hamilton wrote and he said, I know that this guy
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton wrote and he said, I know that this guy
    • -->
    • 00:54:15.170 --> 00:54:18.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:15.170 --> 00:54:18.050
    • -->
    • wants to kill me but I don't want to kill him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • wants to kill me but I don't want to kill him.
    • -->
    • 00:54:18.050 --> 00:54:20.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:18.050 --> 00:54:20.000
    • -->
    • He said so, I'm gonna fire my first round just in the air.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He said so, I'm gonna fire my first round just in the air.
    • -->
    • 00:54:20.000 --> 00:54:23.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:20.000 --> 00:54:23.220
    • -->
    • I'm not gonna shoot him.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • I'm not gonna shoot him.
    • -->
    • 00:54:23.220 --> 00:54:25.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:23.220 --> 00:54:25.050
    • -->
    • He said in fact, I'm even willing to fire my second round
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He said in fact, I'm even willing to fire my second round
    • -->
    • 00:54:25.050 --> 00:54:27.090
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:25.050 --> 00:54:27.090
    • -->
    • in the air.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in the air.
    • -->
    • 00:54:27.090 --> 00:54:28.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:27.090 --> 00:54:28.150
    • -->
    • Now, I don't know how that really works.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, I don't know how that really works.
    • -->
    • 00:54:28.150 --> 00:54:29.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:28.150 --> 00:54:29.210
    • -->
    • Like maybe if both guys miss the first shot
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Like maybe if both guys miss the first shot
    • -->
    • 00:54:29.210 --> 00:54:31.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:29.210 --> 00:54:31.060
    • -->
    • let's try again, let's take a second shot, apparently.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • let's try again, let's take a second shot, apparently.
    • -->
    • 00:54:31.060 --> 00:54:34.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:31.060 --> 00:54:34.260
    • -->
    • But he said I'm gonna fire both shots,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But he said I'm gonna fire both shots,
    • -->
    • 00:54:34.260 --> 00:54:36.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:34.260 --> 00:54:36.140
    • -->
    • neither one at Aaron Burr.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • neither one at Aaron Burr.
    • -->
    • 00:54:36.140 --> 00:54:38.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:36.140 --> 00:54:38.030
    • -->
    • Well, what he also knew was that if this is the end
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Well, what he also knew was that if this is the end
    • -->
    • 00:54:38.030 --> 00:54:41.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:38.030 --> 00:54:41.010
    • -->
    • of his life, this is something he wants to be ready
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of his life, this is something he wants to be ready
    • -->
    • 00:54:41.010 --> 00:54:42.290
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:41.010 --> 00:54:42.290
    • -->
    • for eternity.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for eternity.
    • -->
    • 00:54:42.290 --> 00:54:44.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:42.290 --> 00:54:44.120
    • -->
    • He actually called for a couple pastors.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He actually called for a couple pastors.
    • -->
    • 00:54:44.120 --> 00:54:46.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:44.120 --> 00:54:46.120
    • -->
    • They came and they met with him and said I want
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They came and they met with him and said I want
    • -->
    • 00:54:46.120 --> 00:54:48.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:46.120 --> 00:54:48.220
    • -->
    • to take communion.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • to take communion.
    • -->
    • 00:54:48.220 --> 00:54:50.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:48.220 --> 00:54:50.050
    • -->
    • They said well, we're happy to give you communion.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They said well, we're happy to give you communion.
    • -->
    • 00:54:50.050 --> 00:54:51.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:50.050 --> 00:54:51.140
    • -->
    • Now, he was a life long Episcopal.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Now, he was a life long Episcopal.
    • -->
    • 00:54:51.140 --> 00:54:52.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:51.140 --> 00:54:52.260
    • -->
    • So he's part of the Episcopal church and these were
    • " data-timeend="">
    • So he's part of the Episcopal church and these were
    • -->
    • 00:54:52.260 --> 00:54:55.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:52.260 --> 00:54:55.000
    • -->
    • Episcopal ministers and they said we're happy to give you
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Episcopal ministers and they said we're happy to give you
    • -->
    • 00:54:55.000 --> 00:54:56.220
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:55.000 --> 00:54:56.220
    • -->
    • communion, but we need to understand that you know
    • " data-timeend="">
    • communion, but we need to understand that you know
    • -->
    • 00:54:56.220 --> 00:54:59.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:56.220 --> 00:54:59.250
    • -->
    • exactly what communion means, because you have to repent
    • " data-timeend="">
    • exactly what communion means, because you have to repent
    • -->
    • 00:54:59.250 --> 00:55:03.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:54:59.250 --> 00:55:03.050
    • -->
    • of your sins, you have to believe in God,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of your sins, you have to believe in God,
    • -->
    • 00:55:03.050 --> 00:55:05.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:03.050 --> 00:55:05.100
    • -->
    • you have to believe in the atoning work of Jesus.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you have to believe in the atoning work of Jesus.
    • -->
    • 00:55:05.100 --> 00:55:07.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:05.100 --> 00:55:07.030
    • -->
    • He said I believe in all those things.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He said I believe in all those things.
    • -->
    • 00:55:07.030 --> 00:55:08.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:07.030 --> 00:55:08.080
    • -->
    • They gave him communion.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • They gave him communion.
    • -->
    • 00:55:08.080 --> 00:55:09.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:08.080 --> 00:55:09.260
    • -->
    • He then goes out and he has a duel.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He then goes out and he has a duel.
    • -->
    • 00:55:09.260 --> 00:55:11.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:09.260 --> 00:55:11.190
    • -->
    • Aaron Burr shoots him right in the stomach
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Aaron Burr shoots him right in the stomach
    • -->
    • 00:55:11.190 --> 00:55:13.050
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:11.190 --> 00:55:13.050
    • -->
    • and this is a fatal injury, he died shortly after that.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and this is a fatal injury, he died shortly after that.
    • -->
    • 00:55:13.050 --> 00:55:17.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:13.050 --> 00:55:17.040
    • -->
    • Those same two ministers he called them back
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Those same two ministers he called them back
    • -->
    • 00:55:17.040 --> 00:55:19.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:17.040 --> 00:55:19.030
    • -->
    • and they came and they prayed with them.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and they came and they prayed with them.
    • -->
    • 00:55:19.030 --> 00:55:20.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:19.030 --> 00:55:20.240
    • -->
    • He took communion again.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He took communion again.
    • -->
    • 00:55:20.240 --> 00:55:22.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:20.240 --> 00:55:22.080
    • -->
    • A lot of interesting things at the end of his life,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • A lot of interesting things at the end of his life,
    • -->
    • 00:55:22.080 --> 00:55:24.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:22.080 --> 00:55:24.150
    • -->
    • knowing it was the end of his life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • knowing it was the end of his life.
    • -->
    • 00:55:24.150 --> 00:55:25.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:24.150 --> 00:55:25.240
    • -->
    • As I say this, there's a lot more to the story
    • " data-timeend="">
    • As I say this, there's a lot more to the story
    • -->
    • 00:55:25.240 --> 00:55:28.270
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:25.240 --> 00:55:28.270
    • -->
    • of Hamilton and today a lot of people only know
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of Hamilton and today a lot of people only know
    • -->
    • 00:55:28.270 --> 00:55:31.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:28.270 --> 00:55:31.110
    • -->
    • a few details.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a few details.
    • -->
    • 00:55:31.110 --> 00:55:32.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:31.110 --> 00:55:32.190
    • -->
    • Hamilton actually, at one point in his life,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton actually, at one point in his life,
    • -->
    • 00:55:32.190 --> 00:55:33.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:32.190 --> 00:55:33.180
    • -->
    • did have an affair.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • did have an affair.
    • -->
    • 00:55:33.180 --> 00:55:34.260
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:33.180 --> 00:55:34.260
    • -->
    • There's some not good things about his life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There's some not good things about his life.
    • -->
    • 00:55:34.260 --> 00:55:37.020
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:34.260 --> 00:55:37.020
    • -->
    • It's not dissimilar from like a story of King David,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • It's not dissimilar from like a story of King David,
    • -->
    • 00:55:37.020 --> 00:55:39.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:37.020 --> 00:55:39.120
    • -->
    • where if you look at King David, there's some moments
    • " data-timeend="">
    • where if you look at King David, there's some moments
    • -->
    • 00:55:39.120 --> 00:55:41.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:39.120 --> 00:55:41.130
    • -->
    • when he does really great things and moments he doesn't.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • when he does really great things and moments he doesn't.
    • -->
    • 00:55:41.130 --> 00:55:43.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:41.130 --> 00:55:43.180
    • -->
    • Our founding fathers were people,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Our founding fathers were people,
    • -->
    • 00:55:43.180 --> 00:55:45.180
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:43.180 --> 00:55:45.180
    • -->
    • so not dissimilar from even the Hebrews
    • " data-timeend="">
    • so not dissimilar from even the Hebrews
    • -->
    • 00:55:45.180 --> 00:55:47.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:45.180 --> 00:55:47.150
    • -->
    • we read in the bible.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • we read in the bible.
    • -->
    • 00:55:47.150 --> 00:55:48.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:47.150 --> 00:55:48.280
    • -->
    • Hamilton's a great example of a guy like that,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Hamilton's a great example of a guy like that,
    • -->
    • 00:55:48.280 --> 00:55:50.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:48.280 --> 00:55:50.040
    • -->
    • who certainly, he had flaws in his life.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who certainly, he had flaws in his life.
    • -->
    • 00:55:50.040 --> 00:55:52.150
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:50.040 --> 00:55:52.150
    • -->
    • Certainly there's things that weren't good,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Certainly there's things that weren't good,
    • -->
    • 00:55:52.150 --> 00:55:54.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:52.150 --> 00:55:54.000
    • -->
    • but he's the guy who without his work
    • " data-timeend="">
    • but he's the guy who without his work
    • -->
    • 00:55:54.000 --> 00:55:57.130
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:54.000 --> 00:55:57.130
    • -->
    • on the Federalist papers, we might not have ever had
    • " data-timeend="">
    • on the Federalist papers, we might not have ever had
    • -->
    • 00:55:57.130 --> 00:55:59.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:57.130 --> 00:55:59.100
    • -->
    • a Constitution, we might not ever become a nation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • a Constitution, we might not ever become a nation.
    • -->
    • 00:55:59.100 --> 00:56:01.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:55:59.100 --> 00:56:01.060
    • -->
    • This guy's largely responsible, not only for
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This guy's largely responsible, not only for
    • -->
    • 00:56:01.060 --> 00:56:03.190
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:01.060 --> 00:56:03.190
    • -->
    • the ratification of the Constitution, but for America
    • " data-timeend="">
    • the ratification of the Constitution, but for America
    • -->
    • 00:56:03.190 --> 00:56:06.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:03.190 --> 00:56:06.030
    • -->
    • becoming a lot of who we became.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • becoming a lot of who we became.
    • -->
    • 00:56:06.030 --> 00:56:08.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:06.030 --> 00:56:08.000
    • -->
    • By the way, shortly before his death,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • By the way, shortly before his death,
    • -->
    • 00:56:08.000 --> 00:56:09.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:08.000 --> 00:56:09.210
    • -->
    • he started a new society.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • he started a new society.
    • -->
    • 00:56:09.210 --> 00:56:11.110
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:09.210 --> 00:56:11.110
    • -->
    • A Constitutional Society for Electing Christians
    • " data-timeend="">
    • A Constitutional Society for Electing Christians
    • -->
    • 00:56:11.110 --> 00:56:14.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:11.110 --> 00:56:14.030
    • -->
    • who would uphold the Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • who would uphold the Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:56:14.030 --> 00:56:16.000
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:14.030 --> 00:56:16.000
    • -->
    • He says the best thing we need, the thing we need the most
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He says the best thing we need, the thing we need the most
    • -->
    • 00:56:16.000 --> 00:56:18.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:16.000 --> 00:56:18.080
    • -->
    • is Christians who will follow the Constitution,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • is Christians who will follow the Constitution,
    • -->
    • 00:56:18.080 --> 00:56:22.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:18.080 --> 00:56:22.010
    • -->
    • uphold the values.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • uphold the values.
    • -->
    • 00:56:22.010 --> 00:56:23.070
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    • 00:56:22.010 --> 00:56:23.070
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    • He says Christians will do that the best.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • He says Christians will do that the best.
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    • 00:56:23.070 --> 00:56:24.260
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    • 00:56:23.070 --> 00:56:24.260
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    • We need more Christians involved.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We need more Christians involved.
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    • 00:56:24.260 --> 00:56:26.080
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    • 00:56:24.260 --> 00:56:26.080
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    • This is part of Hamilton's legacy that today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • This is part of Hamilton's legacy that today,
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    • 00:56:26.080 --> 00:56:28.090
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    • 00:56:26.080 --> 00:56:28.090
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    • sadly we just don't know much about.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • sadly we just don't know much about.
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    • 00:56:28.090 --> 00:56:30.210
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    • 00:56:28.090 --> 00:56:30.210
    • -->
    • But without Hamilton, we might not even become a nation.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But without Hamilton, we might not even become a nation.
    • -->
    • 00:56:30.210 --> 00:56:34.030
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:30.210 --> 00:56:34.030
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
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    • 00:56:34.030 --> 00:56:36.250
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    • 00:56:34.030 --> 00:56:36.250
    • -->
    • - So today you've seen some of the hidden history
    • " data-timeend="">
    • - So today you've seen some of the hidden history
    • -->
    • 00:56:39.120 --> 00:56:40.270
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    • 00:56:39.120 --> 00:56:40.270
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    • of these signers of the U.S. Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • of these signers of the U.S. Constitution.
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    • 00:56:40.270 --> 00:56:43.120
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    • 00:56:40.270 --> 00:56:43.120
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    • Something about their lives, and their families,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Something about their lives, and their families,
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    • 00:56:43.120 --> 00:56:45.250
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:43.120 --> 00:56:45.250
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    • and their accomplishments, their great wisdom.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • and their accomplishments, their great wisdom.
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    • 00:56:45.250 --> 00:56:47.130
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    • 00:56:45.250 --> 00:56:47.130
    • -->
    • And by the way, we've only scratched the surface.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • And by the way, we've only scratched the surface.
    • -->
    • 00:56:47.130 --> 00:56:49.120
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:47.130 --> 00:56:49.120
    • -->
    • You had 55 guys at the Constitutional Convention.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You had 55 guys at the Constitutional Convention.
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    • 00:56:49.120 --> 00:56:52.200
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    • 00:56:49.120 --> 00:56:52.200
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    • You had 39 who signed the document.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • You had 39 who signed the document.
    • -->
    • 00:56:52.200 --> 00:56:54.100
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    • 00:56:52.200 --> 00:56:54.100
    • -->
    • We've just looked at a few of them.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We've just looked at a few of them.
    • -->
    • 00:56:54.100 --> 00:56:56.130
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    • 00:56:54.100 --> 00:56:56.130
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    • But you see something of the wisdom they had
    • " data-timeend="">
    • But you see something of the wisdom they had
    • -->
    • 00:56:56.130 --> 00:56:58.140
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:56:56.130 --> 00:56:58.140
    • -->
    • in crafting the Constitution that now is the gold standard
    • " data-timeend="">
    • in crafting the Constitution that now is the gold standard
    • -->
    • 00:56:58.140 --> 00:57:01.130
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    • 00:56:58.140 --> 00:57:01.130
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    • for the rest of the world.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • for the rest of the world.
    • -->
    • 00:57:01.130 --> 00:57:02.250
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    • 00:57:01.130 --> 00:57:02.250
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    • No one's been under a constitution as long as we've
    • " data-timeend="">
    • No one's been under a constitution as long as we've
    • -->
    • 00:57:02.250 --> 00:57:04.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:02.250 --> 00:57:04.240
    • -->
    • been under this Constitution.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • been under this Constitution.
    • -->
    • 00:57:04.240 --> 00:57:06.200
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:04.240 --> 00:57:06.200
    • -->
    • What a blessing.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • What a blessing.
    • -->
    • 00:57:06.200 --> 00:57:08.040
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:06.200 --> 00:57:08.040
    • -->
    • If you want to learn more about what you've seen today,
    • " data-timeend="">
    • If you want to learn more about what you've seen today,
    • -->
    • 00:57:08.040 --> 00:57:09.210
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:08.040 --> 00:57:09.210
    • -->
    • you can catch us at wallbuilders.com.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • you can catch us at wallbuilders.com.
    • -->
    • 00:57:09.210 --> 00:57:11.060
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:09.210 --> 00:57:11.060
    • -->
    • We've got all the social media outlets you can use.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • We've got all the social media outlets you can use.
    • -->
    • 00:57:11.060 --> 00:57:13.010
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:11.060 --> 00:57:13.010
    • -->
    • There's a lot more information you can learn about
    • " data-timeend="">
    • There's a lot more information you can learn about
    • -->
    • 00:57:13.010 --> 00:57:15.080
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:13.010 --> 00:57:15.080
    • -->
    • Constitution Day.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • Constitution Day.
    • -->
    • 00:57:15.080 --> 00:57:16.240
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:15.080 --> 00:57:16.240
    • -->
    • In the meantime, stay tuned to TBN for another exciting
    • " data-timeend="">
    • In the meantime, stay tuned to TBN for another exciting
    • -->
    • 00:57:16.240 --> 00:57:19.280
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:16.240 --> 00:57:19.280
    • -->
    • episode of America's Hidden History.
    • " data-timeend="">
    • episode of America's Hidden History.
    • -->
    • 00:57:19.280 --> 00:57:22.100
    • " data-timeend="">
    • 00:57:19.280 --> 00:57:22.100
    • -->
    • (dramatic music)
    • " data-timeend="">
    • (dramatic music)
    • -->
    • 00:57:22.100 --> 00:57:25.050
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    • 00:57:22.100 --> 00:57:25.050
    • -->
    -->